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A Comprehensive Compendium of Local Biography — Memoirs of Represent vnvi 

Men and Women of the County, whose Works of Merit 

have made their names imperishable. 


Embellished with Portraits of Well Known Residents of Noble County, Ind. 


F. Bowen, Publisher. 



IN laying Alvord's History of Noble county, Indiana, before its patrons, the publisher 
takes pardonable pride in the fact that he has fulfilled conscientiously every 
promise made in the prospectus and points with pleasure to the neatness of the 
typography; the quality of paper upon which the work is printed, and the elegance 
and durability of its binding. 

As to its contents the patrons have already had an opportunity of approving of 
their biographies before they were placed in type, while the illustrative department 
is the ne plus ultra of the art. 

The History of Noble county, by Samuel E. Alvord, gives an accurate 
and minute history of the county, derived or deduced from the acts of the true 
creators thereof, as depicted in their biographies, from the day of the pioneers to 
the present time, and biography is, in fact, the true source of all social and political 

To those who have been uniformly obliging, and have kindly interested them- 
selves in the success of this work, volunteering information and data, which has been 
very helpful in preparing this work, I desire to express my grateful and profound 
acknowledgment of their valued services. 


B. F. BOWEN, Publisher. 



Introductory 17 


Geology 19 

Geology of Northern and 
Northeastern Indiana, in- 
cluding Noble County 20 

Glaciers and their actions 21 

Section of drift 24 

Under the drift 24 

The Flora of the county 25 

The Catalogue 26 

Flora of Noble County, by W. 

B. YanGorder 26 

Forest trees 27 

Shrubs 27 

Climbing or twining shrubs. . . 27 

Original Inhabitants 27 

The Mound Builders . . 28 

Mounds and Relics 29 

A Big Indian 31 

A Pre-Historic Battle 32 

General Harrison 34 


Pre-Organic History 36 

Noble County, the Local Heart 36 
Explorations and Claims — 

French and English 37 

Early English Discoveries and 

Claims 37 

Conflicting Theories 38 

The Situation in 1600 — Indian 

Tribes 39 

The Hurons 41 

The Natural Nation 41 

The St. Francis Tribe 42 


The Delawares 42 

The Sacs and Foxes 43 

The Chippewas 44 

The Shawnees 44 

The Family of Tecumseh 44 

The Dakotas, or Sioux 45 

The Pottawatomies 45 

Pokagon 45 

The Minnewas 46 

Champlain, Governor of New 

France 47 

The First Battle 47 

The Brighter Side 49 

First Act of English-F"rench 

Conflict 50 

The Dutch Involved 51 

Games at Tushuway, and In- 
dian Battle 51 

Garangula's Speech 54 

King William's War 55 

The Final Struggle 57 

Sir William Johnson 58 

Battle of Lake George 58 

Hendrick's Dream 59 

Johnson's Dream 59 

Pontiac's " Conspiracy " 60 

Clark's Expedition 62 

After the Revolution 64 

The Noble County Indians... 64 
General W. H. Harrison's Re- 
port 64 

Major Forsyth's Statement 65 

The Miamis 65 

The Miami Confederacy 67 

St. Clair's Defeat 68 

Campaign of General Anthony 

Wayne 68 


The Treaty of Greenville 69 

General Harrison's Treaties.. 70 

The First Settlers 72 

John Knight 74 

Samuel Tibbott 74 

Mysterious Disappearance.... 75 

Entries of Lands 76 

Order of Settlement 78 

Entries of the Year 1832 79 

Early Settlers 82 

Thomas Storey 84 

Amanda J. Flint 85 

Christina M. Shultz 85 

Oliver Harp, Sr 86 

Nancy (Young) Holmes 86 

Rachel (Rohrerj Galloway 87 

John River 88 

John Baughman 89 

John Jacob Shultz 90 

Samuel Foster 90 

Mrs. Susan Gillet 91 

Mrs. Elizabeth (Morrell) Ger- 

ber 91 

Silas Doty 92 

Zenas J. Wright 94 

Judson Wright 95 

Sarah Hitler 95 

The Press of Noble County... 96 

Homer King 97 

Samuel E. Alvord as a Biogra- 
pher 102 

Mercy (Hopkins) Baker 104 

Leonard Lyon 106 

Obituary of Horace H.Warner 106 

Christian Foster 107 

John L. Foster 109 

Corodon Warner 110 



Martha Isbell 

John Washington Kline. . . 
Speculative Entries of Land in 


City of Kendallville 



William Mitchell 

Luke Diggins 

Samuel Minot 

Thomas Evans 

George Baker 



F. & H. Tabor 119 

Mitchell & Hitchcock 119 

Artimus Doggins 120 

Kendallville Newspapers 120 

Railroads 122 

Horse Thieves and Blacklegs. 127 
The Fort Wayne and Lima 

Plank Road/. 129 

Brown's Tavern 129 

Reminiscences by John Mitch- 
ell 130 

Wild Hay or Marsh Grass. . . . 132 


Browse 133 

Elections In Wayne Township 133 
Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too, or 

the Barbecue at North Port 

in 1840 134 

Carrying the Election Returns 

to Port Mitchell in 1840 135 

Kendallville Postmasters 135 

O. W. Jefferds (Letters) 135 

Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too 

(Campaign Song) 135 

Noble County in the Civil War 136 



Alvord, Nathan 147 

Alvord, Samuel E 145 

Adair, Prof. E. L 317 

Adair, John N 317 

Alexander, G.P 163 

Allman, William P 595 

Asman, Henry C 313 

Axtell, William A 495 

Bailey, Joseph 205 

Baker, William S 399 

Baker, James R 360 

Baker, William H 430 

Baker, J. E 250 

Baker, Fred W 566 

Banta, Len A 271 

Banta, Albert 271 

Barber, Isaac 492 

Barnum, A 404 

Barnum, Piatt 404 

Barr, Robert P 248 

Barhan, Christian 404 

Bassett, P. B 435 

Bause, James M 231 

Bechtel, H. E 411 

Bechtel, Jacob N 411 

Bell, Harry 211 

Beyer, C. C 577 

Beymer, Thomas 305 

Blackman.S 431 

Black, J. D 172 

Black, J. D 407 

Black, F. W.,M. D 374 

Black, J. W 439 

Black, Owen 172 

Blackman, Elisha 431 

Bliss, Charles W 196 

Bliss, William 196 

Bluhm, Henry F 562 

Bhihm, Ernest 223 

Bluhm, Fred L 223 

Bonham, J. M 409 

Bonham, William 409 

Bordner, Albert S 403 

Bortner, Charles 456 

Boughey, John E 457 

Bowen, M. M 505 

Bowen, Rev. O. W 262 

Bowen, William E 262 

Bowman, B. F 406 

Bowman, Jonas 406 

Bowsher, Boston 386 

Breninger, George F 397 

Brillhart, Samuel B 571 

Broughton, William 550 

Broughton, F. H., M. D 548 

Boughey, Benjamin 457 

Brouse, Curtis 541 

Brown, William A 335 

Brown, John 335 

Buchanan, J. Edgar 221 

Buckle?, Robert H 415 

Budd, Thomas E 473 

Busz, Henry L 235 

Busz, Jacob 316 

Busz, Simon W 316 

Buttermore, George 359 

Campbell, Archy 255 

Campbell, Donald 255 

Campbell, D. L 328 

Cary, William W 452 

Cary, Abram.: 452 

Childs, James N 517 

Childs, John 519 

] Christie, Hon. O. W 151 


Christie, Collins M 151 

Clapp, Hon. William M 168 

Clapp, Charles M 172 

Clapp, William F 171 

Cleland, J. W 437 

Cochran, William A 308 

Cochran, Alfred 308 

Cochran, Francis 415 

Cockley. JohnH 233 

Cole, James R 441 

Conley, Lewis 590 

Conlogue, J. S 244 

Cook, John 283 

Cornell, H. R 271 

Cornell, William A 271 

Croft, B. F 425 

Cramer, Conrad 601 

Cramer, Harrison 601 

Cramer, William L 349 

Curry, Andrew 406 

Damy, D. E , 381 

DeCamp, John N 550 

Ueibele, John 368 

Denney, Hon. J. M '.. 188 

Diley, Edward 388 

Drain, D. B 414 

Drain, |. R 292 

Drake, D. H 251 

Dunning, Jesse L 274 

Dull, John 284 

DePew, E.W..M.D 346 

Dye, Daniel 530 

Eagles, L. B 334 

Eagles, N.P 183 

Edmonds, Henry W 182 

Ellinger, William 422 

I N D E X. 

Fetter, J. C 491 

Fenton, William 421 

Fisher, Captain Eden H 508 

Fuller, F.C 348 

Fuller, Robert 348 

Francisco, William 598 

Franks, Spurgeon C 569 

Franks, Abram 358 

Franks, William H., M. D. . . . 269 

Franks, Michael 269 

Franks, Samuel 269 

Franks, William 412 

Frick, Joseph 210 

Cants, Hon. Adam ] 74 

Cants, Samuel 174 

Gandy, F. L 445 

Gants, John, M. D 378 

Gappinger, Fred 460 

Gallup, Rufus B 491 

Gardner, H 521 

Card, Scott 292 

Gault, John E 203 

Gerber, Hon. E. B 416 

Gerver, Reuben C 310 

Gibson, Adam G 296 

Gill, Charles W 323 

Gill, Abraham 323 

Gloyd, George W . . . , 341 

Graves, Mrs. C. R 343 

Graves, John T 304 

Graves, James D 344 

Graham, Jacob L 564 

Green, Sheldon W 306 

Green, James C 307 

Green, Porter 397 

Green, William T., M. D 471 

Green, Samuel J 471 

Griffin, Charles 269' 

Grossman, H. M 503 

Gump, Rev. Jeremiah 569 

Haas, John 525 

Haines, Robert S 545 

Haines, Jacob M 551 

Hanev, A. E 224 

Hardendorf, A 268 

Harting, Ephraim 288 

Harkless, J. A 242 

Harvey, James N 303 

Harvey, George 303 

Hays, J. W., M. D 366 

Hays, Samuel L 232 

Hays, William D 236 


Hays, Levi 236 

Heffner, George W 246 

Henry, Gabriel S 432 

Henry, John L 432 

Herendeen, George A 317 

Hindbaugh, John S 282 

Hitchcock, Don K 220 

Hoak, Daniel 266 

Hoak, Harvey E 266 

Hosier, William H 272 

Hostetter, George H 389 

Hooper, John S 520 

Holsinger, William T 526 

Holsinger, Charles F 579 

Holsinger, J. F 392 

Hoffman, A. C 410 

Hoffman, John 410 

Hoffman, Adam 411 

Hoffman, John H 560 

Huber, T 301 

Huston, Thomas A 294 

Huston, William 463 

Huston, William W 295 

Huston, John 296 

Huston, E. E 412 

Hussey, Martin L 212 

H uber, Frederick 427 

Huntsberger, Jonas 591 

Inks, C. V 398 

Inscho, George W 455 

Inscho, H. A. C 454 

Inscho, Robert 455 

Imes, Thomas L 198 

Imes, William 197 

Imes, William A 199 

Jacobs, A. M 191 

Johnson, F. E 523 

Jones, Col. John A 536 

Jones, Pomeroy E 536 

Jourdan, David 285 

Jourdan, Samuel 322 

Jourdan, Stephen 323 

Keehn, Jonathan 312 

Keifer, George 279 

Kelly, John D 540 

Kelly, James B 541 

Keller, Jacob 483 

Kenney, John 419 

Ktrr, Robert D 370 

Kesler, T. P 489 

Kimmell, Cyrus 311 


Kimmeil, Joseph C 311 

Kimmell, Hon. Orlando 203 

King, H. L 464 

King, Ira M 480 

Kilgore, Jerome 390 

Kitt, fohn M 332 

Kitt, John P 332 

Kirkpatrick, Alexander 434 

Kirkpatrick, H. W 434 

Kline, John W 450 

Knepper, Hon. E. W., M. D.. . 263 

Knepper, Jacob 263 

Knepper, William 207 

Knox, John Q 466 

Koher, W.0 355 

Koher, Christian M . . . 356 

Krantz, Michael 466 

Kriwitz, E. W 511 

Kriwitz, Frederick 516 

Krueger, H 524 

Kuhn, Bayard T 444 

Lang, Julius 214 

Lasho, William J 572 

Latimer, John 429 

Latta, James T 354 

LeC ount, James A 357 

LeCount, William 357 

Lemmon, S. W., M. D 426 

Lindsey, Hiram C 449 

Lindsey, Jacob F 460 

Locker, E. A 485 

Lock, Jesse E 462 

Longfellow, David S 280 

Longfellow, Joseph 281 

Loy, David 413 

Lovett, Rev. William W 580 

Lovett, Rodman 582 

Lower, John A 267 

Lower, Daniel 301 

Magnuson, Peter 596 

Marshall, Joseph W 238 

Mawhorter, A. E 305 

Mawhorter, William 306 

Mawhorter, Rev. Thomas J . . . 592 

Metz, William F 391 

Metz, Aaron 391 

Mill, r, John B 475 

Miller, Lawrence 476 

Miller, John 588 

Miller, A. U 342 

Miller, John W 229 

Mitchell, William 153 

I N D E X. 





Mitchell, John 

.... 1.52 

Park, Henry I 

... 252 

Shaefer, William G 

.. 384 

Mitchell, Andrew 

. . . . 153 

Park, Wesley 

... 253 

. . 384 

Morr, John W., M. 1) 

.... 228 

Pepple, Albert 

... 568 

Shaw, Thomas 

.. 482 

Moore, Joseph Howard. . . 

.... 558 

Pepple, William 

... 569 

Shifaly, John 

.. 499 

Moore, Joseph P 

.... 558 

Peck, Silas Burton 

... 294 

Singrey, William H 

.. 249 

Moore, Frederick B 

. . . 247 

Pence, I. W 

... 359 

Simon, Charles 

.. 448 

Moore, Joseph M 

.... 375 

Perry, George 

... 597 

Simon, Christopher C 

.. 496 

Moore, John M 

. ... 422 

Phillips, C. B 

... 259 

Simpson, William 

... 381 

Moses, Seymour 

... 418 

Pierce, Ebenezer, Sr 

... 297 

Shobe, W. A., M. D 

.. 350 

.Morris, A.J 

.... 336 

Pierce. E. C 

... 296 

Showalter, David 

.. 343 

Morris, James 

... 337 
... 371 
... 312 

Pierce, J. C 

Pierce, M. G 

... 298 

. .. 380 

Skeels, William 

Skillen, Hon. W. W 

.. 314 
.. 510 

Musser, Daniel H 

Pike, Samuel 

... 262 

Myers, William R 

... 344 

Piper, George W 

... 240 

Slabaugh, Christian E 

.. 385 

Myers, Samuel 

.... 344 

Poem, This New Country. . 

... 508 

Smith, Simeon 

.. 331 

Pollock, f. T 

... 279 

Smith, Abram H 

.. 423 

.... 376 
... 535 

Portner, Daniel 

Poppy, George W 

. .. 529 
... 478 

McCray, Hon. Hiram 

Smith, J. W 

.. 283 

McCray, Homer 

... 393 

Poppy, Augustus 

... 479 

Smith, John A 

.. 283 

McCray, Eimer E 

... 533 

Poyser, Alonzo T 

... 446 

Smith, Jacob 

.. 237 

McDonald, J. E 

McEwen, William A 

. .. 187 
... 205 

Prickett, Thomas 

Prickett, Jacob 

. .. 165 
. .. 165 

Sower, Daniel L 

.. 276 

McEwen, William 

... 205 

Pricketl, Jacob V 

... 573 

Sower, Elias 

.. 279 

McEwen, Will H 

... 21(5 

Spencer, E. B 

Spencer, Samuel C 

.. 324 

McFarland, L 

... 405 

Randall, Edwin 

... 532 

. . 325 

McLaughlin, J. A 

.. 160 

Randall, S. K 

. .. 532 

Steel, J. G 

.. 438 

Mc Means, Caleb W 

... 194 

Ransom, Sandius 

. .. 343 

Stewart, John L 

.. 599 

. .. 429 

Sunday, Peter A 

.. 258 

Newnam, Asbury 

... 288 

Rarick, Jacob 

Reidenbach, John 

Reidenbach, Philip 

•Reidenbach, Jacob 

Reiff, N.G., M. D 

. . . 429 

Strater, George 

... 181 

Newnam, N. B 

... 512 

. .. 231 

Strater, John F 

.. 181 

Nichols Charles W 

... 470 

. .. 231 

Stumbaugh, John 

.. 383 

Nichols, George 

Noe, Jeremiah B 

... 470 
... 319 

. .. 600 
. . . 482 

Sweet, J. W 

.. 453 

Noe, Aaron 

... 319 

Renkenberger, John B 

Rendel, William 

. .. 583 

Tate, James 

.. 264 

Norris, William 

... 291 
... 372 

. 479 
... 314 

1 ate, John 

Taylor, Hon. V. R 

.. 264 

North, Charles 

Roof, George W 

.. 556 

Ohlwine, Samuel 

... 338 

Ross, William 

Ross, Frank 

Roscoe, Hon. James 

Roscoe, Levi 

.. 167 
.. 168 
.. 192 

.. 192 

Teal, J. M., D. D. S 

.. 553 


Thompson, E. G 

Truelove, Thomas R 

.. 402 
.. 587 

Ott, Abraham 

Ott, Cornelius 

... 396 
... 451 

Ott, [ohn 

... 459 

. 261 

Ott, Thomas M 

... 561 

Rumbaugh, George 

.. 260 

Yeazev, William M., M. D. 

.. 566 

Ott, Jesse 

.... 396 

Rumbaugh, William 

.. 262 

.. 495 

Owen, M. F.. 

... 256 

Rumbaugh, Willard 

.. 582 

Vought, John C 

.. 352 

Palmer, John W 

... 442 

Schermerhorn, f. M 

.. 487 

Wadsworth, Eihu 

.. 321 

Palmer, Henry 

... 442 

Schlabach, William M.. .. 

.. 365 

Waldron, Jacob 

.. 329 

... 289 
... 287 

.. 284 

Waldron, William 

Walters, John E 

. . 329 

Pancake, John 

Schlotterback, Gideon 


.. 585 

Pancake, lohn E 

... 289 

Schlotterback, Henrv 

.. 298 

Walker, George 

.. 387 

Seaburg, J. C 

Seymoure, C. A., M. D. . . . 

Parker, A. S., M. D 

... 320 

.. 218 

Walker, John 

.. 275 

Parker, Rial 

... 322 

Seymoure, Mclntyre 

.. 218 

Walling, D. C 

.. 176 



Walling, James S 177 

Waterhouse, C. G. R 493 

Weaver, William 226 

Weimer, Simon 458 

Weston, Thomas B 500 

Weir, John 469 

Weir, Elijah W 469 

Wheeler, Truman 326 

White, Nathan 353 

Whonsetler, Solomon L 565 

Whonsetler, Daniel M. ....... 586 

Whonsetler, S. P 591 

Winstead, Noah 227 


Wittmer, John J 291 

Wittmer, Benjamin 291 

Williams, W.S..M.D 184 

Williams, Nathan, M. D 184 

Wilson, John H 300 

Wolf, Henry 395 

Wolf, Jacob 395 

Wolf, Washington 400 

Woodruff, C. A., M. D 330 

Woodruff. George W 477 

Wood, Hon. Harrison 200 

Wood, Hon. Harrison, Address 538 
Wood, F. P 208 


Wood, Niah 208 

Worden, William E 468 

Worden, L. G 468 

Wright, James W 574 

Yarian, Moses 557 

Yeiser, Samuel 476 

Young, Thomas J 474 

Young, J. R 443 

Zimmerman, Hon. J. C 161 

Zimmerman, Daniel B 161 

Zimmerman, H. G 273 



i/ \W 


THE cordiality with which the an- 
nouncement of a furthcoming history of No- 
ble count}' has been welcomed by all classes 
of the people, shows not only a general rec- 
ognition of the want of a complete work of 
this character, but also* the prevalence of an 
intellectual taste and culture well befitting 
the descendants of a band of pioneers whose 
mental fiber was as line and strong as their 
their will was indomitable, and their physi- 
cal energies powerful. 

The general plan of the history embraces 
a natural succession or order of events and 
developments. The story of the formative 
periods, translated by geological science; 
the flora — that is, the trees, plants and flow 
ers; the first human inhabitants, including 
some discoveries of mounds and relics of 
pre-historic ages; the Indians first discov- 
ered here, and considerations of the ques- 
tions whether or not they may have been 
descendants oi the race of the "Mound 
Builders," which will be Covered by the first 
chapter. Extracts appear, taken from offi- 
cial geological reports and from Professor 
VanGorder's work on the "flora" or Noble 
county, giving a complete catalogue of the 
native trees, plants and flowers, copied by 
his permission. This is a must valuable and 
instructive feature; and the whole chapter is 

of great interest and value on account of the 
scientific nature of its contents. Tabular 
exhibits of the underlying strata, to a depth 
of over one thousand feet, are given, as 
taken from the borings of the Albion Gas 
Company by Professor W. B. VanGorder 
all that was possible in the space at disposal, 
of accurate and reliable information con- 
cerning the structure of the districts, its 
superstructive and garniture of forests and 
flowers and its revealed evidences of a pre- 
historic people. 

The second chapter embraces a brief re- 
view of the contests between the French and 
English colonies under their respective 
home governments, with their native allies,, 
for supremacy over the vast and fertile re- 
gions of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys — 
especially of the magnificent territory known! 
as the "Great Northwest," a continued 
struggle of nearl}' two hundred years, inclu- 
sive of the final conflicts of the American 
colonies with the English government, and 
also with the Indians. The history of these 
two centuries of rivalry, aggression, warfare 
anil bloodshed, is intensely interesting and 
thrilling to the student of history when con- 
templated, in the light of the transcendent 
importance of the principles involved and the 
ends in view. But to present it in full 


would not be possible or pertinent to the 
history of Noble county; therefore the ac- 
count in which was are most directly in- 
ested can be taken up with the results of 
Gen. George Roger Clark's campaign 
against the Indians in the northwest terri- 
tory, and specially in that section which be- 
came known in subsequent years as Indiana 
and Illinois. 

The history proper of the district em- 
braced in the boundaries of Noble county 
will cover a period of sixty-five years, in 
which the leading purposes will be to* present 
a concrete biography; to depict the char- 
acters, and relate the experiences, and chron- 
icle the deeds and triumphs of the pioneers 
and their descendants and successors. To 
tell the truth about and thus do justice to the 
people who have by the sheer force of in- 
herent physical and mental energy trans- 
formed a gloomy wilderness into a paradise 
of fertile, cultivated fields, intersected with 
over a thousand miles of highways: land- 
scapes of cultivated beauty, adorned by 
numerous temples of learning and religion; 
thousands of comfortable and artistic rural 
homes ; well-built cities and towns ; graceful 
and substantial bridges; manufactories and 
busy marts of trade; splendid county build- 
ings, not excelled by any rural district in the 

state, not even by those whose location and 
natural advantages are vastly superior, and 
whose organization and settlement preceded 
Noble's many years and all this great ac- 
complishment crowned by freedom from 
county debt; while the tone of intellectual 
and spiritual culture evinces an upward pro- 
gress that has more than kept even pace 
with the wonderful material development. 
Included in this chapter will be a history of 
native effort in the field of invention, and 
also' the specialties in science. This chapter 
is thus specially mentioned, because it is a 
novel, though important feature of a unity 

Education, religion, schools, churches, 
impersonal history of crime, its consequences 
and influences upon the public weal — includ- 
ing the thrilling incidents and events of the 
"Regulator" agitation; courts and lawyers, 
their personnel and characteristics; county 
offices and official business; township officers 
and township business; statistics; history of 
Noble county's part in the terrible drama of 
the Civil war ; Grand Army organizations ; 
Agricultural Associations ; Granges. Fairs ; 
in short, a thorough history of the county 
throughout the course of its development; 
supplemented by separate township, town 
and city histories. 





•Geology — Formative Agencies — Glacial Action and Deposits — Character of 
Soils — Underlying Strata — Physical Geography — Fauna and Flora — Land- 
scape Effects — Human Occupants — Supposed Remains of Prehistoric Peo- 
ple — Mounds and Contents — American Indians — Savage Life and Character 

The story of geology is naturally the 
first chapter in human history. The earth 
was created before man ; the stage was pre- 
pared before the actors appeared. 

"In the beginning, God created the 
heaven and the earth ; and the earth was 
without form and void, and darkness was 
upon the face of the deep ; * * :|: and 
God said let the waters under the heaven 
be gathered together unto one place, and let 
the dry land appear; and it was so; * * 
and God said, let us make man in our im- 
age, after our likeness ; * * * so God 
created man in His own image; in the image 
of God, created He him; male and female 
created He them," etc. 

In accordance with this natural order 
some brief account of the formative process 
— of the geological genesis of the land of 
Noble county seems to be, if not essential. 

at least appropriate as a beginning of its 
history. Nor is it a subject of curious in- 
quiry only; for in the economic phase of 
geological science many important factors 
of human advancement are found. 

The alluring region of contemplative 
speculation and theory concerning the sub- 
lime eons of the creation has been fully ex- 
plored and has yielded glorious fruits in 
higher and broader conceptions of creative 
omnipotence; the inconceivable immensity, 
of the lapse of ages; the stupendous archi- 
tecture of the planetary system, and the ever 
beneficent tendency of creative wisdom and 
power. And though the contemplation of 
these tremendous processes at first staggers 
the imagination and overwhelms the soul 
with indefinable awe and a sense of helpless- 
ness to comprehend anything but a sublime 
and illimitable greatness and omnipotence, 


at last science comes to the aid of the swirl- 
ing soul and concentrates and directs our at- 
tention to the defined footsteps of the ages 
and the recorded evidences of their work. 

Each creative period left clews to its 
labyrinthian secrets — an index to its auto- 
biography, in its strata and their composi- 
tion, posture and markings. Geology con- 
sults this index, translates the mystic annals 
and follows the clews ; names the period, 
and describes the operations of the giant 
agencies ; reveals the treasures latent in the 
composition of soils or hidden in subter- 
ranean matrices — riches and blessings; 
germs of human happiness and progression, 
deposited and implanted in inexhaustible 
profusion and variety for the benefit and 
glory of God's appointed viceroy — man. 


A geological survey of the State of In- 
diana was made during the year 1873 by the 
State Geologist, Hon. E. T. Cox, assisted 
by Professors John Collett, W. W. Borden 
and Dr. G. M. Levette. Dr. Levette, an ac- 
complished scientist, explored northern and 
northeastern Indiana, and reported the 
counties of DeKalb, Steuben, LaGrange, 
Noble, Elkhart, St. Joseph and LaPorte. 
His report, as embodied in the Fifth Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana, 
1873, says of the counties above named: 

"The above counties lie wholly within 
the Boulder Drift or Quaternary epoch, and 
are covered with transported material to a 
great depth. Bores have been put down at 
different points in the northern part of the 
state, some of which reached the underlying 
limestone ruck, of the Devonian age, at a 

depth of eighty-eight feet, while others 
have gone to the depth of two hundred and 
twelve feet, all the way through glacial clay. 

"That these enormous deposits of mater- 
ial — equal in solid contents to a small range 
of mountains and covering the whole of 
northern Indiana, the southern part of 
Michigan and the northwest part of Ohio 
to an average depth of perhaps a hundred 
feet — were brought down from points north 
of the great lakes by glaciers (moving fields 
of ice) or icebergs floating in a sea which 
then covered the whole Mississippi valley 
from the Polar ocean to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, is now almost universally accepted by 
geologists as a fixed and incontrovertible 
fact. The glacial hypothosis of Professor 
A. Agassiz, with slight modifications, ex- 
plains in a rational and satisfactory manner 
all the conditions existing in this section of 
the country." 

The report described each of said coun- 
ties separately, noting the features peculiar 
to each. Qf Noble he says : 

"The surface is diversified with hills, 
alternating with burr oak 'openings,' and 
about equally divided between the two; 
many small prairies occur, and one of sev- 
eral thousand acres near Ligonier, in the 
northwest corner of the county. The soil 
of the timbered land is loam and clay, with 
a stiff clay subsoil, and is proverbially pro- 
ductive. That of the burr oak 'openings' is 
lighter, containing sand, is easily cultivated 
and is considered the best in the county. 
The soil of the prairie is a dry peaty loam 
and sand with a subsoil of gravel or sand. 
Extensive beds of bog iron ore occur. The 
largest deposit is on Ore Prairie, in the 
western part. It lies in the edge of the 
marsh about one foot beneath the surface, is 


about twenty feet wide and from four to 
eight feet thick. 

"Immense deposits of peat occur in the 
lower lands, along the marshes and over the 
'bridged lakes.' A partly completed 'fill' of 
the Baltimore, Pittsburg & Chicago Rail- 
road broke through the crust of a subter- 
ranean lake, a half mile west of the town of 
Albion, and exposed a deposit of peat 
eighteen feet in thickness. Fish, with per- 
fect eyes and colors common to the species, 
came up with the water on the submerged 
embankment, clearly indicating that this 
hidden lake was somewhere connected with 
water exposed to the rays of the sun. In 
the dim, distant future, when the wants of 
a dense population shall demand the culti- 
vation of every available foot of this fertile 
section of country ami fuel shall have be- 
come the costliest item of household econ- 
omy, these deposits of peat will be sources 
of wealth to the owners and objects of prac- 
tical interest to those who consider the suc- 
cess and well-being of the community. Ex- 
tensive beds of marl are found in different 
parts of the county." 

In the fifteenth report of the state geol- 
ogist for 1886, Maurice Thompson, state 
geologist, considerable space is given to ex- 
planation of glacial agency in the formation 
of a Aery large proportion of the surface of 
Indiana and Noble county. It is of high 
scientific authority, published by the state, 
and popularly instructive. It is almost in- 
dispensable to a clear idea of the geology <>i 
this county, and is quoted here for the bene- 
fit of those to whom these official reports 
are not accessible. 


"A glacier is a body of ice which, al- 

though solid, flows over a part of the earth's 
surface. It has been clearly demonstrated 
that ice in the form of a glacier, no matter 
how rigid it may appear, has a current sim- 
ilar to that of water. In other words, ice 
will form a solid stream, so to speak, which 
will slowly but steadily creep down an in- 
clined plane and if this ice-stream be very 
deep, so as to give it great weight, it will 
overthrow, grind up and bear away what- 
ever obstacle opposes it. 

"Glaciers are formed by the accumula- 
tion of snow which, by pressure and crys- 
tallization, is turned into ice. Thus, when- 
ever the snowfall in winter is greater than 
can lie melted in summer, the snow grows 
deeper year by year until at length by its 
own weight and by partial surface melting 
it is compressed into a sheet of ice enor- 
mously thick. Now if the surface upon 
which this sheet rests is inclined, the ice 
flows and we have a glacier. In the Alps 
there are glaciers from five hundred to over 
six hundred feet in vertical depth, slowly 
flowing down the m> mntain sides. But it 
does not require steep mountain slopes for 
the making of glaciers ; a comparatively 
gentle inclination of the surface of the 
ground is sufficient if the ice be thick enough 
and other conditions be favorable to motion. 

"The general form of a glacier is that of 
a wedge, the edge resting on the lowest 
point of the surface occupied, the thick end 
resting on the highest point of the same. 
Of course the motion of a glacial stream 
will lie in some proportion to the slope of 
this surface, but the thickness of the great 
end of the wedge must have much to do 
with the force of the current. If we adopt 
the theory of Tyndall. or that of Mosely, or 
that of Croll, or anv other, we must see that 


gravitation directs the course of the glacial 
movement just as it does the flow of water; 
for it can not matter whether fracture or 
regulation, as Tyndall claims, or expansion 
and contraction by changes of solar heat, as 
Cam hi Mosely theorizes, or molecular mo- 
tion generated by the conducting of heat 
through the mass, as Dr. Croll maintains, is 
the agent of motion, the fact remains that 
the glacier is very thick at its upper end, 
would flow over a surface of comparatively 
slight inclination, and its destructive force 
would be. in a way, proportional to such 
thickness. Fluidity must he regarded as a 
property of water, even when the water is 
in the form of the brittlest ice. It makes 
but little difference what is the cause of this 
strange, slow fluidity of ice, it is sufficient 
for the purpose of the study of the drift 
phenomena that the fluidity exists, and that 
it is sufficient to generate, under certain con- 
ditions, a force absolutely incalculable. 

"The immense glacial deposit, or drift, 
that constitutes the structure of northern 
Indiana, presents in Noble county all the 
varied features resultant from the glacial 
movements and effects before described. 
The features and aspects of our landscape 
were moulded by the hand of the Creator 
with the mighty tools of storms and floods; 
of floating iceberg mountains, laden with 
the spoils of rended arctic cliffs and land- 
slides, carrying titanic grists to be ground 
in the course of uncounted centuries by the 
tremendous glacial mills of God. 

"We can faintly imagine a glacial plow, 
twenty-five miles wide, going slowly through 
and over a range of hills, throwing, as it 
emerges upon the lowland, immense heaps, 
laterally (lateral moraines), and carrying 
forward also great qualities of earth, bowl- 

ders, greater and smaller stones, pebbles, 
and gravel to its terminal point, to be left 
there in irregular piles (terminal moraines). 

"A great portion of the area of Noble 
county is covered by moraines produced by 
the action of glacial lobes, originally de- 
scribed in the Third Annual Report of the 
United States Geological Survey as the 
Saginaw-Erie interlobate moraine, a mass 
of drift twenty-five miles wide and from one 
hundred to five hundred feet deep, the crest 
of which traverses the townships of Green, 
Allen and Wayne. 

"This crest forms, according to the 
Eighteenth Annual Report of the Depart- 
ment of Geology and Natural Resources of 
Indiana, the divide between the basins of 
Lake Michigan and Lake Erie and the Wa- 
bash river. It is assumed by scientists from 
local indicia that a lobe of the glacier pushed 
southwestward from Saginaw bay across 
Michigan and northern Indiana, and' an- 
other from Lake Erie deposited a moraine, 
the southern wing of which crosses the 
count}-, occupying small portions of Allen 
and Green townships and a greater portion 
of Swan. This part of the moraine has the 
prevailing aspect of a plain, with a gentle 
slope to the southeast. Willow, Black, 
and Little Cedar creeks traverse and drain 
it, through Cedar creek in Allen and De- 
Kalb counties into the St. Joseph river, and 
through the Maumee into Lake Erie. The 
succession of swells and hollows character- 
ize it as an example of mild morainic to- 
pography, as compared with the northern 
wing, or most prominent range, which pre- 
sents evidence of far greater violence and 
power, by which was produced the more 
abrupt, jumbled and tumultuous effects ob- 
servable in several other parts of the county. 



"These massive effects of the glacial flow 
and push — supplemented by the eccentric 
erosions of retiring glaciers, now melted by 
increasing heats and pouring forth immense 
ll Is. agitated into cross and counter cur- 
rents by furious storms, and again advanc- 
ing before the tremendous pressure from 
the north and over-lapping in recurring 
periods of c<>1<1 the stages of retreat — are 
seen in the abrupt and man-shaped hills. 
profound and irregular valleys, marshes 
with strange looking islands, streams in tor- 
tuous courses, lakes and lakelets of varied 
outlines and different depths interspersed 
with level plateaus, rich bottom-lands and 
verdant meadows in Wayne, Allen, Swan, 
Jefferson. Green, Noble, Albion, York, Or- 
ange and Perry townships." 

For a general, comprehensive view Of 
the topography of the county. State Geolo- 
gist Gorby gives the three following natural 
divisions of the territory: 

"1. The Salamo'nie, or Third Erie 
moraine, so called because its southern wing 
extends along the right bank of the Sala- 
monie river. The general features of the 
southeastern slope of this moraine have al- 
ready been described. The greatest eleva- 
tions are: Swan, nine hundred and five 
feet; Potter's Station, eight hundred and 
eleven feet. 

"2. The Mississinewa, or Fourth Erie 
moraine, so called because its southern wing 
extends along the right bank of the Missis- 
sinewa river, the most massive and pr< 1- 
nounced of all the moraines of northern 
Indiana, occupying the townships of Green, 
Jefferson. Orange, Allen and Wayne. It 
has a width of six miles in Green, ten miles 
in Allen and Orange, with an average ele- 
vation of one hundred feet above the coun- 

try on either side. Its crest is the back- 
bone of the whole morainic mass, and forms 
the principal watershed of the count}'. The 
t'evations of this moraine, from canal and 
railroad surveys, are: Summit, three miles 
east of Kendallville. 1,018 feet; summit, 
near Lisbon, 1.017 feet; summit, one and 
a half miles west of Avilla, 1,015 feet: 
Avilla, oiSfeet; Kendallville, gjjfeet. Gen- 
eral level of water shed, 973 feet. The Erie 
slope is characterized by a thick deposit of 
boulder clay up all the higher points, sand 
and gravel being found only in the valleys, 
the result of the wash of streams. 

"3. The region of Saginaw Drift pre- 
sents features widely different from the 
compact. well-defined masses of the moraine- 
described. It shows great diversity of char- 
acter and irregular distribution, producing 
the comparatively smooth, level country, 
undulating topography, isolated groups of 
gravel knobs, broad valleys, extensive 
marshes and outlines of lakes now grown 
over, characteristic of the Saginaw Drift. 
No clay is found near the surface in the re- 
gions occupied by the Saginaw Drift. They 
are covered with sand and gravel, coarser 
or finer, except where deposits of peat oc- 

Evidences exist of very extensive beds 
of peat, frequently of great thickness, the 
deepest layers being already superior fuel; 
and the whole mass, being gradually con- 
verted to that condition, promising a future 
abundant supply and corresponding source 
(if comfort and wealth within easy reach. 
As the fuel-producing forests are rapidly 
disappearing, practical attention should be 
directed toward this superior substitute and 
the means for converting it to use. It may 
be classed and estimated as the chief avail- 


able mineral wealth of Noble county. Iron 
ore, it is claimed, exists under many, if not 
must of the lakes and some of the bogs; but 
difficulties of access and comparative cost 
of transportation render it economically of 
httle value. 

The genesis and character of the over- 
lying drift and the general features of the 
surface topography having been described, 
we come to a brief consideration of the un- 
derlying strata. For a satisfactory view of 
these we are indebted to the scientific attain- 
ments and skillful investigations of Prof. W. 
B. VanGorder, ex-superintendent of the Al- 
bion public schools. This information is em- 
bodied in the Eighteenth Report of the 
State Geologist (1893). from which we 
quote, verbatim: 


"During the boring for gas at Albion 
a very accurate and complete record was 
kept by Prof. W. B. VanGorder, who fur- 
nished the following section of the Drift: 

Yellow Clay Ill feet. 

Blue Clay 1(1 " 

Sand and gravel. 115 " 

Blue Clay 20 " 

Sand and gravel with streaks of blue clay 50 

Blue Clay 2 " 

Sand and gravel 81 " 

Blue Clay 2 

Quicksand 5 ' " 

Blue Clay 21 

Quicksand 4 " 

Blue Clay 7 " 

Sand and blue clay Ill " 

Gravel 5 " 

Red bowlder clay 1 5 " 

Sand ."> " 

Slate 1 '■ 

Sand !) " 

Total depth ! 375 feet 


"Of the formations underlying the Drift 
in Noble county, our only information comes 
from the careful observation of Professor 
VanGorder. at Albion. He furnished the 
following section, which, including the over- 
lying Drift, as above described, shows the 
lineaments of our geology to a depth of 
i .9 1 4 feet : 

Drift :;;5 feet 

Devonian black slate 60 " 

j Hamilton and corniferous limestone 65 

Oriskany sandstone 5 " 

Lower helderberg 168 " 

Water lime (containing crystals of gypsum). . . .152 - ' 

Niagara limestone -inn 

Niagara shale 2d " 

Clinton (red from presence of hematite) .'in " 

Clinton Shale Ill " 

Medina (?) 59 " 

Hudson River limestone and shale 85 

Hudson River shale 200 " 

Utica shale 150 " 

Utica slate il4 " 

Trenton limestone 24 " 

Total of 1,014 feet 

Such is the scientific history, in outline, 
of nature's work. No human imagination 
can ever compass its details. No soul of 
genius — not even the concentration of all the 
fires of genius that have blazed up on the 
signal summits of human intellect in all the 
ages of mankind — could illuminate the 
abysses of time wherein, "The Spirit of God 
moved upon the face of the waters." evok- 
ing the series of structural epochs that up- 
builded the continents from the depths 
of the oceans; that interfused their struct- 
ures with the various, ever-living germs of 
human destiny: that ever spread them with 
their garniture of landscapes of unspeakable 
beauty and granduer, adorning soils preg- 


nant with the elements of every form of hu- 
man achievement and enjoyment. Yet, 
while unable to conceive definately the tre- 
mendous creative processes, man may de- 
voutly ponder about them with ever increas- 
ing elevation and expansion of intellectual 
and spiritual life. The purest, noblest as- 
piration of the human mind and s< ml is the 
endeavor "To look through nature up to na- 
ture's < !'id," and in this noble cpiest, "science 
is the eve of the soul." And it is the guide 
of the mind in pursuit of the highest success, 
not only in agriculture, the most godlike of 
human purusuits, but in all the industries de- 
pendent upon it. 

The glances we have had on the origin 
and structure of the overlying soil and sub- 
strata of the country show that Noble county 
has a fertile soil, composed of all the 
ingredients that constitute the best ele- 
ments of all the products of the mid- 
dle temperate zone. There are few sec- 
tions of the land that do not contain in 
their soils the elements of nutrition adapted 
to a great variety of vegetables, cereals and 
fruits in profusion; and it is not uncommon 
to find in single tracts of not more than one 
hundred and sixty acres distinct and well 
defined zones and areas, each particularly 
adapted to the growth of one or another of 
one the staple crops. 


The natural production of the county, 
the plants and flowers and forests, illustrate 
the claim of fertility and variety; and in 
confirmation of this comes the elaborate 
classification of Prof. W. B. VanGorder, the 
result of years of thorough personal explora- 
tion, analysis and comparison, and patient 

labor in this interesting and important field 
of science. The able report of the State- 
Geologist for 1893 refers to Professor Yan- 
Gorder's work and introduces it as an im- 
portant feature of the state report as fol- 
lows : 

" A geologist who spends but a few days 
or weeks in a given region can report very 
little of value in regard to its natural history. 
Such work requires the patient and careful 
attention of years. Fortunately Noble 
county possesses a citizen who has had the 
happy combination of taste, ability and op- 
portunity, which has enabled bun to do thor- 
ough and trustworthy work in botany and 
zoi logy. Prof. W. B. VanGorder, of Al- 
bion, is a native of Noble county and was for 
several years county superintendent of 
schools. In 1884 be published at his own 
expense a catalogue of the flora of Noble 
county, which has been ever since a standard 
authority upon the flora of this portion of 
the state. The catalogue is here ( in the 
State Report of 1893) reprinted with cor- 
rections and additions to date; thus making 
available to all an important contribution to 
the natural history of Indiana." (Then fol- 
lows Professor VanGorder' s catalogue as a 
part of the state report.) 

[In reference to what the State Geolo- 
gist says about "making available to all'" the 
important contribution of Professor Van- 
Gorder, by embodying it in a state report, it 
is' proper to consider how limited the cir- 
culation of such official documents really is. 
Thev are sent to a limited number of offices 
and officialls in each county, mostly at the 
county seat. The people at their homes — 
and on expected occasions when reference to 
something therein might be greatly desired 
and important, just then — would have to 



forego the explanation and remain in the 
dark or make a trip ( perhaps of many miles) 
to Albion, in order to satisfy inquiry upon a 
casual question. All can see how different 
it would be if the information were embodied 
in a popular, general history of the people 
and the events of the county, and of each 
township and town, distributed .in every 
neighborhood. This consideration alone is 
ample apology, if any were needed, for tak- 
ing time and using space, enough to embody 
the most essential parts of Professor Van- 
Gorder's work in the geological chapter of 
this history.— S. E. A.] 


Professor VanGorder's book contains 
fifty-two pages, filled entirely with the cata- 
logue in extensive and technical detail. The 
purpose and scope of the work are best stated 
and explained in the author's preface, which 
is quoted verbatim : 


In 1884, after three seasons' careful 
work, a list of the plants of this county was 
published, enumerating nearly seven hun- 
dred species. The work has been continued 
since then, as time and opportunity per- 
mitted, and the few additions that have been 
made lead me to think that the present list 
comprises quite fully the flora of the county. 

In >>ne respect the flora of Allen, Swan 
and Jefferson townships is much the same; 
that of Wayne, Orange and Green townships 
bears much resemblance; while the flora of 
the western half of the county contains 
many forms different from the eastern half 

of the county. Along the Elkhart river and 
its branches grow many plants common 
mostly to river territory. It is also notice- 
able that some plants, common farther 
northward, make their appearance here in 
our county, at the same time apparently be- 
ing the northern limit of some of those 
farther southward. 

The following catalogue includes seven 
hundred and twenty-four species belonging 
to ninety-nine order's, and grouped under 
three hundred and sixty-three genera. 
Many of them here named are usually re- 
garded as "weeds" and "wild grasses," many 
others are "wild flowers," while numerous 
others are our shrubs and valuable fi ire t 
trees ; but all of them have their value and 
place in the economy of nature. 

In giving the names of the plants, the 
order as presented in Gray's Manual of the 
flora of the United States, fifth edition, has 
been strictly adhered to, although aware that 
several changes in nomenclature are now 
recognized. The common names of the 
plants have been added, as they will be of 
more interest to those who are not bi tanists. 
The locality and ranges of the plants, so far 
as observed, have also been given, along with 
such other information as was thought 
would be of general interest. 

It is not likely that any of our native 
plants have yet beeen exterminated, as is the 
case in some places; but the cultivation of the 
soil, the pasturing of the woodlands, the 
I draining of the marshes is rapidly reducing 
their abundance. Some are already quite 
scarce from these causes; while along our 
railroads, roadsides, and in grainfields. new 
ones occasionally make their appearance. 

The plan and intended scope of this his- 
tory do not allow the presentation of the 


catalogue in full. We give the names of 
fi irest trees ami shrubs : 


Black Sugar Maple 
Bass wood 


Box Elder 

Black or Water Ash 

Blue Ash 


Black Walnut 

Burr Oak 

Black Oak 

Bitternut Hickory 




Common Locust 

Corky White Elm 

Honey Locust 


Kentucky Coffee Tree 

Laurelor Shingle Oak 


American Bladdernut 
American Aspen 
Black Raspberry 

Burning Bush Waahoo 
Black Haw- 
Button Bush 
Black Huckleberry 
Black Alder 
Black Thorn 
Cockspur Thorn 
Crab Apple 
Choke Berry 
Coral Berry 

Flowering Dogwood 
Glancous Willow 
Hoary Willow 
Iron wood 
June Berry 

Low Blackberry 

Pin Oak 
Pignut Hickory 
Red Oak 
Red Elm 
Red Mulbei r\ 
Swamp White Oak- 
Scarlet Oak 
Shag-bark Hickory 
Shell-bark Hickory 
Sugar Maple 
Swamp Maple 
Silver Maple 
Whitewood Poplar 
Wild Black Cherry 
White Ash 
White Elm 
White Oak- 
Yellow Chestnut Oak 

Meadow Sweet 
Myrtle Willow- 
New Jersey Tea 
Prickly Ash 
Poison Sumack 
Panicled Cornel 
Peteoled Willow 
Red Bud 
Red Osier 
Redberried Elder 
Shrubby St. Johns 
Staghorn Sumach 
Smooth Sumach 
Strawberry Bush 
Spice Bush 
Sheep Bern- 
Swamp Blueberry 
Silky Cornel 
Shining Willow 

Smooth Elder 
Swamp Blackberry 
Swamp Rose 
Shrubby Cinquefoil 
Wild Plum 
Wintergreen (partly: 

Wild Rosemarv 

Carion Flower 
Climbing Bitterswee 
Common Greenbriei 
Canadian Moonseed 
Fox Grape 
Frost Grape 

Wild Hazelnut 
Wild Rose 
Wild Red Raspberry 
Wild Gooseberry 
Wild Black Currant 
Witch Hazel 
Yellow Willow- 

Hispid Gr 

I ',,i- 

Summer Grape 
Small Honeysuckle 
Virgin's Bower 
Virginian Creeper. 

S. .11- 

t Fruited Thorn 

The foregoing lists of forest trees,, 
shrubs and climbing shrubs include enough 
tn indicate the prominent features of the 
native landscapes and the character of soils, 
uncultivated. The vast variety of obscure 
flowers, and the details of grouping, genera 
and species are not essential. 


* * * "About me round I saw- 
Hill, dale, and shady woods and sunny plains 
And liquid lapse of murmuring streams; by these. 
Creatures that lived, and moved, and walked or flew 
Birds on the branches warbling; all things smiled. 
With fragrance and with joy my heart or'eflov 

— Ailniii, in Paradise Lust. 

Adam's description of the landscape — 
the topography and flora of the region in 
which he first awoke to conscious life, might 
well have been given by the first human be- 
ing who saw the region of Noble county. 
Who, and whence, was the first man. or 
rather of what race and character were the 
original, native occupants? And when? 
We ask in vain. The abysses of the pre- 
historic ages only echo the question. They 
reveal no monuments ; they unfold no rec- 
ords: they hold no discovered clews to the 


time, racial cliaracteristics or condition of 
the first occupants, as distinguishing them 
from or connecting them with some one or 
■other of the historic races. The most ob- 
vious and natural conclusion, in the absence 
of impressive evidence against it, would be 
that the aborigines were of the same race as 
the people first found in occupancy. And 
they were American Indians ; people of 
racial characteristics common to the then 
inhabitants of the whole continent. The 
same race found everywhere, in tribal or na- 
tional divisions, from the Atlantic to. the 
Pacific ; from the Arctic ocean to the Carib- 
bean sea under varying conditions ; in differ- 
ent degrees of physical and mental develop- 
ment, and with differing social customs and 
■communal policies, probably, but homo- 
geneous in basic type — the same race. If 
we doubt this, if we say so. must we not 
acknowledge the justice of the obligation to 
show why not : If we proclaim a doubt, 
should we not stand ready to show that it is 
a "reasonable" doubt, not a mere specula- 
tion ? 


It is said that ancient works — mounds 
and fortifications — are found in decay and 
ruin of size so immense and construction so 
scientific as to be wholly impossible to the 
power and skill of the savages of North 
America at the time of the discovery. With- 
out going over the grounds of this argu- 
ment, for which there is neither time nor 
space in the scope of this history, let it be 
answered : Possibly, nay. even certainly — 
as they were then. But upon what grounds 
can it be assumed that they were always the 
same as then ? 

On the great plain of Shinar once stood 

a mighty unfinished tower that seemed to 
aspire to the heavens. It was a magnificent 
ruin, in the midst of a babbling population 
who were utterly incapable of executing 
such a work, and indifferent as to its pur- 
pose or significance. But their ancestors of 
the same race, many centuries before, did 
lay the foundations and successfully carry 
on and up the mighty and symmetrical pile 
toward the sky, until discord, cross purposes 
and mental and physical calamity fell upon 
them and the}- disorganized, degenerated 
and became tribes of hostile and warring 
wanderers ; destitute of lofty aspirations, in- 
capable of even desiring a higher plane of 
existence. Yet they were of the same stock 
from whose brain and muscle and towering 
ambition, sprang the once magnificent Ba- 
bel that now silently crumbles in the shadow 
of oblivion. 

To those who prefer examples from pro- 
fane or secular history, or tradition, many 
may be suggested of the retrogression of 
nations. Indeed, the decline and fall of 
Rome ; the fading of the glories of Grecian 
art and science ; the lapse into barbarism of 
many peoples, the now broken and crumb- 
ling monuments of whose former culture 
and power still exist, and to their descend- 
ants of the same race, are objects of mystery 
about whose origin not even tradition had 
survived the night of the Dark Ages. Sure- 
ly, it is hardly necessary to suggest specific 
examples of such catastrophes of racial de- 
terioration and national wreck as may well 
support the probability that the greatest of 
the monuments of pre-historic origin on the 
American continent were works of the same 
race of people, who were found inhabiting 
the country or wandering over it in savage 
tribes, utterly incapable of executing such 


works and destitute of rational tradition 
concerning them. 

The foregoing suggestions are applica- 
ble to the entire theory of a distinct race of 
"Mound Builders"' in the Mississippi valley 
and elsewhere in North America. They are 
not intended as controverting the possible 
fact — which may or may not be some time 
established ; but to show that the existence 
of works beyond the capacity of the savage 
pos-sessors at the time of discovery does not, 
necessarily, point to some other pre-historic 
race as the builders. 

In Noble county itself there is nothing 
to suggest such ethnological inquiries ; noth- 
ing that the American Indians, as they were 
found, were incapable of doing, and in fact 
did do so far as extent and skill of construc- 
tion were involved. Some of the most ex- 
tensive and prominent earthworks in the 
county are referable to the animal instinct 
and activity of the beavers. Nevertheless, 
there were artificial mounds and earthworks 
of different kinds that were undoubtedly ex- 
ecuted by human hands for definite pur- 
poses, and of which the existing tribes i if In- 
diana could give no account. Many of them 
have been excavated and explored, and rel- 
ics of various kinds found — skeletons and 
fragments of bones of human beings, orna- 
ments and implements, etc., etc. So, aside 
from any question of origin or race, these 
tumuli and the disclosure of their secrets, as 
well as the speculations and theories con- 
cerning them, have become a part of the 
history of the country, demanding atten- 
tion and historic narrative. 

Ace irding to the American Encyclope- 
dia, the mounds of the Mississippi valley 
thus far discovered and explored, "with few 
exceptions." were incontestably simple plac- 

es of sepulture — memorials raised i >\ er the 
dead, varying in size according to the im- 
portance of the personages commemorated. 
The mounds in Noble county so far as ob- 
served are commonly of this class. Classifi- 
cation has been attempted, assigning to 
them several distinct uses ; sepulchral, sacri- 
ficial, templar, memorial, monumental and 
observatory. These divisions, however, are 
probably conjectural in the main. It should 
be remembered in this connection that many 
apparent differences in size and outline may 
be referable to the erasions of time and the 
action of the elements. In some instances 
the fact of artificial origin may well be 
doubted; in other cases mounds of assumed 
natural origin may yet be shown to be clear- 
ly artificial works. In confirmation of this 
probability the fact is cited that, in 1873, 
the state geologist reported that "no 
mounds, or mound builders' earthworks 
could be learned of in Noble county," show- 
ing that up to 1873 the many artificial 
mounds now clearly recognized had not 
been distinguished from curious natural 


In the office of Dr. A. E. Egles. dentist, 
over the Bank of Albion, in 1895 there was 
an interesting collection of specimens, rep- 
resenting nearly all the different relics 
usually found in the Mississippi valley re- 
gion. The writer, hearing of the collection, 
visited Dr. Eagle's office in February, 1895, 
and with the assistance of the proprietor, 
examined and classified the collections, con- 
sisting of arrowheads, awls, a fiesher-saw, 
spearheads, fish spears, knife ( stone 1. drills, 
stone ax I finely formed and polished) and 



other instruments, the uses of which could 
not then he determined. The arrowheads 
were numerous and of many sizes. The 
implements, generally, were of flint, fash- 
ioned with skill. 

The stone was symmetrical and smooth, 
and shaped much like the axes in common 
use to-day, the blade regularly beveled and 
ground down to- a fine edge; instead of an 
eye to receive the handle a deep groove was 
cut around the head where the handle could 
be fastened, either on one side by means of 
bark strings ( leatherwoodj or to both sides, 
by dividing the end of the handle and bind- 
ing the parts in the groove with thongs of 
bark or deerhide. The whole instrument 
was smoothly polished and finished ; and, 
considering the material and the primitive 
tools that must have been used, it was a re- 
markable piece of workmanship. Probably it 
was used as a battle-ax. and with a length of 
handle sufficient to give \ sweeping stroke it 
could be made to cleave ti e head of an enemy 
from top to chin, or break he firmest bones 
of the human frame. So^ e of the arrow 
and spear-heads were large, . er four inches 
in length, fashioned from th> lardest flint, 
reduced to the thinness of a sclu "1 slate and 
beveled at the sides and points to keen edges ; 
others were two inches, and some only three- 
fourths of an inch in length, and very light 
and sharp, and for birds and small animals 
or for the use of little boys to shoot at 
marks, and so cultivate from infancy the 
highest degree of skill in the use of the bow 
and arrow. A form of this training, in- 
tended to fortify the infant nerves 
against any natural shrinking from the 
infliction of torture upon human be- 
ings, consisted in marking the bodies 
of living war-captives (bound to posts 

or trees) in many places, from heads 
to feet, and familiarizing the little boys with 
steadiness of aim at the quivering marks 
and with the flow of blood from the wounds 
made by scores of the keen little arrows dis- 
charged by the tin)- hands of children of 
three, four and five years. This cultivated 
at once their strength, skill, and inhuman 
cruelty. On the other hand the captured 
enemy was trained to stoic endurance of tor- 
ture, and was capable of standing, scornful 
and defiant, with twenty arrows sticking in 
his flesh and covered with blood from 
wounds in face, eyes, neck and chest, and 
every limb, and hurling bitter and sarcastic 
taunts at the weakness of his foes — assum- 
ing that the adults s uch awe of his 
presence that they were <. of him, even 
when bound, and resorted -hildren too 
young to know of his prowes vreak their 
cowardly hatred upon him in Liieir stead. 
This was to provoke them to rush upon him 
in incoutrolable fury and end his agony by 
killing him at once. But the firm warriors 
understood him. They knew he was seek- 
ing death before torture became unendurable 
— a hero's triumph nt death — to die in 
proud defiance nout complaining. They 
sought * \ r ">rive him of such a crown of 
glory; and Had a further and severe test of 
endurance. This consisted in piercing the 
j flesh from head to feet with splinters of res- 
ionus wood — "pitch pine," or other dry 
wood saturated with grease, left sticking in 
' the flesh. These were lighted and burned, 
! scorching and shriveling the skin and eating 
into the raw flesh, causing torture inexpress- 
ible ; the object being to conquer the forti- 
tude of the sufferer and extort a frantic plea 
for instant death; to subdue the spirit and 
force the soul to surrender to physical pain. 


Recorded instances of Indian warriors yield 
ing and begging for the mercy of death are 
very few. Even white captives have been 
known to endure this extremity of lingering 
torture without crying out. Of course, or- 
dinary "burning at the stake" would be easy 
in comparison. The mounting flames in- 
haled, the columns of suffocating smoke 
quickly quenches the vital spark and the 
agony is over. 


Of the interesting collection in Dr. Egles" 
possession the most prominent were the en- 
tire skull, dorsal and lumbar vertebra, pelvic 
bones, and left femur and forearm of a 
skeleton exhumed from one of the prehis- 
toric mounds of Noble count}', located on the 
farm of Jeremiah Noel, section I, Elkhart 
township. Some measurements were taken, 
which are given below, with the common 
names of the measured parts: 

Skull, from base of nose* over the top of 
head to base of occiput, 1 1 ' j inches ; an ntnd 
the skull, from middle of forehead. 15^4 
inches; over the top. from ear to ear, ii'j 
inches ; around the back of skull, from ear to 
ear, io^4 inches. Thigh-bone, 18 inches long, 
large and showing by the size of the mus- 
cular attachments great solidity and power 
of muscle. Forearm. 12 inches in length, 
large and strong. This skull, in size and 
proportions, was superior to those of many 
whites; and the pelvis, backbone and thigh- 
bone, all indicated that the form, when 
clothed in flesh and animated by the living 
spirit, must have been a noble specimen of 
manhood. The cranial developments showed 
capability of a high degree of intellectual 
culture. He was unquestionably an Indian, 

and was probably a chief and leader 111 all 
the important affairs of a tribe, perhaps of 
a confederacy, including their barbarous cus- 
toms and superstitions. 

The skeleton just described was found 
in a large mound on Noel's farm, as above 
stated, with parts of twenty-seven others, b\ 
explorers in the interest of Battey & Co., pub- 
lishers of a history of Lagrange and Noble 
counties. In describing the excavation of 
this mound and others in the same vicinity, 
the principal writer of that history notes the 
posture of the skeletons as identical with 
known modes of Indian burial ; and in allud- 
ing to the fact of a "remarkably large and 
sound maxillary bone." indicating compara- 
tively recent burial, adds: "The reader 
must remember that these are the bones of 
.Mound Builders, not Indians, and were 
certainly placed there at least five hundred 
years ago, and very likely longer." And 
yet nothing had been advanced to prove or 
that tended to prove that the ancestors of 
the then existing Indians had not been, 
themselves, the Mound Builders. The 
mounds under consideration were not more 
extensive than many beaver dams, and were 
entirely within the known capacity of even 
a small tribe of American Indians. "At 
least five hundred years," says this writer. 
as an evidence of an antiquity ton remote for 
connection with the Indians. Why, it was 
then nearly four hundred years since Colum- 
bus' discovery, when the Indian tribes 
roamed in scattered hands over the contin- 
ent, with the same customs, habits and lack 
of organized power and moral discipline 
which were assumed to lie totally inconsist- 
ent with the execution of such works as 
what ? ( )nly the throwing up and fashioning 
of conical piles of earth several feet in 


height, and terraces of earth sixty feet in 
diameter. American Indians in besieging a 
fort near Erie, Pennsylvania, threw up 
earthworks to cover their approaches many 
times greater in extent, and constructed long 
tunnels underground for access to the inter- 
ior of the fort so truly aimed that they act- 
ually reached the very points designed, and 
would have conducted the savages to sure 
success and victory had not the garrison been 
relieved and the besiegers driven off by a re- 
enforcing body of troops. 

"Five hundred years."' Let us assume 
that these mounds were one thousand years 
old. Is there any evidence that our Indi- 
ans had not inhabited the continent for even 
more than two thousand years? Certainly 
not. The historian mentions the fact that 
"a yellow oak, fifteen inches in diameter," 
had been growing on the top of the mound 
on Noel's place a few years before. If 
that is supposed to cumulate the evidence 
of antiquity, let me say that to-day, growing 
in front of my house is a tree twenty inches 
in diameter which I personally know to be 
only fifty-two years old. All this, it is ad- 
mitted, does not disprove the existence of 
an unknown people, different in race from 
the Indians, and who might have built these 
mounds and afterward completely disap- 
peared, leaving no surviving representa- 
tive and nothing but rude earthworks with- 
out inscription or trace of language to dif- 
ferentiate them from or connect them with 
any other knqwn race. On the other hand 
there is not a scintilla of satisfactory evi- 
dence that such a phenomenon ever did ex- 
ist, at least in Noble county or in the terri- 
tory from which it was carved. 

Among the first real explorers of arti- 
ficial mounds in Noble county were Prof. 

W. P. Denny, formerly superintendent of 
the Noble county schools ; Thomas A. Reed, 
afterward treasurer of the county, and Prof. 
W. B. VanGorder, who was collecting ma- 
terials for his work, "The Flora of Noble 
Count}-." since published. These gentle- 
men, in 1 88 1 -.2, gathered the collection, a 
part of which has been described as in the 
possesion of Dr. Egles in 1895. The en- 
tire collection was at first in the posssession 
of Air. Reed, who still has the greater part. 
Accidental discoveries had before been made 
by persons ignorant of their significance. 
Twenty of these so-called pre-historic 
mounds had been discovered and explored, 
and parts of fifty-six human skeletons un- 
earthed prior to the undertaking of this his- 
tory. Others have since been made known 
to the writer. 


Late in the summer of 1895 Mr. W. A. 
Kuhn, of Albion, told me of the existence 
of mounds and of the discovery of a large 
number of bones, skulls, etc., in a peninsula 
formed by a sharp northeast bend of the 
Elkhart river, in section 16, York township. 
The excavation took place in 1842, Mr. 
Kuhn, then a youth of eighteen years, be- 
ing a participant in the work. An Indian 
trail, deeply worn and running from Lake 
"\Yawassee northeastward toward Mongo- 
quinong, crossed the river at the bend, 
where there was a fording place. A little 
southwest of the point where the trail on 
the Eversole farm crossed the river certain 
peculiarities of formation in some of the 
mounds suggested artificial work and led 
to excavation. The result, as above stated, 
was the uncovering of many human skulls 



and other parts of human frames. On ex- 
posure to the air most of the hones crum- 
bled to dust, but some retained their forms 
long enough to show a physician and anato- 
mist of the party, Dr. W. H. Ninmon, that 
they belonged to a race different from the 
European, and probably to aborigines or 
Indians. Everything about the place indi- 
cated that it was not an ordinary burial 
ground: Together with the great number 
of stone implements of war — arrow and 
spearheads, fragments of hatchets, and war- 
clubs — found at different times in the vicin- 
ity, the trail and ford commanded on either 
side of the riser by morainic bluffs, all told 
of a savage battle of a past century, long 
anterior to the advent of civilized men. 

Here, at this strategic point, the warriors 
of the Denizen tribe, probably the Miami--, 
met the southward advance of invading 
foes, who crossed in the face of strong re- 
sistance and a bloody battle raged on the 
southern bank, the Miamis lighting desper- 
ately for their ancient homes and hunting 
grounds; the fierce northern hordes for pos- 
session of a richer country in a milder 
climate than their own, the sterile and 
stormy north and northwest. Such incur- 
sions are historic. About two hundred and 
fifty years ago an avalanche of Chippewas, 
W 'innebagos, Sacs and Foxes and Potta- 
watomies descended upon northern Illinois 
and Indiana, — the beautiful country of the 
Minnewas, or Miamis, whose ancestral pos- 
sessions stretched from the Scioto to the 
Mississippi, and from the St. Joseph valley 
in southern Michigan to the Ohio river, in- 
habited by peaceful tribes of the common 
Minnewa stock, of whom the Miamis were 
the parent and ruling family, with the capi- 
tal home at Ke'-ki-ow-ga fFort Wayne). 

This mention is made in connection with 
the evidences of a battle at the Eversole 
ford, and is only hypothetical as to the in- 
vading foe. It might have been one of the 
historic forays of Iroquois warriors from 
central Xew York, who more than one in- 
vaded the Indiana and Illinois regions and 
inflicted terrible defeats upon the Miamis 
and Illinois tribes, but never took possession 
of any portion of their territory. The vic- 
torious and desolating hands invariably re- 
turned to their homes in Xew York — the 
motives of their six hundred-mile expedi- 
tions being a thirst for martial distinction 
and glory — or revenge — as in the exter- 
mination of the Peorias in punishment for 
hospitably receiving and aiding LaSalle. the 
great French explorer, the Iroquois being 
deadly enemies of the French. But the date 
of the battle indicated might have been of 
greater antiquity than the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and the invaded people, in condition, 
very different from that of the seventeenth 
century Indians. And again the question 
arises tint of the dark abyss of unknown an- 
tiquity: "Who and what and how were 
they?" If divine revelation were to illumi- 
nate the silent bloom of that oblivion, would 
it show us a vast and beautiful panorama 
of pastoral and agricultural wealth, con- 
tentment and peace; lanscapes lighted b] 
God's approving smiles; inhabited by teem- 
ing, happy millions, under the pure, spirit- 
ual dominion of the love of Christ and of 
His "Golden Rule." dotted with delight- 
ful groves and nestling villages; green pas- 
tures with browsing herds and -'olden fields 
of grain: grand marts of honorable traffic, 
pervaded by the vital spirit of altruism; 
modest temples i f worship on gentle emi- 
nences embowered in immortelles, and over 


the entrances, woven of pure white lilies, 
the fragrant words of this inscription: 
"Sought we first the kingdom of heaven; 
and all these things were added unto us."' 
And while gazing, with eyes suffused -by 
sacred emotion, should we suddenly hear 
the startling croak of the raven of desolation 
and see the awful shadow of oblivion sweep 
over and engulf the scene? 

Guided by all the clews we have, let us 
endeavor to reach a standpoint of logical 
probability from which some gleam of cir- 
cumstantial evidence may penetrate the chaos 
and enable us to see glimpses of something 
more rationally substantial than mere fancy, 
engendered hypothesis concerning an an- 
omalous race, kindred to nobody ever heard 
of in America. 

General Harrison, when Governor of 
Indiana territory — a man of scholarly 
tastes and philosophical bent — bestowed 
great care and research upon the questions 
concerning the Indians under his jurisdic- 
tion. Their known history and most au- 
thentic and rational traditions were studied 
and compared, and in an official report he 
announced the conclusion that all the tribes 
represented in Indiana were immigrants 
from other regions of the continent, except 
the Miamis. He could find no evidence that 
the Miamis had ever been settled anywhere 
else or had removed at any time. They 
were "native to the manor born." All this 
evidence pointed to them as descendants of 
the aborigines, occupying their ancestral 
region, their native soil. Accepting this ra- 
tional view, is there anything eccentric or 
fanciful in assuming that these aboriginal 
people a thousand years ago had attained a 
semi-civilized condition; that this magnifi- 
cent country was densely populated and 

flourishing under the benign influences of 
peaceful prosperity, and steady progression? 
No, for history is full of such examples. 
Further, is it unwarranted fancy to contem- 

j plate them as victims of a series of catas- 
trophes that desolated their fair land ; de- 
stroyed the material results of all their 
peaceful industry and progress ; reduced 
them to the demoralization of abject de- 
spair, nor ceased the work of wreck and 
ruin until only a few remnants of what had 
been a prosperous nation were left — wan- 
dering and aimless mourners amid the deso- 
late scenes of ruin ? No, for true historic 
story is rife with instances of utter national 
wreck and downfall. But absolute, total, in- 
dividual extinction and disappearance from 
the face of the earth — racial death — that in- 

I deed would be phenomenal anywhere, except 
in the airy regions of pure fancy and fiction. 
These demoralized remnants of the 
great Miami nation, resorting to the most 
primitive means of supplying the demands 
of physical existence, we might sav be- 

| came hunters and fishermen — gradually in- 

i creased in numbers and coalesced by famil- 
ies into tribal groups. Forests grew undis- 
turbed and wikl game multiplied. The riv- 
ers and lakes abounded with fishes; the once 

I cultivated fields became clothed with majes- 
tic forests and dense jungles, carpeted with 
the leaf-falls of many hundred of autumns. 

[ The spirit of primitive barbarism resumed 
its sway. Superstition usurped the throne 
of religious faith. The bright past faded 
from the horizon of memory, and the scope 

| of tradition was narrowed and shortened to 
the compass of single centuries. The most 

I prominent and extensive earthworks in the 

I Mississippi valley were mysteries ( if they 

1 regarded them at all) to the very Indians 



whose ancestors constructed them in the 
forgotten period of their glory and power. 
Four or five centuries of progressive decad- 
ence had produced the barbarism that char- 
acterized the same race when the discover- 
ies of Columbus and others introduced them 
to the notice of the civilized world. Never- 
theless a great mystery remains to be solved 
■ — that of the time and nature of the catas- 
trophes that wrecked and ruined the nation 
— and as long as doubt shall continue to 
shadow the origin and consummation of 
the tragedy, so long will the mystery ap- 
peal, not only to the curious spirit of histor- 
ical and scientific research, but to the fra- 

ternal interest of human souls in all beings 
of all the ages, living or dead, who are of 
the sacred kinship of "God-in-man," and in- 
the vicissitudes of their lives and careers. 
The questions, "How fared they on their 
earthly pilgrimage? What were their parts 
in the great drama of human life? may 
never be fully answered. But the humane 
spirit will continue to brood over their un- 
lettered monuments; science will variously 
, translate the language of form, location and 
| relics, and imagination will fondly essay to 
interpret the epic stories chanted by the 
winds that for ages have moaned over their 


Pre-Organic History — Embracing the Train of Events and Influences from 
1535 to 1787, Culminating in the Organization of the Northwest Terri- 
tory of the United States (Noble County Being a Constituent and 
Almost Exactly Central Part of the Territory) — The French and Eng- 
lish and Indian Conflicts and Struggles for Supremacy — Actors and- 
Acts of the Drama of Two Hundred Years — Pre-Organic Settlements 
and Pioneers of the County — Indian Occupants and Their Final Expul- 
sion — Pre-Organic Land Entries — The Dawnings of Civil Dominion. 

Whenever and wherever a race or na- 
tion has arisen and acted — on whatever 
plane, high or low — their career is an act of 
one sublime drama of humanity; the pro- 
jected and undying- influences of their deeds 
and their fate are with us now and ever, 
modifying the march of progress and the 
currents of the stream of destiny. Hence 
the historian is always impelled to seek and 
trace the origin and influences of the remot- 
est events affecting the condition and career 
of the people whose story he essays to tell. 

Noble county, Indiana, is a component 
part of the vast and lovely region known by 
French designation at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century as Xew France, and 
nearly two hundred years later ( 1787) as 
the Great Northwestern Territory of the 
United States of North America: from 
which were carved the five great states of 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 

consin. Very near the geographical center 
of this magnificent empire is situated 


of the territory; a casual fact to which no 
particular significance is attached, but is re- 
ferred to as attracting momentary attention 
in a mental survey. In 1609 this imperial 
region was claimed by France as appurte- 
nant to her possessions on the St. Lawrence 
by the right of first discovery and explora- 
tion. It was the splendid prize for which 
the French and English colonists, aided by 
their respective governments and their In- 
dian allies, contended for a hundred and 
fifty years, in several wars, supplemented 
and connected by an almost unbroken series 
of bloody conflicts and savage forays 
marked by merciless massacre, rapine and 
conflagrations, in which the customary 


ferocity and cruelty of the savages were 

equaled by the wanton fiendislmess of so- 
called civilized white men. 


It is beyond dispute that the French first 
penetrated and explored the interior of the 
St. Lawrence basin and set up the first claim 
to the territory of France. Jacques Car- 
tier, in 1534. after discovering the main 
land of Canada, the straits of Belle Isle, 
posted at the mouth of the St. Lawrence a 
proclamation asserting the French kins, - 
right to the country as sovereign. The next 
year ( 1535) the same Cartier sailed up the 
St. Lawrence to Montreal island on which 
was Hochelaga, a fortified native village at 
the foot of a hill. He ascended the hill, un- 
furled the French flag and again proclaimed 
the title of France to the whole country. 
The hill he named Mount Royal (Mon- 
treal). This was in October. 1535. The 
preceding summer he and his crew had 
spent in trade and friendly intercourse with 
a tribe of Indians at the site of Quebec. The 
principal chief of the tribe bore the name of 
Don-a-co-na. To Don-a-co-na's village the 
French returned after the expedition to 
Hoch-e-la-ga and Montreal, ami spent the 
winter of 1835-6, cultivating the acquaint- 
ance and friendship of Don-a-co-na and his 
Indian subjects. 

In the spring of 1530, after six months 
of profitable traffic, characterized by friend- 
ship and hospitality on the part of the na- 
tives, Cartier, loaded with furs and valuable 
gifts, prepared for his home voyage. His 
ship lay anchored in the broad river near 
Don-a-co-na's village. As Carder's boat 

put 1 'if lor the ship, it was accompanied by 
Don-a-co-na's big canoe, carrying the chief, 
and nine subordinates, or headmen of the 
tribe, all of whom on Cartier' s imitation 
went on board the vessel for a formal fare- 
well ceremony; but Cartier ordered the 
canoe to be set adrift, and the anchor to be 
hoisted while all were in the cabin. The 
ship sped down the river, the Indians were 
imprisoned and carried away captives, to 
France and slavery — as specimens of North 
American savages for profitable exhibition. 

In 1 541 Lord Roberval was appointed 
governor of New France, and came with a 
colony of two hundred persons to the forts 
built by Cartier at Quebec in 1535. They 
passed a rigorous winter there. Many died 
of disease; all were sufferers from the cli- 
mate: the Indians were hostile and trouble- 
some, on account of Cartier's treachery. 
The enterprise was abandoned, and nothing 
more was done in the way of permanent 
settlement for more than sixty years. 

But the symbol of French dominion 
stood at the mouth of the noble river; the 
Fleur de Lis had floated from the summit 
of the "Royal Mountain" in the far inter- 
ior ; French graves marked the soil at Que- 
bec ; and in coming decades the lilies and 
the cross were to reappear — forerunners of 
a tragic finale. 


On the other hand. John and Sebastian 
Cabot had furnished England a ci lor of title, 
in 1497-8. by sighting the main land from 
their decks, and coasting in view of the shore 
from Newfoundland to the Carolinas, fol- 
lowed in 1585 by a colony on Ro- 
anoke Bland, which soon broke up, 



and the settlement and city of Raleigh, 
in 1587. This colony mysteriously dis- 
appeared and was win illy lust. The first 
English attempts at settlement were forty- 
four and forty-six years, respectively, later 
than that of Cartier and Roberval at Quebec 
( 1 54 1 ) and fifty and fifty-two years later 
than Cartier' s visit to Hochelaga and Mount 
Royal. The first actual permanent settle- 
ment by the French was at Quebec, in 1608; 
the first pemanent English settlement was in 
1607, at Jamestown — antedating the French 
one year. They were virtually simultaneous, 
while in beginnings of settlement the French 
were more than forty years in advance; and 
their permanent settlement was a continua- 
tion, at the same place, of their first settle- 


In French contemplation, "New France" 
embraced the whole country, from Labrador 
to Carolina. In English contemplation. 
"Virginia" included the whole, from Caro- 
lina to Labrador. The French were far 
ahead in exploration; they were more suc- 
cessful in winning the confidence and secur- 
ing the co-operation of the native Algon- 
quins. On the other hand the English col- 
onists had powerful allies in the Five Na- 
tions — the renowned Iroquois of central and 
western New York, who were traditional 
enemies of the Algonquins; and as will ap- 
pear hereafter were soon to become inveter- 
ate enemies of the French colonists. Here, 
truly, was ample ground for bitter rivalry 
and uncompromising conflict — a Pandora's 
box of terrible troubles, the opening of 
which must set free the raging spirits of dire 

It is not a little shocking to the moral 

sense of mankind, to note how utterly the 
rights of the native owners and occupants 
were ignored in the early charters, and the 
disposition of the territory of a continent. 
The kings of Spain, France and England 
granted empires to adventurers and com- 
panies. In 1 61 2 the king of France granted 
all North America, from the St. Lawrence to 
Florida to an association headed by one 
Madame de Guercheville. The charters and 
grants of the English kings covered about 
the same unmeasured continental regions. 
From their lofty elevations of self-conceit, 
and so-called "divine" domination, tl ey 
handed down to worthless favorites and am- 
bitious speculators, grants, leases and char- 
ters, disposing without the consent of the 
owner and inhabitants, of an unexplored 

The natives knew nothing of all this. 
Hospitality with them was instinctive. They 
were unsophisticated and credulous. They 
could not entertain suspicion nf the bright, 
good-looking strangers who came to them 
bearing the olive branches of peace and 
brotherhood. They received them in amity. 
In all the traditions, chronicles and histories 
of the very earliest intercourse of civilized 
men with the savages, there is no instance, 
well authenticated, of absolutely unfounded 
enmity or unprovoked violence on the part 
of the Indians. Of course, there were in- 
stances of hostility, for which there was no 
visible open provocation. A course, brutal 
nature will often unconsciously betray itself. 
Civilized garb and social veneering cannot 
always cloak internal meanness. The super- 
cilious-eye; the scornful gesture; the little 
manifestations of aggressive and domine..— 
ing disposition ; the favorite look and con- 
duct ; the suppressed snarl of the caged' 


beast, all unnoticed by busy, pre-occupied 
people, will be comprehended in a dash by 
young children. They read the soul in 
countenance, speech, tones of voice, twinkle 
of the eye. If what they see is evil, they 
frankly manifest their aversion, and either 
cower, or shrink away from the lair of the 
evil spirit or boldly essay to punish and 
drive it out. 

It was so with the Indians — the children 
of nature. There were, inevitably, some 
brutes and beasts of prey among the crews of 
Jacques Cartier, wintering among- the In- 
dians at Quebec, in 1535-6. The Indian 
penetration, quick and clear as that of a 
child, recognized the spirit of meanness and 
aggressive brutality in the soul, through its 
development in the visage; heard it in the 
voice; realized it in little instances of ag- 
gressive selfishness, that would have been ig- 
nored by white and civilized associates in 
contempt. Repulsion, suspicion and fear 
followed; and hostility, intense in propor- 
tion to the degree of sensitiveness of the In- 
dians. Hostility towards whom? Why, 
against both the individual offender and his 
white comrades, who tolerated him on terms 
of guild fellowship — a fact that seemed to 
the savages to indicate sympathy and ap- 
proval. The logical discrimination of "poor 
Lo," in his primitive state, was not very 
keen. Again, intense dislikes without vis- 
ible or rational justification arise, and grow, 
sometimes into violent demonstration, unac- 

' ' I do not like you, Doctor Fell, 
Tho' why it is, I cannot tell; 
Only this I know full well 
I do not like you. Doctor Fell." 


It was natural that the Indians were he- 

coming somewhat hostile, during the winter, 
to the people who had come unbidden among 
them, bringing these exponents of the had. 
and affiliating with them. And when, in 
the spring, their beloved chief, Donacona, 
and the others with him were deceived, kid- 
naped and carried away over the great, 
mysterious ocean, never l" return, the 
simple savages felt justified in regarding 
white men as heralds of calamity — agents 
of mischief and meanness. But, worse than 
all, they were corrupted. The experience 
was an education in evil. It was a lesson in 
treachery. Thenceforward, dealing with 
tlie whites, can we wonder that they accepted 
the standards of the superior race; con- 
founded the wisdom of true diplomacy with 
the deviltry of deceit, and made fraternity a 
clcik 1"' r criminal selfishness? 


The great struggle that involved the do- 
tiny of that portion of the continent known 
as Xew France — Canada and the territory 
northwest of the Ohio — began in the dawn 
of the seventeenth century. The general as- 
pect of the great battle field at that time is 
important and of historic interest. The 
physical geography of Canada, and the great 
basins of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi, 
need not be described; but the inhabitants, 
who figured more or less prominently in the 
mighty drama, cannot be excluded from his- 
toric notice. Their agency in the great a n- 
flict, their vital interests, at stake in spite of 
themselves, and their unconscious influence 
upon the results, render them of peculiar in- 
terest to the people of this region; and that 
interest increases in proportion to the deep- 
ening of the shadow of oblivion that is fall- 


ing over the far past — deepening with the 
lapse of time. 

All the Indians found inhabiting Canada 
and the St. Lawrence and Ohio valleys in 
1600 were of the Algonquin stock, or fam- 
ily, except the Iroquois "True Nations" — 
a confederacy, or republic, consisting of 
five tribal groups, each divided into sev- 
eral tribes, who collectively constituted a 
"nation" — as our several townships con- 
stitute a county ; several counties a state. 
The five tribal groups, associated under the 
confederate title. Five Nations, had in all 
from thirty-five to forty tribes, or an aver- 
age of from seven to eight tribes to a group, 
or nation. In their times of greatest nu- 
merical strength each of the five nations 
could send upon the war-path a force of 
eight hundred warriors. Combined, for a 
supreme emergency, the republic could mar- 
shal an arm}" of lour thousand warriors, in 
five divisions. The original Five Nations 
were: The Ah .hawks, immediately west of 
the Hudson river; Oneidas, at Oneida lake; 
Onondagas, of Onondaga lake and valley; 
Cayugas, of Cayuga lake; and Senecas, of 
Seneca lake. 

They were united in a regular confed- 
eracy, which recognized the independence 
and individuality of each, in its own sphere, 
made as the Union of our states under the 
constitution, recognized the several states. 
Internecine war was prohibited. All tribal 
disputes not involving important interests 
common to the whole confederacy were re- 
ferred to councils of the particular nation 
to which the tribes belong. Treaties, and 
all concerns of common interest, were set- 
tled b\ supreme councils of the whole con- 
federacy at Onondaga, the capital. Wars 
with outside Indians could not be declared 

by subordinate councils ; but if suddenly at- 
tacked, a nation could, and was in duty 
bound, to repel the assailing enemy with all 
the force of the nation attacked, without 
reference to the supreme council — unless 
the means of defense should prove inade- 

Briefly stated, the unwritten constitution 
of this savage republic was a precursor of 
the Constitution of the Lnited States, in 
all the fudemental principles of the latter. 
It was established two hundred years before 
the Federal Union, by savages who prob- 
ably had never seen a civilized man, and 
to whom the political theories of European 
philiosophers were unknown. They had 
never of Plato: they had never heard of 
the democracies of Greece, nor of the Ro- 
man republic. The splendid mirages of 
Utopia had newer greeted their mental vis- 
ion. And yet, their constructive statesman- 
ship was equal in political wisdom to the 
best fruits of modern enlightenment. And 
their personal prowess was equal to their in- 
telligence. All the Algonquins feared them. 
Their renown extended from Canada to 
Florida, and over the New England colo- 
j nies. The_\- held the key to the Ohio and 
! Mississippi valleys. The natural route from 
Quebec, Montreal, etc., was by way of the 
St. Lawrence, and through either Lake 
Champlain or Ontario, if with vessels, or 
by land down (rather up) the great valley 
of those lakes to the headwaters of the Ohio 
and down that stream, which drained the 
whole magnificent region now constituting 
( )hio, West Virginia, Indiana and Illinois. 
But parties of French colonists and settlers 
would have to go through the country of the 
Iroquois, which stretched from the Hudson 
river at the head of Lake Ontaria and 


southward to the mountains of Pennyl- 

Originally the country around the foot 
of Lake Ontario, and between the St. Law- 
rence and Lake Champlain, was occupied 
by the Wyandots, a powerful and ward ike 
tribe, and the country around the foot of 
Lake Erie by the Fries or Erigas. the most 
powerful single tribe of all the eastern Al- 
gonqins; but very early in the century the 
Wyandots had been assailed and scattered 
by the Iroquois; and by the same power the 
proud and powerful Fries, coming into hos- 
tile contact with the Five Nations through 
a dispute with the most western of the na- 
tions of the confederacy — (the Senecas, of 
the Genesee region, and nearest to the 
Eries ) — were almost literally exterminated, 
and had disappeared as a tribe. The same 
fate through the same agency had befallen 
the Andastes. a less important tribe further 
west and southward on Lake Erie, and in 
the country of northwestern Pennsylvania 
and northeastern Ohio. 

Thus, in the beginning of the seven 
teenth century, contemporaneous with the 
first matured and organized scheme of 
French extension of settlement, trade and 
dominion over the Ohio and Mississippi 
valleys, the "Five Nations" of Iroquois 
ruled, the undisputed masters of the coun- 
try, described in general terms as follows: 

Bounded on the north and northwest by 
the St. Lawrence river and Lake Ontario; 
east and northeast by Lake Champlain. the 
Hudson and upper Delaware rivers : south 
by the irregular line of the Alleghany moun- 
tains, including the territory .of the present 
"northern tier" of Pennsylvania counties: 
west by the Niagara river and Lake Erie, — 
covering all that now constitutes the foun- 

dation of the glory and power of the "Em- 
pire State" outside of its imperial city. 

Surrounding the Iroquois confederacy 
were almost innumerable nations and tribes 
of the prevailing class (numerically) of 
North American Indians, the Algonquins. 
From Labrador to North Carolina, and ex- 
tending west to the Rocky mountains, 
swarmed the nations and tribes of the Al- 
gonquins — everywhere in the great basins 
of the St. Lawrence, Mississippi and Ohio 
— the "New France" of the visions of Louis 
and Champlain — swept the turbulent and 
contending hosts of Algonquin people, gen- 
eral animated and agitated by mutual ri- 
valries, and demoralized by internecine con- 
flicts. I can only mention and approxi- 
mately locate the prominent nations and 
tribes directly involved in the struggle for 
supremacy in the northwest territory. 

In Canada, the Ottawas, of the Ottawa 
river and valley, were numerous, brave and 
enterprising. It is probable that Donacona, 
the chief kidnaped by Cartier. was of a 
branch of this nation. Cartier seems to 
have been indifferent or ignorant, and re- 
ports nothing concerning the tribal condi- 
tions or connection of any of the St. Law- 
rence Indians with whom he came in con- 

The Hurons. the noblest and most pow- 
erful of the Canada tribes with whom the 
early French colonists came in contact, in- 
habited the country east of Lake Huron and 
north of Fake Ontario; and it has been stat- 
ed that they had a town on the south divi- 
sion of the island of Montreal. If true, it 
points to the Hockelaga, of Cartier. in 


The Natural Nation, on the northern or 
northwestern shore of Fake Erie, composed 


according to some authority, of tribes from 
other nations that were at war. but contrary 
to the wishes of these tribes on both sides, 
had seperated and established themselves 
in an independent and natural attitude, in 
force sufficient to maintain their position. 
The dates of their secession and independ- 
ent organization are unknown. They were 
said to be peaceful and prosperous. It is 
not distinctively known whether they took 
any part in any of the wars and disputes 
arising from the French and English claims 
and controversies. 

The St. Francis tribe, at the mouth of 
the St. Francis river, and south of the St. 
Lawrence, was a subordinate branch 
of the Algonquins of central Canada, and 
does not figure in separate prominence in 
the beginning of the seventeenth century ; 
but they attained terrible distinction, during 
the French and Indian war, as enemies of 
-the English colonists. In the five years 
from 1754 to 1759 they numbered six hun- 
dred English colonists of the Champlain, 
Vermont and New Hampshire districts, and 
were of more trouble to the English settle- 
ments than any other six tribes. General 
Amherst, after repeated vain attempts to 
conciliate them, finally, in 1759, sent a de- 
tachment of Rogers' Rangers against them. 
The Rangers passed down Lake Cham- 
plain, and from the north end of the lake 
struck across through the wilderness of 
mountains and morasses, marching by night 
to avoid discovery, on the way encountering 
a spruce bog of so immense size that they 
were nine days consecutively marching or 
floundering through — the water averaging 
a foot in depth and being very cold. Reach- 
ing the vicinity of the savage town on the 
St. Francis river, thev observed unusual 

precaution, and stole upon them in the 
night, sleeping, after the drunken orgies of 
a nuptial celebration. 

The surprise was complete, and two 
hundred warriors — all who were at home — 
were slaughtered ; several English captives 
were rescued, and the town was burned. 
Over six hundred scalps of white men were 
found hanging in the lodges. Tt was the 
final, and death blow. The tribe was anni- 
hilated. The next year (November, 1760), 
the war having ended in the surrender of 
Canada and New France to the English, 
these same Rangers, under Captain Rogers, 

; were sent to take possession of Detroit. 

I The fearful struggle was over. Something 
of its horror may be judged from the tro- 
phies found in a single obscure tribal vil- 
lage — the six hundred white men's scalps 
found in the lodges of the St. Francis In- 
dians. Undoubtedly the six hundred adult 
scalps signified the simultaneous massacre 
also of a large number of women and chil- 

| dren and the destruction of scores of homes 
and village settlements. 

The Delawares, at the time of the dis- 
covery, or when the Dutch first settled at 
Manhattan, constituted a numerous and no- 
ble nation — their Indian name "Lenni Len- 
ape" (grandfather of nations) indicated an- 
tiquity of power and title to veneration. 
The seats of the Delawares in 1600 were in 
the valley of the Delaware river, adjacent 
region of Pennsylvania, New Jersey and 
southeastern New York, extending over the 
Catskill and Otsego regions. Cooper's por- 
traitures of Indians were drawn from Dela- 
wares, who lingered in or revisited the Ot- 
sego country long after the subjugation and 
expulsion of the tribes by the Iroquois con- 
federacy. The reader of Cooper's Leather- 



stocking Tales will remember, also, some 
striking' portraitures of Iroquois warriors, 
under the name of Mingoes. The Dela- 
wares claimed to home come from the west 
— but what part of the west was not known. 
In the beginning of the French and Indian 
war with the exception of a band who were 
influenced by the Moravian missionaries to 
abstain from war and bloodshed, the most 
of the Delawares fought against the Eng- 
lish. Later, through treaties, large numbers 
of them became friendly to the English. 
Again, they joined in Pontiac's conspiracy 
— so called — to destroy the English forts in 
the Ohio and Mississippi valleys and Mich- 
igan. The part assigned to the Delawares 
was the destruction of Fort Pitt and other 
forts in that region — the massacre of the 
garrisons, and the settlers for whose protec- 
tion the forts were maintained. The forts 
were invested and besieged, and were about 
to be captured, when the forces under Colo- 
nel Boquet drove off the besiegers with 
heavy loss and relieved the forts. This 
was followed by indiscriminate retaliation. 
in the course of which occurred the fright- 
ful massacre by the whites of nearly a hun- 
dred of the Christian Delawares under 
Moravian teaching. They were entirely in- 
nocent of any participation, either in Pon- 
tiac's plan, or hostile demonstrations, but 
frenzied by the fearful dangers of the situ- 
ation, the whites did not stop to inquire, but 
indiscriminately fell upon everybody who 
was a Delaware. It is said that, true to 
their faith, the devoted people, men and 
women, meekly accepted their fate, and 
with uplifted hands and thrilling prayers for 
the forgiveness of Christ for their murder- 
ers received the blows of the assassins. 
\\ e have been so long accustomed to re- 

gard the deeds of the "red" barbarians with 
horror, as unexampled in fiendishness, and 
to find excuses for much that was evil and 
unjust in the treatment of the Indians by 
the whites, in the assumption that nothing 
le>s than terrorizing cruelty would suffice 
to hold them in check, it is well to pause and 
listen to the voice of true history. It tells 
us of deed-; of outrage and horror commit- 
ted by "civilized" I ?) white men upon sav- 
ages, that are scarcely exceeded in fiendish 
cruelty by anything in the authentic annals 
of savage warfare. Savage ferocity is not 
mitigated, nor less to be deplored, because 
white men have been equally guilty: but be- 
fore arrogating to ourselves the authority 
to pronounce judgment, let us think of the 
Divine condition: "lie that is without sin 
among you, let him first cast a stone," etc. 

After the Delawares had been expelled 
from their homes in the Delaware valley by 
their haughty conquerors, they were dis- 
persed to widely distant points. A tribe of 
them settled on White river in Indiana, and 
became guests and allies of the Miamis. 
They contributed effectively to the troubles 
of the white setlers and the government 
during Washington's administration, and 
participated as an organized tribe in the 
treaty of peace with General Wayne at 
< rreenville, Ohio. 

The Sacs and Foxes, a union of the 
formerly separate and independent tribes on 
the St. Lawrence river, but who had emi- 
grated to central Wisconsin together, and 
at different times participated in movements 
that bore upon the destinies of the North- 
west territory, were of the Algonquin stock, 
though apparently related to the Iroquois in 
some respects, in common with the Chippe- 
ways, or Ojihwavs. At what point on the 


St. Lawrence was located their ancestral 
seat dues not appear from their traditions. 
The early French explorers found them on 
the Detroit river and Saginaw bay, with 
forces united, for defense against the Five 
Nations of central New York — the Iro- 
quois. In their position on Saginaw bay 
and the Detroit they were shielded by the 
powerful Hurons of Canada, and frequently 
acted as allies to the latter in their conflicts 
with the Iroquois. But after the Hurons 
were scattered and almost annihilated by 
their irresistible enemies, the Sacs and Fox- 
es were compelled to flee from their coun- 
try. They fled to the Green Bay region, 
west of Lake Michigan. 

The Chippewas. at the time mentioned, 
inhabited the Manitoulin islands, and the 
countr\" north of Lakes Michigan and Hu- 
ron, and extending to the Mississippi. They 
were warlike, enterprising" and powerful — 
representatives of the highest type of Indian 
manhood. With the traditionally "terrible" 
Dakotas, west of the Mississippi, the Chip- 
pewas were engaged in continued conflict. 
They were said to be of the same ancestral 
stock as the Iroqouis of New York. Both 
had traditions of a wonderful "wise man," 
who appeared mysteriously as a messenger 
from the Great Spirit, and who taught wis- 
dom and maxims of prudence and good pol- 
icy. According to these traditions, it was 
this noble monitor, whose name was Hia- 
watha, who counseled the organization of 
the confederacy of the Five Nations, and in- 
spired them with the undying sentiments of 
brotherhood that kept them free from in- 
ternal dissensions, did unite, and in their 
union became invincible. It was the same 
Hiawatha who went on a mission of peace 
from the Chippewas to the Dakotas. 

In Longfellow's beautiful poem. "Hia- 
watha," is a noble Ojibway (Chippewa) 
youth, a prince of his people, who journeyed 
to the land of the great Dakotas, and wooed 
and won the sweetest and loveliest of their 
maidens for his wife — thus wreathing the 
pipe of peace with the roses of love. 

The Shawnees were rovers. The}- came 
at an earlv day from Florida to the Ohio 
river, and settled on the north side of the 
stream. There, the great Tecumseh. or 
Tecumtha, was born, the son of a warrior 
chief of the Shawnees. They claimed to 
have been, in the south, only guests of the 
Creek Indians, joining with them in some 
of their wars. The Suanee river received 
its name from this wandering tribe, who for 
a time dwelt upon its banks. They were, 
at different periods, on the Susquehanna ; in 
the Wyoming valley: on the Cumberland in 
Kentucky, on the Ohio, and on the Wabash 
in Indiana, where they were guests of the 

The family of Tecumseh moved from 
Florida to the north side of the Ohio about 
the year 1765, when the territory was Brit- 
ish. The Shawnee hero was born there, 
about 1768. Conflict was in the air from 
which he drew the first breath of life; and it 
grew louder and fiercer as his boyhood years 
went on. Within him was a spirit that re- 
sponded in sympathy to the battle sounds of 
the breezes. The spirit of adventure and 
battle — the genius of war and command — 
were not more conspicuous in Napoleon's 
boyhood and youth, than in Tecumseh's. 
Let us recognize the truth, that in the com- 
bined elements of spiritual elevation, intel- 
lectual power, and energy of will. Tecumseh 
was at least the equal of Napoleon : while 
the beckoning motive of his ambition was a 


white-robed angel, in comparison with the 
selfish, despotic Lucifer of the Corsican's 

There is a well-founded opinion that the 
Shawnees were fugitive survivors of the 
great slaughter of the Eries by the Five Na- 
tions, in the first half of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The\" were a branch of the Huron 
nation, who were distant cousins of the Iro- 
quois, as well as the Chippewas. The an- 
cestral lines of both met, it is believed, in a 
common source in the remote past: and the 
Iroquois ( the name bestowed by the French ) 
claimed that their native ancestral name was 
"Hode-no-Saw-nee." The derivation of 
the different forms of modern names — 
Swanees, Suanees, Shawanese, or Shawness, 
is evident. 

The Dakotas, or Sioux, whose wars with 
the Chippewas, and co-operation is an in- 
vasion of the Minneway county (hereafter 
mentioned ) exerted a direct influence upon 
the destines of this territory, were located in 
the country west of the Mississippi and op- 
posite to' the present states of Minnesota, 
Wisconsin and northern Illinois. There 
were several tribes or branches known by 
other names; but the national or family an- 
cestral name was Dakotah. The general 
characteristics of this great nation were simi- 
lar to those of all the northern Algonquins 
— Chippewas, Hurons, Ottawas, Eries, 
Wyandots, Sacs and Foxes, and the collect- 
tion of clans immediately north of Lake 
Erie, called the Neutral Nation — all were of 
the highest rank of Algonquins. in physical 
and mental development, bravery, endur- 
ance, fierce temper and worst disposition. 

The Pottawatomies, whose origin and 
first location on the continent have never 
been ascertained, were once known by the 

French in southern Michigan, whence they 
lied in terrior before the approaching wave 
of some of the Iroquois forays — pn babl) 
that from which the Sacs and Foxes es- 
caped—to the country west of Lake Mich- 
igan, where they were located at one period 
in the seventeenth century — evidently, from 
the location of other Wisconsin Indians — in 
the southern part of the Wisconsin district, 
with the Sacs and Foxes and Winnebagoes 
north of them, and the Illinois and Miamis 
next to them on the south. They were first 
know to white men and described as a some^ 
what vagrant tribe of unambitious and ob- 
scure fishermen and hunters, with little ap- 
pearance of organization or definite purpose, 
and destitute, so far as known, of national 
or family totems (coat of arms) or definite 
traditions. According to the younger Po- 
kagon i who addressed the Old Settlers" As- 
sociation at Albion, in 1X1)4), they had a 
tradition of being a remnant of a once 
powerful nation on the Atlantic coast. What 
pari of the coast has n< t been indicated, nor 
can traces be found of any Atlantic nation 
not otherwise accounted for, nor of any- 
similar name given to a river, lake, or other 
feature of natural scenery, or to any civil 
division of territory, anywhere between the 
Mississippi and the ocean, from Key West 
to Labrador, from the Gulf to Lake Su- 

Pokagon, although son and successi r 1 f 
a chief, and a scholar, could not give the 
English words, or significative in English 
of '•Pottawatomie." If it be true that their 
ancestors came from the Atlantic coast, they 
must have been from some nation on the 
north Atlantic, hearing another name, or 
having been broken up and dispersed before 
the lirM explorations by white men — the 

4 5 


fugitive remnants afterwards penetrating 
westward and assuming, or receiving from 
other Indian nations in the interior a name, 
or combination of names indicative of tem- 
pi irary local habitation, or some tribal char- 
acteristics or customs. The French be- 
stowed the name of "Iroquois" upon the con- 
federacy of tribes composing the Five Na- 
tions — possibly as a name of odium, or evil 
import, or possibly not. Other Indian peo- 
ple called them "Mingoes," as a term of ap- 
probrium. Others named them "Maguas" 
or "Maquas," to convey an evil meaning, or 
as appropriate to odious characteristics. The 
Delawares called themselves : "Lenni Len- 
ape" or men. whose original family was the 
source of all the innumerable host of un- 
adulterated Algonquins ; in other words the 
"grandfather of the nations." 

In some such way and for reasons not 
known, the Pottawatomies may have been 
named entirely different from the original 
nation whence they sprung, and of whose 
destruction they were survivors or remnants. 
It is to be regretted that so little light lies 
upon the origin and early career of the peo- 
ple who inhabited and held exclusive posses- 
sion of the territory afterward organized as 
Noble county, and whose story, more than 
that of any other savages, is appropriate and 
important in a history of the county. 


The several tribes of Illinois and Indiana 
— all related as members of one nation or 
family — the Minnewas — occupied the beau- 
tiful and extensive country from the Scioto 
river (Ohio) to the Mississippi, and north 
and south from Wisconsin and southern 
Michigan and the head of Lake Erie, to 

La Belle Riviere — the "beautiful Ohio." The 
Miamis constituted the original, or parent 
stock, as all spoke the Miami language. The 
great valley of the Scioto, Maumee, Wabash 
and Illinois were the seats of their power, 
and Kekionga ( Fort Wayne) was the capital 
of the principal tribe. They were of the 
Algonquin stock. In their best condition 
tney could have opposed the advance of 
English or American conquest and settle- 
ment armies aggregating from eight thou- 
sand to ten thousand warriors, in defense of 
their homes the graves of their ancestors — 
their native land. For it was their native 

But when the supreme emergency arose 
they had been scattered, humiliated and 
more than decimated by wanton invasion 
and massacre. They were, naturally, friends 
of the French, who had first come in contact 
! with them, and had conciliated them before 
they had any knowledge of conflicting 
claims. Their rights were respected. The 
Frenchmen, trappers, hunters and fur-buy- 
ers who preceded or followed in the wake 
of exploration and fortification made no 
pretensions to conquest, or individual or as- 
sociational "ownership" of the soil. Theirs 
was the idea of tenancy in common in leases 
under a recognized sovereign. It was the 
feudal system, with a loyal priesthood. The 
missionaries in the earliest stages of ex- 
ploration and settlement were good men. 
They were as careful of the rights and priv- 
ileges of the Indians, and as earnestly anx- 
ious to make them happy and prosperous 
as children of Christ's kingdom on earth 
and loyal subjects of a Christian sovereign 
— all for their temporal and spiritual good 
— as they were for the white men among 
them. The Indians saw this spirit practi- 



cully manifested. They saw that the men 
who came among- them freely adopted their 
modes of living; mingled with them; took 
wives from among their maidens, and en- 
tered heartily into their sports and partici- 
pated in their ceremonies — not knowing, 
(if course, that these friendly people were of 
the lower strata of civilization. We can 
plainly see why it was that the Indiana and 
Illinois Indians were allies of the French 
in 1600, and mainly so, throughout the 
great struggle for supremacy between Eng- 
land and France. 


The preceding locations and character 
of the Indian tribes and nations apply to the 
year 1600. It is assumed that the same sit- 
uation, in a general sense, existed during 
the closing quarter of the preceding century 
— from 1575. The expeditions of Cartier, 
and the beginnings of a colony, under 
Lord Roberval — from 1534 to 1541 — 
evoked no light on the general situation, 
tribal names, location and comparative 
.standing of the native nation; these topics 
seem to have been ignored by Cartier and 
Roberval. Nothing was investigated; noth- 
ing was found out on these points. 

The purpose and scope of this history 
dn not require nor permit a search into the 
obscurity of pre-historic times, not an at- 
tempt to trace, by the uncertain class of In- 
dian legend and tradition, the possible or 
probable vicissitudes of the Indian drama 
during the sixty years that elapsed between 
the breaking up and departure oi Rober- 
val's Quebec colony, in 1542. and the re- 
newal of French colonization in 1602-3. It 
seems probable that during that time oc- 

curred the beginning of the rivalry and feud 
between the Hurons and Five Nations 
which Champlain, the governor of New 

France, found existing in 1003. It was 
enough that it did exist, and that it made 
the Five Nations an obstacle in the path- 
way of advancing French colonization and 
supremacy in the Ohio regions. How 
should that barrier be removed? There 
were two ways. Either by making friends 
of the Iroquois, or by crushing and dispers- 
ing them. The Hurons. anxious to see their 
enemies punished and destroyed, and certain 
from their knowledge of their character that 
they would not tamely submit to conditions 
of peace requiring consent to combined 
French and Huron occupation of their coun- 
try even for temporary purposes and pass- 
age, counseled forcible measures and a de- 
scent upon them with power sufficient to in- 
sure their overwhelming defeat. The com- 
bined forces of the Sacs and Foxes, with 
the Hurons and \\ "yandots, under the com- 
mand of Champlain himself and some 
French aids, was planned ; the Sacs and 
Foxes and Wyandots eagerly responded, 
and the formidable array moved forward, 
to descend Lake Champlain and attack first 
the Mohawks, who inhabited that part of 
the country. This was in July, 1609. 


The invaders were met by a band of 
Mohawk warriors, on the west shore of the 
lake (then first discovered by white men, 
and. named Champlain in honor of the gov- 

A fiercely fought battle ensued. The 
brave Mohawks were greatly outnumbered, 
but thev rushed into the fray with the fero- 


city of tigers. The consciousness that their 
foes outnumbered them, and that they were 
far from the aid of their confederates, 
caused not a heart to quail or a step to 
waver. Then, for the first time, Champlaiu 
had an inkling of the character of the Mo- 
hawks as warriors. He was yet to learn 
that it was a fair exhibition of the spirit 
and prowess of the warriors of the entire 
confederacy ; and that against outside foes 
they acted as one. It was easy to see the 
power of a mighty prestige in the individ- 
ual onslaughters of the Mohawks. Their 
face-to-face opponents visibly cowered and 
shrank from personal collision. It was the 
prestige of warriors long accustomed to 
conquer. "Mohawks" was a name of ter- 
ror far and near. It is related in a local 
history of the wars of the Massachusetts 
colonists with the Indians that on one occa- 
sion in western Massachusetts the colonists 
had secured the aid of a band of Mohawks 
in a battle with out numbering savage foes 
who had previously incurred the hostility. 
of the Mohawks; that in the onset of bat- 
tle the cry was raised: "The Mohawks' 
The Mohawks!" whereupon the hostile sav- 
ages gave way and fled. 

But in the first battle on Lake Cham- 
plain the Huron- Wyandots had an advan- 
tage greater than that of preponderance in 
numbers. The Mohawks were entirely ig- 
norant of fire-arms. The muskets of one 
or two Frenchmen were strange and terri- 
ble weapons. They seemed to combine 
the thunder and lightning of the Great 
Spirit. Men were stricken down mysteri- j 
ously, at every awful explosion. It was to 
them a superhuman mystery ; and repelled 
several otherwise irresistible onslaughts. 

The Mohawks were defeated; but not ; 

until so many were slaughtered that the 
Hurons bore away from the battle-field fifty 
Mohawk scalps, to adorn their Canadian 
lodge-poles. The Mohawks retreated to- 
ward their villages on the Mohawk river; 
but they sent back yells of hatred, defiance 
and revenge. The Hurons constructed the 
retreat correctly. They did not pursue very 
far. They presumed that young runners 
were ahead of the retreating warriors, di- 
verging toward Oneida and Onondaga, to 
alarm and rally the power of the confed- 
eracy, ami that two days' pursuit would 
have brought them face to face with the 
Oneidas, and the Onondagas would be cir- 
cling to their rear. They retired, carrying 
their hard-earned scalps and a secret con- 
sciousness that the light of glory was not 
very dazzling on the homeward trail 

This battle with what he learned from 
the Hurons of the character of the Iroquois 
satisfied Champlain that submission, with- 
out compulsion, could not be expected. He 
had attacked and defeated a band of the 
Mohawks. But they were not subdued. He 
had destroyed all hope of amicable relations 
with the confederacy. Was it not good pol- 
icy, by another chastisement, to fully con- 
vince these Iroquois that their interests and 
safety dqaended upon friendly relations and 
co-operation with him and the French gov- 
ernment? He had already taken pains to 
inform himself of the numerical strength of 
the Five Nations, and, to some extent, of 
their attitude toward surrounding tribes. 
He found the fighting strength of the whole 
group to be, in numbers, not more than four 
or five tin insane! warriors, even assuming 
that they might act together; which he 
deemed so highly improbable, judging from 
the experience of other Indians, that it 


might be dismissed from consideration. The 
signal chastisement of one or two tribes 
would terrify all ; or set them to fighting 
each other. They were surrounded by over- 
whelming numbers of Algonquins, who 
were hostile to them. The conquest would 
be easy. He was impatient with the obsta- 
cle of their resistance. The banner of 
France feudalism — the ensign of His Must 
Christian Majesty of France — was un- 
furled, awaiting a clear course to dominion, 
in precedence of the lion flag of England. 

In April, 1610, De Champlain again in- 
vaded the country of the Five Nations, 
leading a carefully picked force of the flow- 
er of Huron warriors. He met with dis- 
aster. His army was badly defeated and he 
was seriously wounded. They were forced 
to fly. leaving behind them many more 
scalps than they had before carried off. 

The following June ( 1610) the Iro- 
quois, too confident of their invincibility, 
despatched a small band ( 100) of warriors 
on a foray into Canada. They were sur- 
rounded by a vastly superior force of In- 
dians and French, under Champlain; and 
preferring death to captivity, nearly all were 
killed. But defeat, even more than victory, 
increased the hostility of the Iroquois to the 
French, and the cause of France in all of its 
aspects. They were not weakened nor dis- 
couraged, but increased in strength and de- 
fiant confidence, and the ugly obstacle to 
French progress loomed larger at the gate 
of the Ohio valley. 


Within a few years from the founding 
of the first permanent settlement at Quebec, 
Governor Champlain had ingratiated him- 

self and the cause of France with the major- 
it)- of the natives of the St. Lawrence valley 
and adjacent region. Through the inces- 
sant and adventurous devotion of the French 
priests, the Cross of Christ was borne 
through the remotest regions, an emblem 
of peace and brotherhood, and its holy sig- 
nificance was everywhere well translated to 
the souls of the savages by the self-sacrific- 
ing zeal, meek demeanor and fraternal con- 
duct of the missionaries. They shrank 
from no toil, nor danger, nor exposure. 
The\- penetrated hundreds of miles through 
the snow-clad and tempest-tossed forests of 
the northern lake region, staggering against 
blinding blasts, laden with snow and ice, 
that, whilst they observed the blaze of the 
northern guiding star, could neither hide 
the light nor chill the glow of the Star of 
Bethlehem in the inmost soul 

The lone missionary, going with savage 
guide to distant habitats of strange tribes, 
cheerfully accepted every unwonted detail 
of privation and suffering. He helped to' 
prepare the rough temporary shelter for the- 
night; and by the light of the pine-knot fire- 
the Indian could see that the noble face was 
glorified from an inner light, when uplifted; 
in prayer to the white man's Great Spirit. 
And lie could, at all times, see the light of 
love, awful in its emanations of friendship 
from the presence, on the countenance of 
his companion. It was a wonder and a 
mystery to the superstitious barbarian: but 
it was a delightful wonder — a mystery 
luminous witli the halo of some inner fount- 
ain of goodness. 

And these zealous missionaries also rep- 
resented the cause of France. The lilies of 
French civil and political dominion were 
wreathed around the emblems of the spir- 



itual kingdom of Christ. It was long lie- 
fore the Indians could consider them apart. 
Champlain — himself a devoted Christian 
communicant — cotild not. The king of 
France, a consummate flower of the system 
of "divine right" and feudalism, was no 
hypocrite in claiming his domination as an 
essential feature of Christ's earthly king- 

In August, 1610, Champlain went to 
France, to arrange with the government 
about the fur trade, and a young Frenchman 
of Quebec went up into the Lake Huron 
country and passed the winter among the 
Indians there. The next May he returned 
with a party of Indians who went to Que- 
bec to trade. Champlain returned from 
France the same month, with supplies, and 
satisfactory terms and conditions of the fur 
trade. He then established a trading post 
at Montreal (the Hochelaga of Cartier's 
visit in 1535), one hundred and eighty 
miles up the river from Quebec, and more 
central and accessible to the tribes of the 
fur-bearing region. Having established the 
post, he immediately returned to France 
and spent the year 161 2 actively promoting 
the interests of the colony. 

In May, 1613, Champlain. returning to 
Quebec, actively resumed the work of fur- 
ther exploration, extension of French do- 
minion, anil founding settlements — making- 
Montreal, more frequently, his point of 
departure. He ascended the Ottawa river, 
and passed the winter in a Chippewa camp, 
north of Lake Huron, endeavoring to verify 
an Indian story of a great river, flowing 
eastward and emptying into the great west- 
ern (Pacific) ocean. He found no great 
river, other than Lake Superior, which 
flowed in the opposite direction. His" ex- 

plorations were not extended westward far 
enough to ascertain whether the Chippewas 
had learned from the Dakotahs of the Ore- 
gon. But he thus made the acquaintance of 
the powerful Ojibwa nation and won their 
friendship for himself and France. 

In 161 5, with Father Joseph LeCaron 
and twelve men, Champlain visited the most 
distant seats of the Hurons — going with a 
band of that nation returning from a sale 
of furs at Montreal. On this trip confer- 
ences were held with distant branches of the 
Huron nation and plans laid for another 
important invasion of the Iroquois country. 
■In pursuance of the plan the French joined 
the Hurons, and a third formidable expe- 
dition moved against the Five Nations. 
The Fries were to support the attack by 
striking the Senecas simultaneously with 
the arrival of the Hurons and French at the 
eastern towns — Mohawks and Oneidas. 
This time the expedition reached the im- 
mediate vicinity of those towns, and some 
unimportant skirmishing took place. The 
Iroquois quietly awaited the onslaught. But 
the Eries did not appear, and no real assault 
was made. The invaders retired. More 
fuel to the fire of Iroquois animosity! An- 
other bar to the barricade against French 


In the meantime. Captain Argall of 
Jamestown. Va., when collecting a cargo of 
codfish at north Atlantic ports, discovered 
some new French settlements in Nova Scotia 
and Maine, just started. The English, it will 
be remembered, claimed the country up to 
Labrador, as North Virginia. The French 
I claimed the same country as part of Canada 


and New France. Argall's party attacked 
and destroyed these new French settlements. 
This was the first act of direct hostility, by 
force, between the English and French. The 
English then knew nothing about the \ 
French-Iroquois conflicts. 


Henry Hudson discovered the '"North 
River" in 1609. the year of Champlain's first 
invasii n of the Iroquois country in northern 
New York, and fight with the Mohawks. 
whose seat was on the west side of that river. 
Holland, on the strength of Hudson's dis- 
covery, set up a claim to the coast and in- 
terior, from Delaware Bay to Maine. The 
Dutch founded settlements on Manhattan 
Island and at the site of Albany in 1613, four 
years after the first fight between Cham- 
plain and his Indian allies and the Mohawks, 
in which French firearms terrorized the Iro- 
quois. The Dutch trading- port at Albany 
soon began to furnish these same Iroquois 
with guns. 

The Five Nations and the Delawares 
both began to trade with the Dutch — the 
Five Nations at Albany, the Delawares 
mostly at Manhattan. But Albany was 
easily accessible to the northern branch of 
the Delawares also, and they resorted there 
for trade. Soon arose the rivalries and 
troubles that led to national conflict between 
these great people. It ended in the subjuga- 
tion of the Delawares, and their expulsion 
from southeastern New York, by the victori- 
ous Iroquois. Some wandered through 
western Virginia and Ohio, joining their Al- 
gonquin kindred and French friends ; some 
settled for a time in western Pennsylvania 
and became converts of the Moravian mis- 

sionaries, and -peaceful Christians. Subse- 
quently, they were massacred in cold blood 
by white men and Indians. A large rem- 
nant of the nation went into Indiana and set- 
tled on White river, where they became 
guests and efficient allies of the Miami con- 
federation. This was long after their ex- 
pulsion from their native seats in New York. 
In the meantime, the everywhere victor- 
ious Iroquois were extending their forays, 
north, west and south, shattering and de- 
moralizing the Algonquin tribes of the 
northwest — especially those most closely al- 
lied to the French. The Wyandots, who 
were connected with the Hurons, were 
driven from their ancient settlements at the 
foot of Lake Ontario, south of the St. Law- 
rence, to become the dependent ,guests of 
their cousins, the Hurons on the east shores 
of Lake Huron. The great Ottawas of the 
central valley of Canada were expelled from 
their native country — defeated, decimated 
and terrorized by the ferocious and irresist- 
ible assaults of the conquering and merciless 
confederates of the Five Nations. They 
were friends of the French, and terribly did 
they suffer for it from the wounded pride, 
the hunger for revenge and thirst for con- 
quest and glory, of the barbarous Romans of 
the New York republic. 

The brave Eries, nearest neighbors of 
the Five Nations on the west, and who 
feared them least, unwittingly invited their 
own doom. Parkman's History of Canada 
gives the substantial facts upon which the 
following account is founded : 


Tushuway, at the site of the present city 
of Buffalo, was the capital of the Eries. 


That of the Senecas, of the republic of Five 
Nations, adjoined the territory of the Eries. 
The latter were scornfully jealous of the 
high distinction and brilliant career of their 
Iroquois neighbors. Seeking a cause for 
tribal dispute and quarrel, the Eries sent a 
messenger to the Senecas, bearing a chal- 
lenge to a game of ball between picked 
players of one hundred on a side, from each 
tribe. The Senecas, loyal to their constitu- 
tional duty, submitted the matter to the 
great council at Onondaga. After mature 
deliberation, the council directed the Sene- 
cas to decline the challenge, which was 
done. Twice the same challenge was re- 
peated, with the same reply. Again the per- 
sistent Eries sent the challenge, with added 
expressions of contempt. This time the 
wounded pride of the young Senecas re- 
volted from obedience to the council, and the 
indignant turmoil was so great that the coun- 
cil relented and gave permission. 

The contest took place at Tushuway, the 
Erie capital, for an immensely valuable prize 
— a large pile of furs, bracelets, beads and 
rich ornaments of silver and copper. The 
contest was close and desperate, but the Sen- 
ecas bore off the prize. The Erie chieftain 
immediately challenged them to a foot-race, 
with ten runners on a side. It was accepted, 
and the visitors were again victorious. 
Choking with anger, the chief of Tushuway 
proposed a final and sinister test : Ten 
wrestlers on a side struggle for the mastery, 
one pair at a time, until the ten falls were 
finished — the vistor in each case to brain his 
fallen adversary with a tomahawk. 

The manager of the Seneca team was a 
middle-aged, experienced .warrior. He gave 
no sign i if bis disgust at the proposition, 
but he called his men apart, held a brief 

consultation and then announced their ac- 
ceptance of the challenge "to wrestle." He 
picked his ten wrestlers, and they formed 
in line, facing their ten opponents. A look 
of sullen determination had settled upon the 
features of the Erie chief, and a menacing 
fire burned in his eyes. The first Seneca 
fairly threw his adversary, but turned away, 
refusing to kill him. Like a lightning flash 
the wrathful Erie chief sped his own hatchet 
into the brain of the fallen man. Twice was 
the awful scene re-enacted, the visitors be- 
ing victorious in the first three falls, and the 
Erie chief killing his fallen kinsman each 
time. By this time his suppressed rage was' 
terrible to witness. The Iroquois manager 
gave a signal and the victorious hundred 
retired from the field and hastened toward 
their homes. 

The vanquished Eries at once prepared, 
for war. The Iroqouis expected and were 
prepared for it. The whole force of the 
Five Nations were quickly mustered and 
went forth to meet the Eries, who were al- 
ready speeding to attack the Senecas. Half 
way between Onondaga and Genessee they 
met. The Eries soon discovered that in- 
stead of the Senecas alone, the warriors of 
the combined Five Nations were upon them ;. 
but they would not yield, and they did not 
retreat. They were surrounded. They 
fought with the fury of demons. All day 
and long into the night the bloody pande- 
monium raged, until the Eries were nearly 
all slaughtered. Not only was the battle ir- 
retrievably lost, but nine-tenths of the Erie 
survivors were butchered. 

Without a pause, the flushed and mad- 
dened victors rushed on to the villages and 
strongholds of their vanquished enemies. 
Frenzied with mericless rage thev stormed 



the defenses of Tushuway, massacred the 
inhabitants who did not escape, and de- 
stroyed everything. So complete was the 
extermination that no nation or tribe bear- 
ing the name of "Erie" was ever afterward 
known. The theory that fugitive survivors 
wandered south, collected in Florida and 
took part of the ancestral name common to 
the Iroquois and themselves, has already 
been mentioned. Under the name "Shaw 
nees," from Hodens-Sawnee, roving from 
place to place, they finally drifted back to 
the neighborhood of their ancestral seat, 
maintaining to the last an attitude of hostil- 
ity toward the English, and afterward to the 
United States settlers. Their hero of later 
times, Tecumseh, exhibited all the strongest 
traits of the Fries in their days of power 
and renown, and added magnanimity that 
distinguished him above all his most heroic 
ancestors. Had the old chieftan of Tushu- 
way been a Tecumseh, no such scene as that 
of the wrestling match and its horrible inci- 
dents could have occurred. 

Nor would the subsequent fatal move 
against the Senecas have taken place under 
the same circumstances. Tecumseh was 
possessed of the genius of broad combina- 
tion and command. Had he been living in 
his prime in Champlain's time, the Five 
Nations would not have been the only con- 
federacy. The amazing spectacle of four 
thousand warriors terrorizing a continent 
and subjugating and destroying contiguous 
nations with aggregate numbers five times 
as great would not have been seen. 

The weakness of the Algonquins was in 
their continual discords and internecine jeal- 
ousies and conflicts. Hiawatha, the tradi- 
tional wise man of the Hod-eno-Sawnee 
tribes, realized this, and he saved his people 

from like misfortune by organizing the con- 
federacy of the Five Nations. 

Had the drama of destiny been forecast 
for a different progress and conclusion — had 
a Tecumseh been the leader of the Eries in 
1600, — who can doubt that the Iroquois con- 
federacy would have been confronted with 
a semicircle of confederated tribes — the Wy- 
andots, Hurons, Ottawas, the clans of the 
Neutral nation. Fries, Andastes and Dela- 
wares — the Eries advanced within the cen- 
ter, — immediately confronting the Iroquois. 
In such case the Iroquois would have been 
powerless to impede the advance of the 
French power. The subsequent efforts of 
the English would have been unavailing 
against the French, backed by the whole co- 
operating strength of the Algonquins, under 
the direction of a leader of commanding 
genius. We have seen that the failure of 
the Eries to attack from the west, as plan- 
ned, caused the failure of the third expedi- 
tion of Champlain. As it was, without the 
co-operation of the Iroquois, the English 
could not have conquered Canada and the 

In 1666 Governor Courcelles, of Can- 
ada, invaded the Mohawk country with a 
force of five hundred men. His march was 
uninterrupted until he had reached the vicin- 
ity of the Iroquois towns. He found an 
ominous quiet prevailing. His Indian 
scouts found and reported a condition of 
fortification, collected force and calm confi- 
dence that influenced him to refrain from 
attack, and he retreated into Canada. 

In 1684 Governor I )e la Barre marched 
into the Iroquois country with a force of 
nearly two thousand men — French and In- 
dians. Finding the enemy too well pre- 
pared, he did not risk an attack at once, but 


solicited a council, intending to impress them 
with the invincibility of the French power 
and incite them to acts of hostility against 
the English. In response to his invitation 
to a council three chiefs of the Oneidas, 
Caegregas and Onondagas visited the 
French camp. De la Barre placed them in 
a circle with his own officers, and, standing 
in the center, he addressed Garangula, the 
Onondaga chief, who was spokesman of 
the Indians. He accused the Five Nations 
of favoring the English, to the detriment 
of the French and their "royal and good 
father," the king of France, and threatened 
to make war upon them unless they should 
alter their policy and behave themselves. 
Garangula heard him with respectful atten- 
tion to the end ; then, after walking three 
times, with great dignity, around the circle, 
he faced De la Barre, and calling him "Yon- 
nondio," and the English governor of New 
York "Corlear," he replied : 

garaxgula's speech. 

"Hear, Yonnondio — I do not sleep, 
my eyes are open ; the sun gives me light. 
I see before me a great captain, who talks 
as if he was dreaming, and thinking Garan- 
gula is blind. He tells me he only comes to 
smoke the great pipe of peace with my 
people, the Onondagas. But Garangula sees 
it not so. He sees the French are tired and 
sick. He sees they are worn out with toil 
of the long and rough warpath. If his war- 
riors were as strong and brave as when they 
started Yonnondio knows he would tell 
them to strike us instead of talking. The 
Adirondacs brought the French to our cas- 
tles. The}- are your allies. The English 
claim our trade. We took them to our 

lakes, to trade there with the Utawawas and 
the Ouatogies. We are born free. YVe do 
not depend on Yonnondio or Corlear. We 
go where we please. We buy and sell as we 
please. If your allies are your slaves, use 
them so. Talk to them. Command them to 
receive no other people hut the French. 
Hear, Yonnondio. What I say is the voice 
of all the Five Nations. They are not 
slaves. When they buried the hatchet at 
Cadaracui (in treaty with the English) in 
the middle of the fort, they planted the tree 
of peace in the same place, to be watered 
and preserved — to keep the fort a place for 
j traders and not for soldiers. Take care that 
I soldiers too . many do not come there and 
trample the tree of peace and prevent from 
covering your country and ours with its 
branches. Our warriors shall dance under 
its leaves, and will never dig up the hatchet 
' to cut it down — unless their brother, Yon- 
i nondio, or their brother Corlear, shall strike 
us in the country which the Great Spirit 
gave to our forefathers." 

De la Barre was enraged — but he was 
: convinced. His soldiers were exhausted. 
He was in a perilous situation, and from 
being a bold accuser now descended to sup- 
plications for compromise and peace Gar- 
angula's speech showed him that the Indians 
fully understood the situation and knew 
thev could destroy his army if they chose, 
and following up the blow by harrassing 
I raids upon the Canadian settlements. He 
j at once adopted a policy of conciliation and 
peace, and was permitted to retire unmo- 

The successor of De la Barre, Governor 
De Nonville, choosing to ignore his prede- 
cessor's peace policy, raised a larger army, 
and invaded the Iroquois district. He was 


ambuscaded, and suffered defeat. This 
was followed up by two successive attacks 
upon Montreal by the Iroquois, and the de- 
struction of several outlying settlements, 
and the slaughter of many people. What 
De la Barre had apprehended, and endeav- 
ored to prevent by his peace policy, now 
actually occurred, under the administration 
of De Nonville. The French colonies, in- 
stead of extension westward, seemed in 
danger of collapse, and retreat from the 
continent. The Five Nations were now in 
a full career of triumphant aggression; and 
had become the invaders instead of the in- 
vaded. In 1689, they captured the town of 
Montreal. But they did not try to retain 
possession, further than to secure a ransom, 
and to impress the French and their Indian 
(Algonquin) allies with a realizing sense of 
Iroquois power; for the Iroquois never made 
territorial conquests nor founded distant set- 
tlements. They never migrated. Their 
warrior bands never tarried in the country 
of a subjugated tribe. It was mainly for 
military glory that they made distant regions 
ring with their warwhoops and the tribes of 
Canada, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michi- 
gan cower and fly before them. They car- 
ried away no prisoners. They exacted trib- 
ute from defeated and terrorized enemies, 
but they established no provinces; they left 
no local agencies. Their trophies were the 
scalps of their victims in the individual 
lodges of their home villages in New York. 
They erected no monuments of victory on 
distant prairies, but carried home — always 
home — their wreaths of glory, and with 
them adorned the sanctuaries of their capi- 
tals and the mystic brows of their genius 
of Iroquois power and patriotism. 


In 16S9, the year of the capture of Mon- 
treal by the Five Nations, war was declared 
between England and France — called "King 
William's War." It grew largely out of the 
disputes and conflicting claims of the two 
governments respecting their American col- 
onies and possessions. Good local adminis- 
tration of colonial affairs was of the utmost 
importance. The French were conscious of 
a lack of practical intelligence and wise pol- 
icy in the administration of Governor De 
Nonville in Canada, and he was recalled and 
Count Frontignac installed as governor and 
furnished with a large and well-equipped re- 
inforcement. Under Frontignac's skillful 
and energetic administration the welfare of 
the colony was reinstated. The drooping 
"lillies" revived and hope once more smiled 
and beckoned "onward." 

Frontignac endeavored to gain the 
friendship of the Five Nations and thought 
he had succeeded. In a great council of 
sachems and warriors called by him at < )n- 
ondaga, he thought he saw manifested a de- 
cided inclination on the part of the Iroquois 
to join him, and in order to give active direc- 
tion to the assumed change of sentiment and 
inspire the still despondent French people of 
the colony, .he planned the memorable 
Schenectady expeditii m. 

Two hundred disciplined French regu- 
lars, accompanied by Caghnewaga Indians, 
set out, and after toiling through deep 
snows, resting and resuming their march 
for nearly three weeks, reached Schenectady 
on the 8th of February, at 1 1 o'clock in the 
night. The surprise was complete. The 
village was burned, sixty persons were in- 



humanly butchered and many perished in 
their flight, naked, through the snow to Al- 
bany. The butchery over, and the conflagra- 
tion in fully destructive career, the French 
retreated, carrying away twenty-seven cap- 
tives. They were pursued by a band of Al- 
bany young men and Mohawk Indians, who 
killed many of the retreating foe. What a 
blood_\- blunder! These Mohawk pursuers 
and avengers were members of the Iroquois 
confederacy, whom he was anxious to con- 
ciliate. He had succeeded in inspiring re- 
newed and increased hatred instead of 
friendship. There seemed to be a sinister 
fatality attending all the efforts of the 
French to conciliate the Iroquois. Garan- 
gula, the Onondaga orator, had warned 
Governor De la Barre not to trample the 
roots of the tree of peace with soldiers, lest 
it should fail to grow and cover the French 
as well as the Indians with its branches. 
.And now Frontignac had been both tramp- 
ling and burning the roots of the sacred tree 
and poisoning the earth around it with the 
blood of slaughtered innocence. 

For seven years the struggle was violent, 
and extended from the St. Lawrence to the 
Mississippi; La Salle, Marquette and others 
had explored the lakes, the Mississippi, the 
Ohio and the Wabash. A chain of missions, 
trading posts and forts had been projected 
to occupy and command the whole "north- 
west ;" French traders, voyagers and priests 
were traveling- the whole region and occupy- 
ing the commanding positions. They every- 
where easily ingratiated themselves with the 
Algonquin tribes and won their affection 
for. and reverent loyalty to, their "great 
French father," who smiled upon them from 
his royal throne beyond the sea and sent 
kind greetings by these white brethren. The 

lilies of France were taking root in the soil 
of a new Bourbon empire; the genius of 
feudal aristocracy ami thraldom of class 
was twining silken fetters for time to harden 
into steel around the wilds of the children 
of the forest. 

But the distant interior of the growing 
New France was not exempt from the perils 
and disturbances of the parent colonies. 
The terrible Iroquois war-whoop sounded 
through the forests of Ohio, Indiana and 
Michigan and over the prairies of Illinois 
from bands of warriors who swiftly trav- 
ersed hundreds of miles of wilderness, fell 
upon French trading posts and destroyed 
them, punished the Algonquin friends jf 
France in the most distant regions and re- 
turned to their capitals, leaving indelible 
traces of their ferocity and a continued sense 
of insecurity and impending danger. 

La Salle, in ]68o, had built a fort at 
Peoria (Fort Crevecceur), where he left a 
garrison under the protection of the Indians 
while he went to Montreal to procure sup- 
plies for continuing an expedition down the 
Mississippi. When he returned the fort was 
in ashes and the garrison was gone. The 
Illinois tribe were scattered and their town 
was in ruins. An Iroquois band had trav- 
ersed the intervening- six hundred miles, 
slaughtered most of the Peorias and French 
and destroyed the fort and village. The 
commandant, Captain Tonti, and two com- 
panions, escaped to Green Bay. 

After the war, in which the French had 
encountered their most effective opposition 
from the Five Nations, they took advantage 
of the peace to forward their design of west- 
ern dominion. Fort Frontignac was erected 
at the outlet of Lake Ontario; two vessels 
were launched upon the lake and Fort Ni- 


agara erected at the entrances. Governor 
Burnet, of New York, remonstrated. He 

saw plainly the design to limit the English 
possessions to the seacoast region. To frus- 
trate that design it was essential to retain 
the alliance of the Six Nations. 

(Note. — This was in 1720. The Five 
Nations had become Six by the accession of 
the Tuscaroras from North Carolina in 
171 j. They were kindred of the Iroquois, 
who had migrated southward and settled be- 
fore the organization of the confederacy).- 

He summoned the sachems to a public 
conference at Albany, to ascertain their senti- 
ments as to the operations of the French at 
Niagara. The effect of the question on the 
chiefs and their answer convinced him that 
any apprehension of favor to the French, on 
the part of the Iroquois, was groundless. 
Their answer was a revelation of sentiment 
even stronger than his own. Parts of the 
answering "talk" of the Indian orator have 
been preserved. Among other things he 
said, with fierce emphasis: 

"We come to you howling. We speak 
in the name of all the Six Nations. We 
howl because the governor of Canada en- 
croaches on our land, and has built on it. ' 


In the prosecution of their plan of domi- 
nation over the entire trans- Allegany coun- 
ty the French were alert, persistent and en- 
ergetic. Flanking the obstacle of Iroquois 
opposition, they entered the Ohio valley by 
way of Lake Erie and projected a chain of 
trading posts and fortifications from the lake 
to the navigable waters of the Ohio, at the 
site of Pittsburg, and laid out an important 
one there, at the junction of the Allegheny 

and Monongaheia rivers, called Fort Du- 
quesne. These menacing incursions into the 
Ohio valley indirectly caused the introduc- 
tion of young George Washington upon the 
stage of action. The state of Virginia, as a 
measure of defense, was divided into dis- 
tricts, with a major for each. Washington, 
though young — just of age, — had highly 
commended himself to the governor and 
other leading men of the colony by his con- 
duct in all relations, and was appointed over 
the district embracing the theater of the most 
conspicuous French aggressions — the region 
of West Virginia and the headwaters of the 
Ohio. He solicited a commission from the 
governor as a sole commissioner to visit the 
French military posts south of Lake Erie 
to ascertain the intentions of the commander 
and request a withdrawal of French soldiers 
from territory claimed as English. He 
made the perilous and toilsome journey, ac- 
companied only by a guide, executed his 
I commission, ascertained that the French au- 
! thorities were determined to pursue their 
line of action and not to withdraw their 
soldiers. A colonial army of about two 
1 thousand men was then raised — to march to 
Fort Duquesne and take possession. Wash- 
ington held an important command in this 
force. On the way they encountered a 
French force under Colonel De Jumonville, 
at Great Meadows, where a sudden illness 
of the English commander had for the time 
devolved the chief command upon Washing- 
ton. He promptly ordered an attack, and, 
seizing a musket, fired the first shot. In 
the fight the Virginians were victorious, and 
De Jumonville. the French commander, was 
mortally wounded. George Washington 
thus delivered the first blow upon the enemy 
in the long, bloody and final struggle be- 


tween England and France for possession 
and supremacy of Canada and the great 


In the final conflict between the colonies 
of France and England and their Indian al- 
lies, Sir William Johnson was a conspicuous 
figure. Originally sent to New York to be 
resident superintendent of an uncle's im- 
mense estate in the Mohawk valley, he had 
established bachelor headquarters in a sort 
of castle in the neighborhood of the tribal 
home of the Mohawks, one of the Iroquois 
Six Nations. He was unmarried, and from 
disappointment in a love affair was self- 
alienated from the society of his aristocratic 
class. Fie turned in disgust from the gilded 
shams and venal politeness of the "cul- 
tured" circles and ingratiated himself in the 
hearts of his savage neighbors. He soon 
became deservedly popular among the Mo- 
hawks, and through them with all the tribes 
of the Iroquois, as a good friend, judicious 
adviser and sagacious leader. He learned 
their language (colloquial) and was benevo- 
lently active in promoting their best inter- 
ests and perfectly honorable and just in his 
dealings with them. He was unanimously 
elected a chief of the Mohawks, and, finally, 
superintendent of the affairs of the whole 
confederacy by the choice of the Indians. 
They named him "W'ar-ragh-ia-ghv." mean- 
ing "he who takes charge of affairs." The 
governor confirmed the choice by appointing 
him general superintendent of the affairs of 
the Six Nations. Alary, sister of the half- 
breed Brandt ( afterward' chief sachem of 
the Mohawks), was installed as housekeeper 
at Johnson's Castle, with a retinue of serv- 

ants. She was a young woman of more than 
the common education, of the middle class, 
superior native intellect, personal grace and 
good sense. Her brother, Joseph Brandt, 
half white-blood, became a distinguished 
war-leader in the confederacy, able and bril- 
liant, but brutal and ferocious beyond even 
the native ferocity of the full-blooded Mo- 


In 1755 Johnson was appointed sole 
superintendent of the affairs of the Six Na- 
tions and their allies and dependents, and 
the British king commissioned him a major- 
general and assigned him to the chief com- 
mand of an expedition against the French 
and Algonquins under Baron Dieskan, who 
had invaded and was holding the Champlain 
region in northern New York. 

With his Iroquois warriors, led by the 
veteran Hendrick. then chief sachem, and 
some colonial troops, Johnson attacked, de- 
feated and routed the invaders near Lake 
George, September 8, 1755. Baron Dieskan 
was killed. In this battle the Mohawks, un- 
der Hendrick. bore a conspicuous part, and 
Hendrick and forty of his warriors were 

Hendrick was seventy years old when he 
led his brave Mohawks in that battle. His 
death was deeply mourned by General John- 
son and all who knew and appreciated him. 
To Johnson it was the loss of an intimate 
friend. Hendrick bad been a very frequent 
and always welcome visitor at Johnson Cas- 
tle, and his visits bad been as frequently re- 
turned. A pleasant story used to be told of 
their friendly intercourse, in substance as. 




Hendrick was at Johnson's house i >nc 
day when the latter was unpacking sever 
suits of fine clothing just received from 
England for himself. Of course, Hendrick 
had the privilege of examining and admir 
ing them, and he expressed the wonder am 
delight of a child. Before leaving he be 
came silent, and seemed to ponder over sorm 
unspoken idea. He reappeared at the castli 
a few days afterward, and after the usua 
friendly greetings, something like the fol- 
lowing dialogue took place : 

Hendrick — 'Ale have good dream. War- 
riaghv. one-two-t'ree time same." 

Johnson — "That was good, brother Hen- 
drick. And what did the Good Spirit show 
you in your dream ?" 

Hendrick — 'Ale see Warraghiaghy in 
my dream an' he hoi' up nice coat and 
breeches, an' he look so kind and good, and' 
hoi' em out to me an' say, Hendrick. take 
urn. brother." 

Johnson, well knowing the Indian super- 
sitition about impressive dreams thrice re- 
peated, without hesitation brought one of 
the new suits and presented it to Hendrick, 
who was profuse in his profession of grati- 
tude and pleasure in this delightful confii- 
mation of his faith in such good dreams. 

It is related that Johnson soon afterward 
told Hendrick that he also had a strange but 
pleasant dream that was very bright and 
clear and was ever before his eyes, even when 
he was awake. Hendrick was curious to 
know the nature of his friend's dream and 
Johnson thus described it : 

'Mv dream : 


red me a bright morn- 

ing. The sun was shining clear, and smiled 
kindly as he cast his gifts of glory and 
beauty through the air and down over the 
wide forests and laughing waters. The big 
trees wore crowns of golden light; the 
birds fluttered and sang through the leaves; 
the sky was blue and pleasant ; the air was 
fresh and sweet. The Great Spirit smiled 
blessings on the earth. 1 heard a voice call- 
ing: 'Warriaghaghy.' 1 looked, and saw my 
brother Hendrick standing on yonder hill- 
to]), beckoning to me. I answered and 
climbed to his side, and Hendrick. standing 
there in the bright morning, pointed to the 
wide woodland between the hills and the 
river on the farther side — eight arrow- 
flights wide and sixteen long, with the big 
creek winding through to the river. — and 
as he pointed he looked good, and turned his 
kind face to me and in a voice of music: 
'Warriaghiaghy, take um, brother.' " 

For a moment Hendrick was dazed. 
The tract described was about six hundred 
acres of bottom land, well timbered and wat- 
ered and finely situated. But he faithfully 
confirmed the dream and ceded the land to 

Johnson, with his Iroquois braves, did 
signal service for the English cause during 
the war. He led a thousand warriors and 
provincial recruits and captured the French 
fort at Niagara, in 1759, and cut to pieces a 
force sent to relieve the garrison. They 
were with General Amherst's expedition in 
1760. and were present at the surrender of 
Montreal when the entire Canadian terri- 
tory and Xew France were given up to the 
British. The formal transfer was made in 
the treaty of Paris, in February, 1703. 

The vision of a "Xew France" had 
faded, and in its place beamed the yet form- 


less glory of the coming reign of freedom. 
The pioneer agencies of the Old and New- 
had joined in battle for supremacy at Lake 
Champlain in 1609, when the French super- 
intendent and his Algonquin allies invaded 
the country of the Iroquois. Unconsciously, 
but effectively, the latter had been for a hun- 
dred and fifty- four years champions of a new 
era, which was now dawning. Equally un- 
conscious, the Algonquin tribes had clung to 
a failing cause. The conflict left them weak 
and demoralized, without independent pres- 
tige, destined victims, to 1 be crushed beneath 
the chariot wheels of an impetuous progress- 
ion, and able only to stain the future with 
blotches of pitiful, unavailing tragedy. 


After the destruction of the Hurons the 
most powerful allies of France were the Ot- 
tawas, inhabiting southeastern Michigan, 
western Canada and the northwest corner of 
•Ohio. Their chief was Pontiac. whose re- 
markable power as a leader, politician and 
statesman are already historic and need not 
to be retold. He first became famous as an 
efficient French partisan, and was an im- 
placable enemy of the English, as well as 
their victorious allies, the Iroquois. He 
viewed with disgust and indignation the 
vanishing insignia of the French rule and 
the advance of an unfriendly power. From 
friends to enemies — from sympathetic 
brothers to haughty masters, — the change 
was too much to be tamely endured. And 
Pontiac did not despair. The surrender at 
Montreal might not mean irreparable and 
final loss. A great blow, that would stag- 
ger the British power, might renew the hopes 
of France and recall her fleets and armies 
to the recovery of her dominion. 

Thus, probably, reasoned the great chief. 
He did not understand the lesson of a hun- 
dred and fifty years of unsuccessful effort — 
of unavailing employment of all available 
means. In one sense his sagacity was true. 
The change was pregnant with misery for 
the Indians from their standpoint. The ag- 
gressive, self-assertive industrial and politi- 
cal enterprise of the Anglo-Saxon, pushing 
for material wealth and political liberty — ■ 
imperatively shouting "Get out of my way!" 
and ruthlessly tearing down all barriers in 
his pathway — was not manifest in the char- 
acter of the French colonists ; it was not the 
spirit of France, but it was the genius of the 
coming dominion, and to the clear vision of 
Pontiac it foreshadowed the destruction of 

I the Indian tribes and the ruin of their coun- 
try for them. 

Results have been for more than one 
hundred and thirty years, and still are, vin- 

1 cheating his apprehensions. The manner m 
which he faced the peril has usually been de- 
scribed as Pontiac's "conspiracy." The 
sinister word "conspiracy" is copied for his- 
torical identity, but not so ought Pontiac's 
plan and its execution to be characterized. 
Pontiac's plan was to arouse to concerted 
action all the Algonquin tribes of the ter- 

j ritorv menaced by hostile invasion, and, on 
a day appointed, to surprise and destroy all 
the British forts commanding and protect- 
ing the existing and projected lines of set- 
tlement in western Pennsylvania, southwest- 

j ern New York, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana 
and Illim >is. This gigantic scheme involved 
the simultaneous capture and destruction of 
the flirts and garrisons of Presque Isle, Le 
Boeuf. Venango, Pitt, Sandusky, Detroit, 
Mackinaw, St. Joseph. Miami (Fort 
Wayne") , Ouatenon and Vincennes. situated 



mi lines thirteen hundred miles in extent. 
This was to be followed up by driving all 
the English settlers out of the territory or 
exterminating them, but no French man, 
woman or child was to he knowingly in- 

Such, in substance, was Pontiac's mas- 
terly scheme for the defense of the Indian's 
birthright and the protection of his country- 
men, as he viewed it. Less able and com- 
prehensive planning has often been lauded 
as brilliant generalship and statesmanship, 
and when prosecuted with motives such as 
Pontiac's — whether successful or not — have 
entitled the projector and actor to admira- 
tion and gratitude as a hero and patriot. 
Why call Pontiac a "conspirator?" The 
term is inapt and unjust. 

The energy displayed by Pontiac in pre- 
paring for the execution of his great design 
was wonderful. He succeeded in inspiring 
the tribes over a wide extent of country with 
the hope that by the execution of his plan 
they could save their hunting-grounds and 
homes. The Chippewas, Ottawas, Potta- 
watomies. Sacs and Foxes, Miamis, Shaw- 
nees, Menominees, Wyandots and parts of 
other tribes agreed to- co-operate, and in 
April, 1763, Pontiac called a great council 
of chiefs and warriors and addressed them 
in a long and eloquent speech. The plan of 
the campaign was approved unanimously, 
and in May and June, 1763, three months 
after the cession of New France to Great 
Britain, nine of the forts named were sur- 
prised and captured and their defenders 
killed. Detroit, where Pontiac commanded 
in Person, and Fort Pitt, which was re- 
lieved by the timely arrival of Colonel Bo- 
cpiet's company, were saved. 

Pontiac continued the siege of Detroit 

until the interference of the Six Nations be- 
came imminent. The great chief was finally 
convinced that their French father had 
abandoned them, and he sullenly submitted 
to necessity, threw down the hatchet and re- 
tired, heartbroken, to his home on the Mau- 
mee. Here he lived retired for nearly six 
years. In April, 1709, he visited his friend 
St. Ange, French commandant at St. Louis. 
While there he visited an encampment of 
Illinois Indians on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi, and was killed by a drunken Indian 
who was bribed by a British trader to do 
the deed. He was stealthily followed and 
stabbed in the back. A small party of Ot- 
tawas there claimed the Indian right to kill 
the murderer. The Illinois tribes interfered, 
and took the assassin under their protection 
and a fight arose. The Ottawas -were com- 
pelled to flee for their lives, but they dis- 
patched swift messengers to all tribes of the 
northwest, north and east, with the news and 
called for a general uprising for revenge. 
A thrill of horror ran through all the tribes 
who had participated in Pontiac's efforts to 
save the country. Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Canada and northwestern Ohio echoed with 
fierce cries for revenge, accompanied by in- 
stant action. 

From north, east and northeast through 
the shadowy aisles of the forest and across- 
the vistas of the openings dusky forms with 
gleaming eyes and fiendish faces sped to- 
ward the rendezvous of retribution. The 
avengers of Pontiac paused not to discrimi- 
nate. The shock of the onset was felt in 
every Illinois village. Carnage reigned over 
all the prairies, reddened the rivers and 
blotched the green of the beautiful groves. 
Pontiac's murder was awfully avenged. 
The confederation of Illinois tribes was vir- 



tually destroyed. A few wretched remnants 
only were left, and the avengers themselves 
were sadly weakened by the terrible strain. 

clark's expedition. 

During the Revolutionary war the most 
important event bearing directly upon the 
destiny of the "northwest" was the conquest 
of the territory by Colonel George Rogers 
Clark, at the head of a small force of special 
recruits raised in the name and by the au- 
thority of the state of Virginia. The enter- 
prise was conceived, urged and successfully- 
carried out by Clark, who had great diffi- 
culty in first obtaining the consent and co- 
operation of the authorities. The history of 
those wonderful expeditions, their incidents 
and results, are matters of history. It ele- 
vates Colonel Clark to a high position among 
the heroes of the world and crowns all the 
men of his little band with honor in the 
memories of their countrymen. They 
saved the northwest to the United States 
by conquering it from Great Britain — a 
magnificent accomplishment, that would 
have reflected glory upon an army under 
commanders of renown if viewed from the 
standpoint of developed consequences. But 
the feat had been rendered possible by the 
influences of the train of events of one hun- 
dred and seventy preceding years, which had 
culminated in the domination of a power 
whose possession was contrary to the wishes 
of, and whose rule was hated by, both the 
Algonquin Indians and the French settlers 
who occupied the country. 

Colonel Clark's first expedition, in 1778, 
was successful at both Kaskaskia and Vin- 
cennes without bloodshed. He had only to 
convince the French and Indians that he was 

acting against Great Britain as representa- 
tive of a new power and that their former 
French rulers were in sympathy with the 
new power and aiding it. Lafayette was 
fighting by the side of Washington. France 
was contributing money and men to the 
cause of the United Colonies and had en- 
tered into alliance with them against the 
English. The triumph of that cause, Colonel 
Clark represented, was assured. The Amer- 
ican States would soon be acknowledged by 
the world as sovereign over all this region 
and British power would disappear. The 
true nature of the situation and of his mis- 
sion once made clear, Colonel Clark, in 
August, 1778, had little difficulty in secur- 
ing the willing allegiance of the French resi- 
dents of Kaskaskia and of the Indian chief 
in the neighboring country. The French 
priests secured the allegiance of the inhabi- 
tants of Vincennes. town and country, and 
Clark sent Captain Helm to take charge of 
the post. The British governor of Vin- 
cennes post was absent at Detroit when this 
renunciation of British autthority occurred. 
The state of Virginia proceeded to organize 
the whole country under the name of "Illi- 
nois County, of Virginia." 

But the British governor, Hamilton, in- 
terfered with this peaceable transfer of 
allegiance and title. From Detroit he de- 
scended upon Vincennes with an army of 
regulars and Indians numbering five hun- 
dred. Of course it would have been suicidal 
to attempt holding the fort against such a 
force, but the bravery and coolness of Cap- 
tain Helm did not desert him. The English 
force came on without interruption or ob- 
stacle. When within plain sight and hear- 
ing distance of the gate they were greeted 
with a loud and stern command to "halt.'' 



The gate was open, a cannon was mounted 
in the entrance, bearing directly upon the 
front of the advancing column, a man stood 
ready to apply the match, and beside the gun 
stood Captain Helm, whose voice had just 
shouted "halt." The rest of the garrison 
(so thought the British) were concealed. 
Ceneral Hamilton ordered a halt of his col- 
umn and, addressing Captain Helm, de- 
manded the surrender of the fort. Helm 
promptly answered: "No man shall enter 
here until I know the terms." 

Hamilton, convinced that his men would 
receive the contents of the cannon at short 
range if they moved, and supposing the dis- 
charge would be followed by a determined 
sortie from the concealed forces of the gar- 
rison, causing considerable loss of life, 
offered the honors of war if they would 
quietly surrender. Helm agreed to that, 
and Hamilton formed his lines to receive 
the outmarching garrison with the custom- 
ary militry courtesies, when lo! — to the in- 
tense astonisment and chagrin of the Brit- 
ish commander and his men, out came Cap- 
tain Helm and private Henry, marching in 
good style down between the lines — two 
men. all told — capitulating with the honors 
of war to rive hundred ! General Hamilton's 
conservative conduct and respect to prin- 
ciple hardly deserved the humiliation, but 
there had been no deception, and Helm did 
the best he could — he surrendered his entire 
force ! 

Here, it may be remarked, had the 
settlers and Indians been in sympathy with 
the British cause no such surprise would 
have been possible, for Hamilton would 
have been informed of the actual strength 
of the garrison. And in the first place, had 
the Indians not been decimated, weak and 

disheartened, as before suggested. Clark and 
his little company would have been prison- 
ers or slaughtered before they reached Kas- 

This recapture of Vincennes put Clark 
in a perilous dilemma. The line of hostile 
domination through the center of Virginia's 
new "Illinois County" was certain to he 
formidably strengthened by reinforcements 
within a few weeks at most. The situation 
demanded instant action to recover the post 

; or abandonment of the enterprise. Supplies 
for the movement, guarded by an important 
part of his forces, had to go around by way 
of the rivers and were on the way. but the 
emergency forbade waiting for the boats. 
They must immediately attempt the recov- 
ery of the post by the few men left march- 
ing across the country from Kaskaskia. The 

I whole intervening country was flooded. In 
the valleys of the Great and Little Wabash 
rivers it was deeply flooded; boats could not 
be used for transporting men or provisions 
before reaching these deeply-flooded dis- 
tricts, and there were no means for trans- 
ferring them overland. The little army 
must wade through those winter floods by 
the shortest route, without prospect of sup- 
plies, shelter or rest, except in the speedy re- 
capture of the post. But Clark was indom- 
itable; his men were of similar spirit. Then 
followed that almost hopeless undertaking, 
that march of floundering and plunging 
through the chilling waters in February, 
1770,, often immersed to their throats, weak 
and exhausted ones held up and helped 
along by the stronger while on their way to 
attack and capture a well-garrisoned Brit- 
ish fort in order to save and secure to their 
country the wide and fertile region that was 
to become its chief glory. They might not 

6 4 


have foreseen the magnificent development 
of after times, but they did see and feel that 
the perilous undertaking was in their coun- 
try's cause, and for the sake of freedom 
the}- succeeded. The imperial "northwest" 
became Virginia's. Her title she afterward 
transferred to the Union by act of cession, 
and the territory was organized with condi- 
tions that will forever illuminate the upward 
course of progress with a benignant glory 
akin to that which once o'er Bethlehem di- 
vinely shone. "Honor to whom honor is 
due." The spirit that sustained those 
drenched forms, the inspiration burned in 
the souls of the humble heroes of that march 
and conquest were vital influences in the des- 
tiny of the empire they won and saved for 
Freedom. The Ordinance of 1787, the 
basis of the constitution of all the states sub- 
sequently carved out of the great northwest, 
besides prohibiting slavery provided for 
popular education by liberal donations of 
public lands for the maintenance of common 
schools. Freedom and education stepped 
hand in hand to the front, and the great 
work of settlement and ' civilization com- 
menced, in the face of formidable difficulties 
and dangers. Great Britain relinquished her 
title, but the savage owners and occupants 
of the soil remained, and neither the fears 
nor the policies of Pontiac were forgotten. 


At the close of the Revolution and for 
many years afterward no particular locali- 
ties, no minor divisions, were contemplated 
in discussions or acts concerning the North- 
west Territory. It was viewed as a vast 
unit. And even after Indiana Territory was 
separately organized the northern parts were 
not identified bv reference to subdivisions. 

such as counties, townships, etc. There 
were no organized and separately identified 
localities north of Fort Wayne, nor were 
there any localities identified by name south 
of Detroit and the route through to the site 
of the present Chicago, except 'an occasional 
Indian village or French mission. Hence 
the impossibility, now when all contempo- 
raries are dead, of determining whether an 
event that might be historical in a general 
I way occurred within the present limits of 
Noble county or not. 


The Indians inhabiting northwestern In- 
diana, especially the Noble county district, 
at the time of the first settlement by white 
people and long before, were of the Algon- 
quin stock and the Pottawatomie nations. 
Individuals of other tribes undoubtedly were 

j among them — Ottawas, Shawnees, Miamis, 
etc. The Miamis were naturally more 
numerous than any other people besides the 

I Pottawatomies, for the Miamis were the 

I aboriginal possessors of the country and had 
permanent possession of the regions south, 
at Fort Wayne, in the Whitley and southern 
Kosciusko territory. On the question of 

1 aboriginal ownership, 


To the War Department, in 1814, says: 
"The Miamis are the undoubted proprietors 
of that beautiful country which is watered 
by the Wabash and its branches, and there 
is little doubt that their claims extend as 
far east as the Scioto. They have no tradi- 
tion of removing" from any other part of the 
country; whereas all the neighboring tribes 
— the Piaukeshaws excepted, who are a 
branch of the Miamis — are either intruders 



upon them or have been permitted to settle 
in their country. The Wyandots emi- 
grated first from Lake Ontario, and subse- 
quently from Lake Huron, the Delawares 
from Pennsylvania and Maryland, the 
Shawnees from Georgia, the Kickapoos and 
Pottawatomies from the country between 
Lake .Michigan and the Mississippi, the Ot- 
tawas and Chippewas from the peninsula 
formed by lakes Michigan, Huron and St. 
Clair and the strait connecting the latter 
with Lake Erie. 

"The claims of the Miamis were 
bounded on the north and west by those of 
the Illinois confederacy, consisting originally 
of five tribes, called the Kaskaskias, Caho- 
kias, Peorians, Michiganies and Temorias, 
all speaking the Miami language, and were, 
no doubt, branches of that nation. When I 
was first appointed governor of Indiana Ter- 
ritory ( 1800) these once powerful tribes 
were reduced to about thirty warriors, of 
whom twenty-five were Kaskaskias, four 
Peorians and a single Michiganian. There 
was an individual lately at St. Louis who 
was an enumerator of the five tribes, which 
was made by the Jesuits in 1745, making the 
number of their warriors four thousand." 

From four thousand to thirty in fifty-five 
years? The Cahokies and Tamorias anni- 
hilated, and of the Michiganian warriors 
only one left. Such terrible destruction im- 
plied some awful catastrophes: and such 
there had been; 


Major Thomas Forsyth, who resided 
for nearly twenty years among the 
Sacs and Foxes, is quoted in Drake's 
history as follows: "Mure than a cen- 

tury ago (he was speaking in 1836) 
all the country from above Rock river 
down the .Mississippi to the mouth of 
I the Ohio, up the Ohio to the W&bash, up 'the 
Wabash to Fort Wayne, down the Maumee 
and thence to the St. Joseph and Chicago, 
also the country south of the Des Moines 
and north of the Missouri, was inhabited by 
a numerous nation of Indians who were 
called 'Minnewas,' divided into several 
I bands, inhabiting different parts of this ex- 
i tensive region — Michiganies, Cahokias, Kas- 
I kaskias, Tamarios, Piankeshaws, Weas, 
Miamis and Mascoutins. All spoke the lan- 
guage of the Miamis. These tribes of the 
Minnewa nation were invaded by the Sacs 
and Foxes, the Sioux, the Chippewas, Ot- 
tawas and Pottawatomies (from the lakes), 
and the Cherokees and Choctaw s. The war 
continued many years, and the great nation 
of the Minnewas destroyed, except the 
Miamis and the Weas, of whom a few were 
left — of the Miamis the most." 

The Miamis constituted the parent stock. 
And as General Harrison found no tradition 
of their having migrated from any other 
part of the continent, it is probable that they 
were aborigines. The other tribes men- 
tioned by Major Forsyth in Illinois and 
spreading over into the country south of the 
Des Moines, all of whom spoke the language 
of the Miamis. were branches of the latter, 
and altogether constituted the Minnewa na- 
tion, inhabiting the whole broad and beauti- 
ful region from the Scioto river to the Mis- 
sissippi and from the south end of Lake 
Michigan to the Ohio. 

In 1745 the Illinois and Iowa tribes had 
been driven by the northern and southern in- 
vasion away from the Mississippi and to- 
ward the east, toward the central position of 



the parents stuck — the Miamis. They had 
formed a confederacy for mutual defense 
against the invaders. The Mascoutins of 
the prairies had heen entirely broken up as 
a distinct tribe, and the Illinois confederacy 
was formed of five tribes. The Michiganies 
and Temorias had been forced into the 
northern Indiana districts and occupied the 
northern parts of the Miami possessions, 
the Peorias, Cahokias and Kaskaskias had 
been driven eastward, and thus the chain of 
the Illinois confederacy, reaching from be- 
low Vincennes along eastern Illinois and 
around through northern Indiana. constituted 
the situation described by General Harrison 
in saying that "the claims of the Miamis 
were bounded on the north and west by those 
of the Illinois confederacy, consisting orig- 
inally of five tribes.'" This referred to 1745 
•or earlier, at which time the confederacy 
could muster four thousand warriors. 

But the terrible war of invasion went on. 
The fierce hordes of the north coveted the 
more genial climate and the better hunting 
grounds of the southward regions. Slaugh- 
ter and dispossession continued until the Illi- 
nois confederated tribes were virtually anni- 
hilated. The Sacs and Foxes had usurped 
northern Illinois, the Cahokias and Temor- 
ias had been destroyed or scattered, the Pe- 
orias reduced to four warriors, the Kaskas- 
kias to twenty-five, the Michiganies had but 
one warrior, the Miamis were decimated 
and demoralized and the Pottawatomie in- 
vaders took possession of the northern and 
western parts of the Miami country, includ- 
ing Noble county. The possessions of the 
Sioux were greatly extended southward by 
the invasion, the Sacs and Foxes extended 
their territory, the Chippewas were relieved 
from the pressure of surplus population — 

the Kickapoos, Pottawatomies and Ottawas. 
Immense advantages were gained by the in- 
vaders, all around, but the gain was the 
blood-stained fruit of trespass, rapine and 

And this was how the Pottawatomies 
came to lie occupants, claiming to be owners 
of the Elkhart, St. Joseph and Kankakee 
valleys. Their title was that of deliberate 
invasion and conquest, possibly afterward 
confirmed under compulsion by the native 
Miamis. The Pottawatomies also claimed 
large tracts of territory southwest. New- 
man's cyclopedic "America" tells of terrible 
slaughter of the Piankeshaws by the Potta- 
watomies in 1801. This, undoubtedly, was 
in pursuance of a policy of armed conquest, 
which seems to have been as natural to the 
savage nations of North America as to the 
civilized ( ?) nations of Europe. 

The situation with respect to the Indians 
at the organization of the Northwest Terri- 
tory, so far as the western Ohio and the In- 
diana regions were concerned, was generally 
the same as when Pontiac retired. During 
the Revolutionary war such distant regions 
received but little attention. What trans- 
pired among the western Indians was un- 
known. Rumors of savage internecine strife 
in the vast forests and on the great prairies 
of the distant interior were unheeded. The 
tragedy of the overthrow and extinction of 
an Indian nation would not arrest general 
attention among people who were themselves 
fighting to the death for rights which were 
ancestral for generations. The great north- 
ern irruption into Illinois and Indiana, and 
the conquest of a country so far away by 
one set of barbarians from another, even if 
known, was not recognized as affecting the 
interests of the eastern colonies. 



The dreaded Iroquois, instigated 1>\ mo- 
tives of revenge and ambition and some- 
times as agents of white cupidity, made fre- 
quent incursions and inflicted severe injur- 
ies upon the Algonquins, and in Indiana a 
loose confederacy had been formed for de- 
fense. Parties to it were the Miamis, Potta- 
watomies, Ottawas, Delawares, Wyandots, 
Weas, Piankeshaws and Shawnees, with 
some still recognized fragments of other 
tribes. This confederacy bad the name of 
the central and native tribe, and was called 
the Miami confederacy. It was not a sys- 
tematic union, like that of the Iroquois, and 
did not prevent internal strife. After their 
submission to the British, in 1766. they were 
quiet until the war of the Revolution, except 
as among themselves. In the border war- 
fare in Ohio and Pennsylvania the Shaw- 
nees, Delawares, Pottawatomies and Ot- 
tawas, in parties, took active part against 
the colonial settlers. They were included in 
the catalogue of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence as "the merciless Indian savage" 
whom the king let loose upon the frontier 
settlements. In such raids the Shawnees 
were most active, the Ottawas and Potta- 
Avatomies next. At the defeat of General 
Harmar's force, in 1790, it is probable that 
most of the tribes mentioned were repre- 
sented somewhat numerously. This defeat 
of the American militia and regulars was 
more disastrous than was apparent in the 
immediate material loss. It encouraged the 
Indians, and there were not wanting the art- 
ful suggestions of the British agents and 
commandants of forts. They pointed out 
the weakness of the new power as compared 
with that of the British government, saying 

in substance to the chiefs: "You see the 
difference. When you were all united and 
led by the great Pontiac seventeen years ago 
you tailed to drive us nut. You were com- 
pelled to submit and bury the hatchet. It 
was because you were wrong. This country 
is rightfully under the guardianship of our 
king; not to take it away from your fam- 
ilies and tribes, but to superintend and see 
that right and justice is done among you; 
to protect the weak against the strong; to 
maintain peace and order among you and 
help you to become prosperous, so that in 
our dealings your prosperity sin mid result 
in mutual benefit to you and to the king. 
But these rebels, who have turned against 
their king, want to rob you of your lands 
and bouses and drive you out. You have 
seen that because you resented their tres- 
passes they sent an army t< ■ destroj you. 
Did they succeed? No; you defeated Har- 
mar's men. They were weak because they 
were wrong. You were strong and brave lie- 
cause you were right. Why do they not 
drive us out of our forts if the country is 
right full_\- theirs? You see they do not. 
1 tiey dare not. They are a uiscious that they 
have not fulfilled the treaty which their king 
made with them. They are trying to get 
these lands without doing as they agreed. 
But they are too weak, and dishonesty 
makes them cowards." 

A fruitful source of evil inspiration for 
the savages was Fort .Miami, on the Mau- 
mee. still held by the British. Colonel Mc- 
Kee, the superintendent, was especially in- 
dustrious in fanning the flame of hostility. 
Seven years bad passed since the treaty of 
peace was signed, by the terms of which 
Great Britain relinquished her claims to all 
this territory. Yet she continued to bold 


these posts and refused to surrender on 
trivial pretexts, and the evil influence of her 
agents inspired the savages to hostility, and 
all the while impressment of seamen from 
American vessels went on. The king, au- 
thorized by parliament, had formally ac- 
knowledged the independence of the United 
States, but with bullying insolence Great 
Britain continued to violate the plainest rules 
of international courtesy and right. The 
frontier settlements suffered greatly from 
the effects. Indian troubles increased.) 

st. clair's defeat. 1791. 

The next year, 1791, General Arthur St. 
Clair, having succeeded Harmar in the com- 
mand of the western forces, marched against 
the Indians with twenty-three hundred men. 
The surprise, defeat and massacre of this 
army by the Indians under Little Turtle, 
near the Wabash river, November 4, 1791 , 
made matters worse and extinguished the 
hope of peace. The black shadow of dis- 
aster overhung the prospect of settlement 
and progress. In August, 1793, peace com- 
missioners failed to secure a treaty with the 
Indians. The tribes, flushed with victory, 
became arrogant, and demanded the retire- 
ment of the whites beyond the Ohio river. 
The British agents advised the Indians to 
make peace but not to give up their lands. 


In the meantime General Anthony 
Wayne had been appointed to command the 
army of the west, and knowing that the de- 
feats of Harmar and St. Clair were owing, 
in part if not mainly, to want of discipline 

and equipment, he had been preparing in 
these respects. Impetuous in action as "Mad 
Anthony" was said to be, he recognized the 
importance of the emergency and the calam- 
ity of another failure. With a force of two 
thousand men he advanced into the heart 
of the Indian country, and on the 20th of 
August, 1794, encountered a large force of 
Indian warriors and Canadian auxiliaries 
on the Maumee river, almost within cannon 
snot of the British fortified post, Miami. 
This hostile force was commanded by the 
noted Indian chief, Little Turtle, a Miami. 
A sanguinary battle took place and the In- 
dians and Canadians were completely 
routed with fearful losses. The American 
loss was one hundred and thirty-nine, killed 
and wounded. The defeat was overwhelm- 
ing, and broke the spirit and power of the 
savage. They never recovered from the 

General Wayne and his men spent some 
days in the vicinity of the fort, which 
mounted fourteen cannon and was garri- 
soned by two hundred British regulars and 
two hundred and fifty Canadian militia. 
The cornfields, wigwams and other property 
of the Indians for many miles up and down 
the river and over the adjacent country were 
destroyed. Colonel McKee, the British 
agent, lost heavily in the destruction. Prop- 
erty was destroyed under the guns and with- 
J in pistol-shot of the fort. The command 
sent an angry and insolent message to 
Wayne, demanding the reason for his out- 
rageous proceedings. He received a sharp 
answer, with the addition that his cannon 
and fort had not been considered any ob- 
stacle to the just punishment of the savages 
and their abetors; that even had they been 
interposed in action to protect the Indians- 



it would have been no material obstacle. He 
would have surmounted it without pausing. 
It is probable that the formal peace between 
Great Britain and the United States saved 
Miami on the Maumee from the fate of 
Stony Point on the Hudson. 


The history is too familiar to require 
formal statement that General Wayne left 
a strong" force at the confluence of the Mau- 
mee and Auglaize rivers and another at 
Kekionga ( Fort Wayne ) before proceeding 
to Greenville, Ohio, eighty miles southwest 
of Fort Wayne. At Greenville he sent mes- 
sengers to the Indian tribes concerned, in- 
viting them to a council there, to treat for 
peace. The Indians hesitated, until their 
British advisers were compelled to admit 
that the king had solemnly agreed to evacu- 
ate the territory and that all the garrisons, 
troops and agents must soon pack up and 
leave. In fact, the Indians had wondered 
at the failure of the garrison at Miami t< ■ 
interpose and assist in beating back Wayne's 
army. Now a great light broke over their 
minds, showing the British agents as selfish 
liars and General Wayne as the rightful mas- 
ter of the situation — the representative of 
the real rulers of the country. It was a sad 
situation for them; but it was now clear that 
the only way to make the best of it was to 
treat with General Wayne. They accord- 
ingly responded in numbers large enough to 
fully represent all the tribes interested. 

( )n the [6th day O'f June, [795, the great 
council assembled at ( ireenville. Present 
and participating: The Chippewas, Otta- 
was,. Pottawatomies. Wyandots, Delawares, 
Shawnees, Miamis, Weas and Kickapoos, 

altogether over eleven hundred strong. 
After two months of discussion, in which the 
Indian leaders proved themselves to be 
shrewd diplomats and able orators, the 
council closed in a treat}- confirming 
that of Fort Harmar, in 1789, by 
which nearly all northern Ohio was made 
an Indian reservation, and the cession 
of several additional posts, including a 
tract six miles square at Fort Wayne 
and one of six miles square at Old Wea 
Town, on the Wabash (^Oniatenon). The 
entire treaty was unanimously agreed to by 
all, and was then and there signed by chosen 
signers on behalf of the Indians then present 
in person or specially represented. 

General Wayne thus secured concessions 
of the greatest importance and laid the foun- 
dations of an enduring peace, in the sunshine 
of which full tides of immigration set in 
from the east; the recesses of the forests be- 
gan to echo the sturdy strokes of pioneer 
labor and the chorus of advancing civiliza- 
tion. Many years were yet to elapse before 
these streams of immigration would reach 
northern Indiana. The immense reserva- 
tion of northern Ohio deflected them to the 
southern sections of that part of the terri- 
torv, and all Indiana remained Indian terri- 
tory except a few small tracts for posts and 
forts and the "grant" to Clark and his men 
at the falls of the Ohio. But the faint, far- 
away murmurs of progress had begun to 
whisper through the forests even before the 
beginning of the century. They were heard 
in the subdued voices of returned hunters 
and braves, telling what the)- had seen in 
the far southeasterly territory, the opposi- 
tion of the advancing tide of immigration 
foreshadowing the red man's doom. 




After the treaty of Greenville the general 
attitude of the Indians toward the whites 
was peaceful. It may be said with truth that 
the occasional troubles were charged as 
much to the rapacity of white men as to the 
savagery of the Indians. There were then, 
as now, men in whom the instincts of wolves 
and vultures were dominant. They swin- 
dled, bullied and trespassed upon the In- 
dians. They hypnotized them with cheap 
whisky and obtained outrageous advantages 
worse than robbery, and when, under the re- 
sumed sway of reason, the defrauded sav- 
ages sought redress, they quieted title by 
killing them under color of self-defense and 
extended the fraud and injury by throwing 
upon the whole race the odium of irredeem- 
able treachery and murderous hostility. 

Governor Harrison attested to these evil 
influences in his official papers, but it was 
next to impossible, in the thinly occupied 
condition of the territory, to establish ade- 
quate police supervision throughout all sec- 
tions. Even where the machinery of the 
law was in operation it was difficult for local 
juries and magistrates to see through their 
prejudices the essential truth of causes in- 
volving conflicting claims of' white men and 
Indians. The sinister shadow of fate pur- 
sued the foredoomed red man. Xo treaty of 
peace could efface the brand of Cain from 
the reputation of the Indians. Thev must 
be "driven into the wilderness" of banish- 
ment. Governor Harrison was instructed to 
effect the extinction of Indian titles of lands 
as rapidly as possible ; accordingly he ob- 
tained in a comparatively short time the fol- 
lowing cessions : 

In September, 1802, the Miamis, Potta- 

watomies, Eel River, Piankeshaw, Wea, 
Kaskaskia and Kickapoo tribes, through the 
Miami chiefs, Little Turtle and Richard- 
ville, and the Pottawatomie chiefs, Wina- 
mac and Topinepic, elected for that purpose, 
negotiated with Governor Harrison a 
treaty by which lands in the vicinity of Vin- 
cennes were ceded to the United States. At 
Fort Wayne, June 7, 1803, from chiefs and 
head men of the Delaware, Shawnee, Potta- 
watomie, Eel River, Kickapoo, Piankeshaw 
and Kaskaskia tribes, one million acres. 
At Yincennes, August 13, 1803, from the 
Kaskaskias about eight million acres on the 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers*. At Vin- 
cennes, August 18, 1804. from the Dela- 
wares their claims to the lands between the 
Wabash and Ohio rivers south of the road 
from Vincennes to the Ohio river. August 
17, 1804, the Piankeshaws relinquished 
their claims to the same lands. By reference 
to the map of Indiana it will be seen that this 
relinquishment included nine counties — ■ 
Pike, Gibson, Posey, Vanderburg, Warrick, 
Spencer, Perry, Harrison, Crawford and 
parts of Dubois, Knox, Orange and Floyd, 
as now marked, containing about 2,167,200 
acres. At St. Louis, November 3, 1804, 
i from several chiefs of the Sacs and Foxes, 
a vast tract, principally on the east side of 
the Mississippi, between the Illinois and 
Wisconsin rivers. This included the Sac 
village at Rock Island. The celebrated chief 
Blackhawk disputed the right of the chief 
to cede this territory, and the agitation of 
the question led to the Blackhawk war of 
1832. At Groveland, near Vincennes. Au- 
gust 21, 1805, from chiefs and warriors of 
the Delaware, Pottawatomie, Miami, Eel 
River and Wea tribes, their territory lying 
southeast of a line commencing at a point 


fifty-seven miles due east from Vincennes 
and running northeasterly to' a point on the 
boundary of Ohio fifty miles north of the 
Ohio, opposite the mouth of the Kentucky 
river. This included the territory of the 
present counties of Washington, Scott, Jef- 
ferson, Jennings, Ripley, Dearborn, Ohio 
and Switzerland and parts of Orange Jack- 
son, Clark and Franklin — about 1,500,000 
acres, — six times as much as Noble county. 
December 30, 1805, at Vincennes, from chiefs 
of the Piankeshaw tribe two million acres 
west of the Wabash river. September 30. 
1809, at Fort Wayne, chiefs of the Delaware. 
Eel River, Pottawatomie and Miamia tribes, 
2,900,000 acres, mostly on the southeast- 
ern side of the Wabash below Raccoon 
creek. October 30 the chiefs of the Weas 
formally acknowledged the validity of said 
cession; the sachems and chiefs of the Kick- 
apoos confirmed it in December, 1809, and 
also ceded an additional tract of their own 
of 1 13,000 acres. 

Thus, in less than nine years, through 
Governor Harrison's treaties, the Indian 
titles to about thirty million acres were ex- 
tinguished. About ten million acres of this 
was east and south of the Wabash, in In- 
diana. Thus far the lands occupied by the 
Pottawatomies, Miamis and other Indians 
seem to have remained unceded, recognized 
as Indian lands without dispute. Northern 
Indiana, at least the region of which the ter- 
ritory of Noble was the central part, was cov- 
ered by unextinguished Indian titles. The 
Noble county district was so situated as to 
be among the last to receive attention from 
the government in the way of opening it for 
settlement. Some of the reasons have been 
mentioned and others will readily suggest 
themselves. The Miamis were the original 

proprietors. With their kindred and subor- 
dinate tribes they had occupied large do- 
mains east and south and west, from which, 
by treaties already established they had been 
pushed or moved, and were crowded around 
their ancient capital, Kekionga. The de- 
mands of the earlier pioneers of civilization 
in the closing years of the eighteenth and 
first decade of the nineteenth century were 
satisfied by the millions of acres south and 
east of the Wabash, and a long time must 
elapse before the suspended invasion should 
so revive as to demand the disturbance of 
the .Miamis and their expulsion from their 
resting place on their native soil — the last. 
For all the empire northwest, from township 
32 north to the site of Chicago and includ- 
ing the valleys of the St. Joseph in Michigan 
(once theirs), was already in possession of 
the alien Pottawatomies. whose title was the 
invaders' title — wanton conquest. 

The exact dates of the treaties by which 
the final extinction of the Indian titles of the 
Miamis and Pottawatomies was effected are 
somewhat uncertain. A treat}- was made 
with the Pottawatomies at St. Joseph's Mis- 
sion, near South Bend, September 28, [828, 
by which the United States granted in sev- 
eralty to Kich-wa-qua, Indian wife of (tie 
Pierre Navarre, a section of land, to one 
Pierre LeClere a section adjoining Kich-wa- 
qua' S on the west. These were sections jo 
and 21, in the territory of Perry township. 
It would seem that up to that time the Potta- 
watomies had not relinquished their claims 
to Noble county territory: and further, that 
they ceded their Noble county lands, reserv- 
ing to the tribe the six miles square in Noble 
and Kosciusko counties, with a stipulation 
for these grants to Kich-wa-qua ami Le- 
Clere. What the particular reas> in fi r chi « is- 


ing these sections for the grant in severalty 
were, is probably now unknown to any living- 
person, so far as ascertained. Contemporary 
local knowledge probably died with Isaac 
Tibbott and David P. Bourei, the last living- 
persons who were here as early as 1828, who 
were old enough to take cognizance of the 
interests and relations that led to the choice. 
The suggestion occurs that perhaps these 
persons were already, by tribal action, the 
owners of these sections in severalty. If so, 
it was natural that they should be excepted 
in the sale to the United States and the title 
quieted by special grant. Prospective buyers 
would prefer it so. 

Another question arises in connection 
with the treaty of 1828: Was it the one 
in which the Sparta township ( Indian vil- 
lage) reservation was made? And was it 
the one in which a condition was made that 
the government should build a brick house 
for "Flat Belly," the Indian chief, for use as 
a council house? Every unchallenged prob- 
ability would point to that conclusion, were 
it not that there was a saying- of Joel Bristol, 
the first settler (1827), that there was no 
house or ruin of a house when he settled 
twelve miles east of that site. If built in 
1829 or 1830, under the treaty, of course, 
it would not have been there in 1827; but 
his statement, if be made it, has been taken 
to include the denial of the existence of such 
a bouse while be was here. The tradition 
is that the chief bad occupied the house but 
a short time (how long is not stated) before 
if was wrecked by a terrible tornado, or wind 
storm, and was never rebuilt. All that is 
possible, consistent with the further possi- 
bility that the house was erected and de- 
stroyed and that Bristol never saw it. 
The Flat Bellv house was unquestionablv the 

first brick house in the Noble county district. 
The writer has a whole brick, which he 
found in 1895, buried in the soil on the site 
of the old Indian palace. 


The first family of real settlers in the 
territory afterward organized as Noble coun- 
ty was that of Joel Bristol, consisting of 
himself and wife, Susan, and six nephews 
and nieces, orphan children of Mrs. Tibbott, 
a widowed sister of Mrs. Bristol, who had 
died a short time before at Fort Wayne. 
The father of the Tibbott children had died 
in Marion county Ohio, according to the 
statement of Isaac Tibbott, one of the or- 
phans, who said his father died when he 
( Isaac) was four years old, in 1814. These 
facts and dates I find in a sketch of Isaac 
Tibbott by the late Nelson Prentiss, founded 
upon an interview in 1873, in which the 
author, Mr. Prentiss, obtained from Tibbott 
his recollections of Noble county pioneer his- 
tory — published in the New Era, under the 
title: "Isaac Tibbott's Narrative." The 
father's Christian name was not given, nor 
the place of his nativity, nor the time of im- 
migration to Marion county, where Isaac 
was born — in 1810, he says — and that bis fa- 
ther's death occurred when he was f< >ur years 
old, which makes the time of the parent's 
death 1814. No month or day given. The 
widow and children, it would seem from the 
narrative, lived for a time at Defiance, Ohio, 
and finally came to Fort Wayne, when, it is 
not stated. The widow Tibbott died in Fort 
Wavne, leaving- her orphan children with 
her sister, Mrs. Bristol, probably under the 
care of her elder sons — about twenty-one 
and nineteen years old, respectively, and 



Isaac, about seventeen. The other orphans 
were three girls, the age of the youngest 
being" stated as three years. Whether the 
sister of the widow was married to Bristol 
before the widow died or immediately after 
is not stated. The narrative subsequently 
says: "He (Joel Bristol) married my 
mother's sister -and removed to the Noble 
county district with the children." The 
Bristol family, as above indicated, removed 
from Fort Wayne by way of the Indian trail, 
known as the Fort Wayne and Goshen road, 
and settled on the east half of the southeast 
quarter of section J3. congressional town- 
ship 33, north of range 9 east ; by subsequent 
subdivision and organization, in Noble town- 
ship, Noble count}-, Indiana. The date of 
the settlement was April 4, 1827. at which 
time the territory including it was under the 
jurisdiction of Allen county — Fort Wayne, 
county seat. The location is now identified 
as two miles north of the Whitley county 
line, and one mile west of the present Green 
township line; half a mile northeast trim 
the village of Noblesville. A brick church 
(Christian chapel) and a school-house are 
nearly directly north, across the road. At 
the time of the settlement the inhabitants 
were Indian savages, of the Pottawatomie 
tribe, whose capital ( Indian village) was on 
Turkey creek, eleven miles westward and 
north. They had occasional temporary en- 
campments in the near vicinity, on the lakes, 
•with which the county abounded, and visit- 
ing or sojourning savage guests — the Mi- 
ami, Ottawa, Huron, Delaware and Shaw- 
nee tribes. Bristol erected a large cabin on 
south side of the Goshen road and made 
it a house of entertainment, a road-house or 
tavern, where immigrants going further 
■west, or traders or travelers, could find tem- 

porary rest and refreshments and if neces- 
sary, lodging for teams and families. The 
place was about twenty-five miles northwest 
from Fort Wayne, and about the same dis- 
tance southeast of Elkhart Prairie and ad- 
jacent neighborhoods in Elkhart county, to- 
ward which beautiful and fertile country the 
tide of settlers was strongly tending from 
1825 to 1830. Bristol's was the "half-way" 
house. For more than four years there was 
no other white man's dwelling between it 
and the prairie, twenty-five miles distant, 
northwest. Southwest, to Fort Wayne, 
there was a solitary cabin, six miles distant 
from Bristol's. Of the life, environments 
and incidents of the five years, from April, 
1827, to April, 1831, there is no recorded 
local history and but few and faint tradi- 

Yet occasionally the thickening mists of 
seventy years are pierced by flashes of tradi- 
tion, and we can catch mental views of the 
Bristol cabin, its occupants and their en- 
vironments during 1 827-8-9-30-3 1. The 
surface of the county was undulating, and 
generally described as "burr-oak openings." 
While the groves of majestic trees remained, 
their outlines showed a "rise" in the ground, 
conspicuous above the lands north and south. 
and over which passes the Goshen mad. It 
was for many years afterward known as 
"Rowdy Ridge." On this ridge stood Bris- 
tol's road-house, on what now appears as 
a level plateau. This ridge is said to have 
been named from the doings of Bristol's 
early times. Across the road, where now 
stands the chapel, there was an oak grove, 
through the branches of which, in the valley 
north, gleamed the waters of Bristol's (now- 
called River's) lake, distant about a mile. 
Another pretty little lake lay east, in Green 


t( i\\ nship. about the same distance. The gen- 
tle undulations, dotted with groves ; the little 
vales, carpeted with green ; the lakes shin- 
ing in the distance, and often bearing light 
canoes with dusky forms — altogether made 
a charming landscape, through which wound 
the old historic road, trodden by iron hoofs 
and measured steps of armed men in the 
older days, when squadrons of horse and 
infantry companies moved at command of 
Wayne or Harrison against the villages of 
the Indians on the Elkhart river. 

An immigrant family, starting from Fort 
Wayne in the early morning, could reach 
Bristol's before sunset. Stopping there for 
rest and refreshments for tired children and 
weary women, the covered wagon would be 
drawn into the grove across the road, some- 
times into the grove west of the house, on 
the south side of the road, and preparations 
made for passing the night. This south 
grove, however, became a resort for bac- 
chanals and gamblers, witli whom Bristol 
was a leading spirit, and big carousals were 
held in fair weather; a cask of whisky, with 
an occasional flask of French brandy, fur- 
nishing the zest of the revels. There were 
i ccasions were scenes at Bristol's were both 
picturesque and dramatic. Groups of sav- 
ages standing silently observant, or chatter- 
ing and gesticulating around the host or 
some traveling fur-buyer; squaws squatting 
in front of the bark tent of a temporary 
camp; papooses sporting in the grove; pio- 
neers' wagons standing in the groves under 
leafy canopies, crimsoning the sunset rays: 
tired women with pallid babies, gazing from 
the wagons with sad faces and wistful eyes 
toward the bower in the cherry-tree grove, 
where husbands and fathers were participat- 
ing in bacchanalian revel, possibly risking 

their little hoards of coin at cards, while 
angry shouts and curses and ugly menaces 
issued from the thicket, and reeling savages, 
with maudlin whoops and random gunshots, 
attested the anarchic reign of the fiend of 
firewater ; the female inmates of the cabin 
grouped outside with distressed faces and 
evident anxiety — all was confusing and ter- 
rifying to the half-sick women and children 
in the wagons. "What was the night to be? 
What the morrow ? What the future of 
their wilderness life?" 

The fact seems to be well attested that 
John Knight, who settled with his family in 
the York township territory, section 29, 
township 34. north of range 9 east, was 
first after the Bristols and Tibbotts. The 
marriage of his daughter Eunice and Sam- 
uel Tibbott was the first in this district. 
That of Lewis Murphy and Jane Tibbott 
(Isaac's sister) was the second, eight months 
afterward. There is no account, beyond 
mere mention, of the second sister, nor of the 
brother William. 

Samuel Tibbott entered land August, 
1832. in what is now Elkhart township, the 
northwest quarter of the southeast quarter 
of section 20. township 3$, north of range 
9, east. He erected a cabin, lived there for 
some time and then went further west. In 
March, 1833. Lewis Murphy. Jane Tibbott's 
husband, entered eighty acres, the west half 
of the southeast quarter of section 23, town- 
ship 33. north of range 9, east, adjoining 
Bristol's on the west. He afterward en- 
tered two eighties in section 22, same town- 
ship, Noble, and resided there or in that 
vicinity for several years, at least until 1836. 
He was the victim of an assault and bat- 
tery, out of which grew a trial before James 
Knowles, justice of peace, on the 27th of 


October. 1836. Thomas Sheparcl was the 
complaining witness. Murphy, the beaten 
man, not complaining, and so far as appears 
not being at the trial ; Joseph Galloway was 
the defendant. In response to the warrant 
he went before 'Squire KnoAvles, owned up 
that be assaulted and battered Murphy with- 
out legal justification, and was fined cue 
dollar and costs. This was more than seven 
months after tbe act was committed, which 
was on the 19th day of March. 1836, at the 
house of Andrew Stewart. The particular 
origin of tbe trouble does not appear, but 
from the dates and Murphy's failure to com- 
plain it might be inferred that tbe real ani- 
mus of Shepard's ( complaining witness ) 
revival of the matter was some subsequent 
difficult)- between Sbepard and Galloway, 
for which Sbepard was bitting Galloway 
over Murphy's shoulder. 


In Isaac Tibbott's "Narrative" to Nel- 
son Prentiss, in 1872, he strongly implies 
that life at Bristol's, from 1827 to 1X31. was 
varied by many exciting and some "thrill- 
ing" events, but does not give the events 
nor their nature, except the incident of theft 
!of his china pig by an Indian, and his threat 
to shoot every member of the Indian's famil- v 
if such offense occurred again. Neverthe- 
less, from the silence that broods over those 
years there have now and then escaped into 
the realm of tradition stories that confirm 
the impression created by Mr. Tibln tt's 
"thrilling" intimation. I take space enough 
to give the outline of one that has survived 
in the memory of one individual, who re- 
ceived it in a confidential way from a con- 
temporary witness: In the autumn of the 

year 1828, a well-mounted traveler came 
leisurely along the trail, noting the features 
of the landscape and apparently enjoying 
the scene. He had stopped his horse, and 
was observing the sports of some Pottawato- 
mie children around a tent, eighty rods east 
of Bristol's, when one of the "hands" em- 
ployed by Bristol emerged from a thicket 
south of the road, carrying an ax and a 
lunch pail. He had been chopping fire-wood, 
and was returning to the cabin from a "piece 
of choice woods" on an entered tract. The 
traveler accosted him. inquired about the 
Bristol house and rode leisurely along by 
1 his side, chatting on subjects appropriate to 
the time; and observing that it was late in 
the afternoon expressed a determination t<> 
stop "over night" at the tavern. He was 
unusually well dressed, though in the fashion 
of hunters, fur traders and land buyers of 
the time, had a good horse, and apparently 
well filled leather saddle-bag strapped be- 
hind the saddle. He was under middle age, 
had a frank, open countenance, and was af- 
fable and talkative. Everything about him 
and his furnishings indicated prosperity and 
a cheerful, optimistic outlook upon life, un- 
darkened by acquaintance with its evil 
phases. In a camp of the worst sort of cow- 
boys or gold-seekers, or the rough resi rts - 1 
cities, he would have been called a "tender- 
i'i 1 t" or greenhorn, according to the style 
of the associations into which he was intro- 
duced, and undoubtedly some such estimate 
was made by several other "guests" of a 
certain character, who had arrived before 
him. Probably the landlord himself formed 
tbe same opinion and was gratified. It some- 
how happened on that evening, in an adja- 
cent grove, where Bristol bad a "bower" or 
tent, a party of the other guests mentioned 



had assembled, with Landlord Bristol, and 
soon a full-fledged carousal was in progress. 
Liquor flowed freely, ribald songs rose 
through the trees at intervals, and games 
at cards with high betting was going on. 
From an Indian camp near by several sav- 
ages were allured by the fascinations of 
whiskey and gambling, for both of which 
the red men had an irresistible penchant. The 
scene attracted our young traveler, and it 
was not long before he had accepted and im- 
bibed copious draughts of "mixed" liquors 
and was eagerly participating in the gam- 
bling. Instead of departing early the next 
morning, as he had intended, he remained 
several days, freely spending money, with 
which he seemed to be well supplied, and in- 
dulging in drink and gambling without 
stint. One of the other guests also kindly 
stayed and "looked after" the reckless young 
man. with the landlord. 

The fourth evening after his arrival, at 
twilight he went forth alone upon the dark- 
ening trail, hatless and coatless, without 
horse or saddlebags. He was seen to swerve 
from the trail and stagger into the shadows 
of the forest and was never seen again. So 
far as the contemporary relator knew, he 
then and there disappeared entirely. He 
had staked and lost everything — money, 
horse, coat and hat. The supposed winners 
were adventurers, whose residences were 
•unknown to the person who confided the 
facts to an intimate friend many years after- 
ward. The natural questions. "Did he ever 
get out of the woods alive ?" If not, "now did 
all traces disappear, and by whose agency?" 
— have not been answered; almost certainly 
they never will be answered on earth. The 
probability is that he was missed, searched 
for in vain and mourned for as lost, vears 

ago; and the mourners are all dead. It 
may be stated that the person who- communi- 
cated the story, after many years of reti- 
cence, was in a position to know all about 
the event, and also in a position of enforced 
silence at the time. That witness has been 

| dead for many years, and the writer, who 
got it in person from the one to whom the 
witness told it, thinks his informant is dead 

That period, during which only one cabin 
stood in this territory, and only one settler 
and his family existed on the soil, all of 
whom have died without leaving any definite 
record or tradition, must be dismissed from 
consideration in a historical review, except 
the few faintly illuminated traditions like 
the one just noted, that serve as guides in 
forming correct estimates of what the real 
history must have been ; feeling sure that its 

I influences became fruitful elements of Noble 
county's destiny for good or evil, or rather 
a mixture of both. 

No river of light, both so pure and so bright, 
Ever flowed thro' the landscapes of time; 

That no shadows bestained, nor motes intervened. 
To bedim, and its beauty begrime. 


Joel Bristol's was among the earliest en- 
tries of land in the district now constituting 
Noble county, and the first in the township 
of Noble, although it was not made until 
June II, 1 83 1, more than four years after 
he settled. On the same day Levi Perry and 
Isaiah Dungan entered lands in what is now 
Perry township: but Perry had "settled" be- 
fore Dungan, and the prairie where he locat- 
ed was named for him "Perry's Prairie." 
1 am informed that the township also- took 
its name from him, on account of his being 


its first settler. During the same year, but 
later, twelve different settlers made eight- 
een entries, namely : Jacob Shobe, Susanna 
Hagan, Adam Engle, Jacob Wolf, Henry 
Engle, John lies. William Engler, Daniel 
Harsh, Joseph Smalley, Henry Hostetter, 
Leonard Danner and Henry Miller. 

Shobe, Harsh and Smalley made entries 
in the same section with Perry and Dungan, 
section 33. Three-quarters of this section 
were thus taken up by five settlers in the 
year 1831. The entire amount of land en- 
tered in 1831 in Perry township, by the 
fourteen persons above named, was twenty- 
two hundred acres, and all except Leonard 
Danner's (section 18) was in the southern 
third of the township. The History of La- 
grange and Noble counties, published by 
F. A. Beatty & Company, of Chicago, in 
188.2, after giving a tabular list embracing 
the same names and entries above given, 
adds : 

"The foregoing entries embrace all the 
land entered in Noble county in 1831, and 
amount to twenty-one hundred and twenty 
acres; all of said land being in townshhip 
35, north of range 8, east." 

The above quoted paragraph is incorrect 
in several respects. The foregoing entries 
do not "embrace all the land entered in Noble 
county in 1831 ;*' and twenty-one hundred 
and twenty acres is not the correct amount 
of land entered in that year. Another state- 
ment of that history, that "the first land pur- 
chased of the government was in Perry" is 
also incorrect, as the following table, care- 
fully compiled from the official records, will 
show : 

1. The first land entered was in Allen, 
and not in Perry. 

2. All the land entered in 1831 was not 

in Perry, and was not embraced in the tab 

ular list given. 

3. The amount of land entered in 1831, 
instead of being only twenty-one hundred 
and twenty acres, was twenty-six hundred 
and eighty acres, four hundred in Allen, 
eighty in Noble, twenty-two hundred in 
Perry. Following is the list of lands en- 
tered in Noble county in the year 183] : 

Allen Township, 34-11. 

April 29, James J. Clark, e hf ne qr sec 8, 80 acres. 
May 18, Horace Loomis, w hf ne qr and nw qr sec 8, 

240 acres. 
Dec. 12, Elihu Wadsworth , e hf se qr sec 8, 80 acres. 

Noble Township, 33-9. 
June 11. Joel Bristol, e hf se qr sec 23, 80 acres. 

Perry Township, 35-8. 
June 11, Levi Perry, e hf se qr sec 33, 80 acres. 
June 11, Isaiah Dungan, e hf nw qr and w hf ne qr sec 

XS, 160 acres. 
July 29, Jacob Shobe, ne qr sec 31, 160 acres. 
July 29, Jacob Shobe, w hf nw qr sec 33, .SO acres. 
July 20, Jacob Shobe, w hf nw qr sec :J2, SO acres. 
Aug. 2, Susanna Hagan, w hf nw qr sec :i4, 80 acres. 
Aug. 12, Adam Engler, se qr and sw qr sec 28, 260 a. 
Aug. 20, Adam Engler, e hf sw qr sec 27, 80 acres. 
Aug. 20, Jacob Wolf, ne qr sec 28, 160 acres. 
Au-. 20. Henry Engler, w hf sw qr sec 27, 80 acres. 
Aug. 20, John lies, e hf nw qr sec 28, 80 acres. 
Aug. 20. William Engler, e hf ne qr sec .'14, 80 acres. 
Aug. 22, Daniel Harsh, w hf se qr sec 33, 80 acres. 
Sept, 13, Joseph Smalley, sw qrsec 28, Kill acres. 
Sept. 14, Joseph Smalley, ne qr sec .'52. 160 acres. 
Sept. 14, Joseph Smalley, e hf nw qr sec .'!.'! 80 acres. 
Sept. 14, Joseph Smalley, w hf sw qr sec :S4. so a< res 
Nov. 1, Henry Hostetter, e hf nw qrsec :!4, 80 acres. 
Nov. 21, Leonard Danner, se qr sec 18, Kit) acres. 
Nov. 2.1, Henry Miller, e hf sw qr sec 34, 80 acres. 

The errors are accounted for by the fact 
that the compilation of that history was too 
much hurried to give searchers and assist- 
ants reasonable time for careful and elabor- 
ate work. 

The foregoing entries of 183 1 are men- 



tioned as the first. The}' were the first regu- 
lar land office purchases, but the government 
had three years before conveyed twelve hun- 
dred and eighty acres in the Perry township 
district, sections 20 and 2\, to two persons 
by treaty and corresponding deeds. To 
Pierre LeClere, section 20; to Kich-wa-qua, 
Indian wife of Pierre F. Navarre, section 
21-. These sections lie immediately west 
of Ligonier. The circumstances of the se- 
lections and the nature of the considerations 
for the grant are not found in any treaty 
accessible to the writer. It is evident that 
neither of the grantees wanted the land for 
settlement or permanent possession, for 
Kich-wa-qua sold section 21 to John Roher, 
in October, 1830, for the regular entry price, 
eight hundred dollars. LeClere sold section 
20 to Alexis Coquillard ( colloquial pro- 
nunciation, "Cuttigaw"), of South Bend, 
for the regular government price, eight hun- 
dred dollars, on the 19th day of June, 1830. 
Each of the original sales was approved by 
John Tipton, Indian agent, and upon each is 
the following indorsement by President 
Jackson : 

" The within deed of conveyance is approved. 

" Andrew Jackson." 

Roller's deed to the Teals, George and 
Joseph, is dated April 21, 1840. They con- 
veyed to George Teal the northeast quarter 
and all those parts of the southeast and 
northwest quarters north of the Elkhart, 
river ; and to Joseph Teal the southwest 
quarter and all parts of the southeast and 
northwest quarters south of the river. Ac- 
knowledged before Albert Banta, justice of 
peace of Elkhart county. 

It is noticeable that LeClele's deed on the 
record, bears his title on a treatv made and 

concluded at St. Joseph's September 20, 
1818, while Kich-wa-qua's is based on a 
treaty made and concluded at the same place 
September 20, 1828. Whether or not there 
is error in the figures of the year's date in 
one of the deeds, and if so, which one, can 
not now be conclusively ascertained, but the 
evidence points to 1828 as the true date of 
the Kich-wa-qua grant, at least. It could not 
have been 18 18, for the reason that she was 
not married to Pierre Navarre until 1820, 
or after, that being the year of Navarre's 
settlement as a young, unmarried man at 
Soiith Bend. The tract book puts the grants 
together, at one time, September 20, 1828. 
This, however, is not absolutely conclusive 
against the possibility that LeClere's grant 
was exactly to a day ten years prior to Kich- 


The chronology of the entries does not 
always agree with that of actual settlement, 
to which we now return. 

In 1830 (some say 1829) John L. Pow- 
ers settled in southwestern Perry, on the 
Goshen road, and erected a small cabin or 
hut, in which for a short time he tried the 
experiment of accommodating travelers. 
Levi Perry, Isaiah Dungan and Richard 
Stone came in 1830. In 1831 the popula- 
tion of Perry district, the prairie, was fur- 
ther increased by Jacob Wolf, Henry Hos- 
tetter and family, Adam Engler, Henry 
Engler, William Engler, Jacob Shobe and 
family, Joseph Smalley and family, Henry 
Miller and family. Daniel Harsh. John lies, 
Leonard Danner (in section 18) and per- 
haps a few others. No settlers, so far as 
know, came into any other township in 



The people named as settling in Perry, 
nearly all of them on the prairie, were first- 
class pioneers — orderly, intelligent, indus- 
trious, hospitable and generous. Under their 
regime the rich prairie was rapidly convert- 
ed into fertile fields, hearing in profusion the 
staple crops of grain. Educatii n and relig- 
ion began with the settlement, growing with 
material prosperity, adorning and glorifying 
the beginnings of civilization and progres- 
sion. The sentiments of "liberty, equality 
and fraternity" were practically enthroned 
in the minds and hearts of the community, 
and a large proportion of the earliest settlers 
were competent to lead and guide in the 
work of founding and building an "im- 
perium in imperio," a state within a state, 
in harmony with the system of American 

In 1 83 1 the entries and actual settle- 
ments closely correspond. Speculators were 
not attracted until the tide of actual settle- 
ment promised such development as would 
make investment profitable. Land for 
homes, land for prosperous agriculture, land 
for leverage, for uplifting the material, 
moral and social elements of a Christian 
civilization; land upon which to found a 
noble future ; such was now the growing 
demand; and when its permanent continu- 
ance was assured, and not until then, the 
speculators bestirred themselves to "corner" 
the supply. Should such monopoly in land 
have been permitted under the public land 
system of this government? It is an im- 
portant question, difficult of s'olution in view 
of the exigencies of the time. The young 
government was loaded with debt. The 
country was weak, exhausted by the strain 
of the Revolutionary war and that of 18 12. 
The income from sales of the public domain 

was sorely needed. Yet the question per- 
sistently faces the statesman in such emer- 
gencies, "Should we he governed by the de- 
sirableness of immediate revenue and in- 
vite or permit indiscriminate and uncondi- 
tional sales; or whether it were truer states- 
manship to look beyond the present and over 
the lengthening and widening vistas of the 
far future, to — 

" A vision glorious with rural homes 
And modest wealth; contented competence 
With loyal pride; a nation's source of strength 
And honorable prestige," 

and in the glow of prophetic and purely 
patriotic inspiration provide for sales lim- 
ited to actual settlers, with judicious condi- 
tions, in the beginning and throughout?" 



Finding that nearly the same close cor- 
respondence exists between the entries and 
actual settlements of 1832 as in 1831, it is 
believed that a general view of the progress 
of settlement and home- founding in 1832 
can be shown in tabular form more briefly 
and clearly than by elaborate statement. The 
following table, therefore, is formulated, 
showing all the entries in the county in that 
year : 

Lands in Perry Township. 

March 12, Henry Hostetter, e and w hf nw qr sec 15, 

160 acres. 
March l(i. Johnston Latta, n hf and s hf fr'l nw qr sec 2, 

150.09 acres. 
March 28, William McConnell, fr'l ne qr sec 2, 152.40a. 
April 5, Robert Latta. se qr sec :!. 160 acres. 
April 7. Isaac Cavin, s hf sec 2. 320 acres. 
May 2, Henry Hostetter. e hf sw qr and w hf se qr sec 

in. Kid acres. 
June 12. Isaac Cavin. sw qr sec 1. Kin acres. 
June 111, William McConnell, s hf nw qr sec 1, 80 acres. 
June 19, Hugh Cavin. ne qr sec 11. Hit I acres. 



June 8, John Miller, nw qr sec 11, 160 acres. 
June 19, Hugh Caviu. w hf nw qr sec 12. SO acres. 
June 19, Seymour Moses, ne qr and e hf nw qr sec 10, 

240 acres. 
June 30, John Hostetter. e hf se qr sec 10, 80 acres. 
June 30, John Hostetter, w hf sw qr sec 11, 80 acres. 
Oct. 1, John Crance, nw qr sw qr sec 33, 40 acres. 
Oct. 1."). Henry Hostetter, ne qr se qr sec 27, 40 acres. 
Oct. 15, Henry Hostetter, e hf ne qr sec 29, 80 acres. 
Oct. 15, Joseph Smalley, se qr of sw qr and se qr sec 29, 

200 acres. 
Nov. 3, Jacob Walters, e hf ne qr sec 9, 80 acres. 
Nov. 3, Jacob Walters, w hf nw qr and w hf sw qr sec 

10, 160 acres. 
Mar. 13, Isaiah Dungan, sw qr sw qr and e hf sw qr sec 

33, 120 acres. 
Mar. .5, James Dungan. ne qrof nw qr sec 32, 40 acres. 
Oct. 1.5, 2.5, Andrew Newhouse, n hf ne qr and fr'l s hf 

neqr sec 3, 144.83. 
Oct. 31, John Tomlinson, w hf nw qr sec 17, 80 acres. 
Sept. 3, John H. Eckert, se qr of ne qr sec IS, 40 acres. 
Dec. 3, Jacob Walters, w hf of sw qr sec 3, 80 acres. 

Land in Elkhart Township. 
Aug. 1.5, Samuel Tibbott, nw qr of seqrsec 20, 40 acres. 

Analysis of the tables of entries of 1831 
and 1832 indicates that in 1831 fifteen per- 
sons who were actual settlers purchased land 
in twenty-two entries or descriptions. Bris- 
tol, one of the fifteen, represented eight per- 
sons, all the rest were Perry township set- 
tlers, and represented about twenty-six per- 
sons, making with Bristol about thirty-four 
ii, the county. Add John Knight and family, 
who settled about that time, the population 
reached thirty-nine. Andrew Engler, in his 
interesting "Recollections," published in the 
souvenir edition of the Ligonier Leader, 
says the number of persons who settled in 
1832 was about thirty. Before the begin- 
ning of 1833 the district had a population 
(if residents numbering, say seventy-five, of 
whom about fifty were adults or youths old 
enough to participate efficiently in the labor 
and business of converting a wilderness to 
the uses of civilization. 

On Pern's Prairie, the settlers of 1832 
were Engle, Stone, Dungan, Miller and 
Wolf, Wolf being a boarder in Richard 
Stone's family during the winter of 1832-3. 
Andrew Engler's reminiscences constitute a 
valuable source of information about those 
earliest years, and present some living pic- 
ture's of Noble county's infancy. With the 
Engler and Hostetter families, in 1832, came 
a man named Haines, bringing rude machin- 
ery, intending to erect a gristmill. It was 
to have been located on Indian creek, about 
two miles southeast of the present site of 
Ligonier. The work was commenced, but 
abandoned by Haines, who. sold out to Adam 
Engler, in the fall of 1832. William Engler, 
with the assistance of other setlers, set up 
some parts for immediate use. We quote 
Andrew Engler's own words on this subject : 
"The neighbors fixed up the burrs under 
an oak tree, put the bed on stone blocks, then 
picked a hole in the runner, put a spike in a 
stick, fastened it up between the limbs of a 
tree, and when the corn got dry and hard 
two men would take hold of the spike and 
turn. Although the burrs were only thirty 
inches in diameter, it required elbow grease 
to do the turning. Having no separator, a 
deer's hide punched full of holes and 
stretched on a frame was used to separate 
the bran from the chaff. The meal made 
good cakes, and people from necessity were 
satisfied. It was the best they could do. 
This was the first mill that ground grain 
in what is now Xoble county. It was in 
the fall of iSt,2. A regular mill was built 
by Mr. Engler several years later." 

About this time — the fall of 1832 — sev- 
eral families settled on Haw Patch ; the 
I Baileys, Givens. Stages, Martins, McDevitts 
I and Lattas, and the neighborhood of "Buz- 


zards' Glory," down the river, received sev- 
eral settlers: Leonard, Joseph and Frank 
Banner, the Grismers and Jesse Hire. 

"During- the summer of 1832 a man 
named Hugh Allison commenced building 
a sawmill at Rochester, but before he got it 
finished he had trouble with his workman 
and sold out." [The table of entries shows 
that Hugh Allison entered two hundred and 
forty acres in section 26, in February, 1833. 
This was six months later than the time 
when Mr. Engler says he commenced his 
sawmill at the site of Rochester, which is 
in section 20. Of course this is not incon- 
sistent with the alleged beginning of the 
mill in the previous summer. — Ed.] 

The first houses were constructed entire- 
ly without sawed boards or nails; the walls 
were of logs; the roofs, split clapboards laid 
on and held down by heavy poles; the floors 
were of puncheons, split from logs and 
hewed to regular thickness, laid on the 
rough, heavy joists; doorways and windows 
were sawed in the log walls; doors made of 
clapboards, swinging on wood hinges and 
held shut by wooden latches dropped into 
wooden slots, inside, and raised for opening 
by pulling a deer skin string or strap fas- 
tened to the latch inside and hanging out 
through the door in daytime, pulled in at 
bedtime if any intrusion was feared, were 
securely held down by firm wooden pins in- 
serted over them in the logs; and not un- 
frequently ponderous bars of tough wood 
were placed across the bottoms, centers and 
tops of the doors. There was, however, 
but little need of these precautions at the 
time of the first settlement of Noble county. 
Indians were numerous, but generally peace- 
able. Yet at that time 1 1832) the occur- 
rence of the Blackhawk war and prox- 

imity of the old Indian trail leading toward 
the scene of hostilities, might well excite 
some apprehension from the contagion of the 
war spirit among the surrounding savages, 
and of sudden attacks by drunken parties. 

But, happily, such apprehension proved 
unfounded. The Indians had received in 
1812 a lesson they had not forgotten. The 
eloquent voice and heroic aspirations of IV- 
cumseh no longer stirred their souls and led 
them to desperate action for redress and vin- 
dication of their rights. The smallest com- 
munity of white settlers was backed by a 
nation of irresistible power. They had 
abandoned all hope of staying the mighty 
tide of white progression. They were con- 
quered, despoiled of their noble hunting 
grounds and reduced to the condition of 
alien beggars on the very soil over which 
their sway was once complete ami undis- 
puted. The spirit of independence was 
quenched. Broken hearted, meek and list- 
less, the wretched remnants of a once p wer- 
ful people were drifting down the current 
of destiny to the abyss of extinction. Yet 
their fate had in it the elements of poetic 
justice. They were being ejected from the 
lands from which their ancestors had forc- 
ibly and outrageously driven the native own- 
ers, the Miamis, more than a hundred years 

We omit many names of lake- and 
creeks, because the names they now bear 
were given by settlers long afterwards, the 
object now being to indicate the progress of 
settlement, and the actual conditions, physi- 
cal and material, at the close of 1832. The 
mail roughly indicates this condition with 
sufficient exactitude for the purpose of his- 
tory, but the scale is too small to locate pre- 
cisely the situation of dwellings mi the plats 



of sections and the characteristic features of 
landscape environments. No attention hav- 
ing been bestowed upon such things contem- 
poraneously, it is impossible, except in a few- 
cases, to give truthful pen pictures now. If 
John Smith's cabin stood on the brink of a 
ravine, through which flowed a stream that 
in times of flood became dangerous, and ac- 
cidents or serious inconveniences and injury 
resulted; if pigs or cattle, or both, were lost 
and children were drowned or borne away 
and rescued with difficulty — so much of the 
lives of the pioneer families, so much of 
interesting and influential fact and of the 
philosophy of the progress of improvement 
and the advance of civilization are lost from 
the treasury of historic truths that, simple 
and apparently insignificant as they may 
seem to superficial observers and thinkers, 
they often mean much and involve consider- 
ations of importance in relation to the wel- 
fare of families and, of course, to commun- 
ity, state and nation. 

"The flutter of the sparrow 1 s wing 
When in its dying throes, 
May o'er the human spirit fling 
A quivering shadow that will cling 
Till human life shall close." 

The want suggested must continue until 
people shall practically recognize the import- 
ance of concurrent history in the form of 
daily memoranda, or diaries. This practice 
would cover the land from ocean to ocean 
with a magnificent historical library, with an 
alcove "f priceless manuscript in every per- 
manent home — inheritances richer than all 
the millions of Croesus. 


Thomas Storey's earthly life of eighty 

years, two months and four days ended at 
Avilla, on the 3rd day of May, 1896. He 
was born in Yorkshire, England, February 
29, 1816, a son of George and Elizabeth 
( Sedgwick) Storey. His father was a farm- 
er, his mother of the same class — the sturdy 
yeomanry, always the sure foundation of 
"Old England's" true material grandeur, 
and the primal fountain of the spirit that 
made her historically glorious. 

Honest labor and usefulness were our 
subject's ancestral lot. At the age of four- 
teen years he became a helper to his parents 
by going out to labor for neighboring farm- 
ers for his board and twenty-five dollars a 
year. As his years and strength and experi- 
ence increased, he gradually earned more and 
more, until in his full manhood he could 
command eighty dollars a year. Up to that 
time his earnings belonged to his parents. 
The following two years' earnings he saved 
to canw out his purpose — to emigrate to 
the United States. Think of it, young men, 
who complain of fortune and almost curse 
your ancestors for failing to provide for 
you a "decent start" in life. Thomas Storey 
did not stultify himself with the false theory 
that his parents "owed" him anything be- 
yond the care and protection of his infancy 
and the inculcation of true principles, and 
that debt they had faithfully paid and over- 

In 1839, aged twenty-three years, with 
the meager savings of two or three years' 
bard and faithful labor at less than a dollar 
and fifty cents a week, he started to cross the 
great ocean and find in the wilds of the 
American interior — not any fortune or "liv- 
ing" that the "world owed him," but the 
field and opportunity to make his own living 
and fulfill an honorable ambition to be useful 



— a modest factor of In most progress, an 
efficient worker in the cause of civilization. 
He readied Lockport, New York, destitute 
of money. He found employment there in 
a stone quarry at wages that would ab< ut 
furnish a modern boy with cigars and to- 
bacco. He had heard of chances to buy land 
of the government in the new county of 
Noble, in Indiana, and in three years saved 
enough to "enter'" some land. The morn- 
ing of his intended start his old employer 
besought him to delay long- enough to assist 
in loading a boat with some large blocks of 
stone. He consented, and in that operation a 
huge section of rock fell upon him and 
crushed his hip. In the months of illness 
and enforced idleness following that acci- 
dent, all of his means were exhausted. He 
was once more penniless — five hundred miles 
from his objective point. Happily, his con- 
duct and character of an employee had pre- 
empted a place with the same employer and 
he patiently resumed his work at Lockport. 
■still intent upon settling in Noble county. 
He had made one trip here and selected his 
land, in [842, and it was when he had closed 
up his affairs in Lockport and was about to 
return and settle upon the land that his mis- 
bap occurred. It is said that this accident 
and delay proved to be a stroke of good luck, 
after all, for it led to^ his acquaintance with 
her whose wifely affection and efficient co- 
operation afterward contributed greatly to 
the success of his career. Miss Mary South- 
worth, a native of Lancashire. England. 

In the spring of 1843 Mr. Storey suc- 
ceeded in purchasing eighty acres of land — 
the east half of the southeast quarter of sec- 
tion 17. in Jefferson township. The date of 
his entry is April 17, 1843. He and his 

brother, Matthew Storey, erected a little 
cabin, 12x14 feet, on the high ground west 
of the swampy valley of Lewis branch, and 
there during the summer of 1843 and winter 
of 1 843-4 they kept "bachelors" hall" and 
worked at clearing land. In 1844 Thomas 
Storey re-visited Lockport. He went alone-. 
When Ik returned, Alary was with him, now 
Mrs. Storey. The little cabin received as 
housekeeper one of the brightest, neatest 
women that ever lived. But I must not 
omit referring to that bridal trip, that home- 
coming. From Fort Wayne to Jefferson 
township they walked, carrying upon their 
backs their all of household goods. It was 
probably impossible to get a conveyance, 
anyway, without great difficulty, and even 
then at the most extortionate prices. Does 
any one think that trip must have been dis- 
couragingly weary and painful? Not at all. 
Does some modern lad}- exclaim with fine 
scorn: "I never would have done it for 
the best man in the world ?*' 

Madam, the best men. and women, too, 
even in this age. pity the narrowness of soul 
that cannot comprehend the true nobility of 
the deed. And was the long, burdened walk 
especially tiresome and discouraging to 
them? No. It is unnecessary to say how 
bright the forest roadway seemed before 
them, in the radiant glow of love and hope, 
or how light their burdens were, buoyed by 
the exaltation of approving conscience and 
pure and honest aims. And then, the alluring 
goal — Home! Their own, their first, own. 
exclusive home. The green lanes and flow- 
ers in the hedges of York and Lancashire 
were pleasant memories, pictures for ad- 
miration, but this little home was to be a 
proud and loved reality, bathed in the sun- 

8 4 


light of freedom and independence, sur- 
rounded by broad acres and glorified by the 
magic motto: "Our own!" 

An incident showing the Storey methods 
and pluck, was the undertaking to clear and 
fence twenty acres of very heavily timbered 
land for Alexis Edwards at ten dollars per 
acre. He and his brother Matthew took the 
job and finished it with their own hands on 
time, without drawing a cent of pay. When 
the job was completed they received the 
whole amount, one hundred dollars each, and 
immediately invested it in land. 

Thomas Storey was the initiator in this 
section of the experiment of reclaiming" 
swamp land by ditching. In this way he 
converted a large willow swamp on his 
eighty-acre tract east of Albion into rich 
meadows and productive corn-fields. The 
contrast was wonderful. The success was 
astonishing, and much the greater part of 
the capital invested in the splendid improve- 
ment was his own muscle. In 1853 he trad- 
ed his farm to Nelson Prentiss for land in 
Green township. Both made money in the 
transaction, and that was the kind of deal- 
ing in which Mr. Storey delighted — by 
■which lie could gain, without loss to the 
other side. In Green township, by purchase 
from several persons, he acquired some three 
hundred acres of land, which he managed 
with excellent judgment, sagacity and wise 
economy. Within twenty years from the 
time he, with his wife, had carried their en- 
tire chattel property upon their backs thirty 
miles, and commenced housekeeping in a 
log cabin room 12x14 feet, he had become 
a wealthy landed proprietor and leading cit- 
izen, trusted and honored with the chief 
official positions of his township, and enjoy- 
ing the esteem and admiration of all. He 

was among the foremost promoters of edu- 
cation. He was an exemplar of morality,, 
integrity and wise benevolence, and an open- 
handed patron of everything promotive of 
public improvement. 

In 1865 he removed to Avilla — purchas- 
ing there of Peter Weimer a farm of two 
hundred and forty acres, for which he paid 
twelve thousand dollars. During the thirty- 
one remaining years of his life his career 
was onward. He contributed much to the 
improvement of the town of Avilla, was the 
principal founder of the Old People's Home, 
which was built upon his land; gave several 
thousand dollars toward the erection of the 
Catholic church buildings and the charitable 
institution there ; distributed several thou- 
sand dollars in gifts to his brothers and sis- 
ters (being childless himself) ; reserved 
rooms for himself and wife in the Old Peo- 
ple's Home, where he died ; provided well 
for his wife in case she survived him, and 
thus disposed, by deed and gift, of all his 
property, in accordance with the principles 
of benevolence and justice, which had guided 
him throughout his life. 

In many respects the career of this old 

I settler is peculiarly instructive and commend- 
able. It is an example of triumph over ob- 
stacles apparently insurmountable by a 

I young man with absolutely no means ex- 
cept his hands and brain and inflexible in- 
tegrity. But it must be admitted that in some 
most important things he was very fortun- 
ate, and above everything else in the capital 
prize he drew in the matrimonial lottery. It 
is but just to say that his outcome would 
have been problematical without the wife he 
had. Probably the whole domestic history 
of civilization could not furnish a more 
nearly perfect example of a "helpmate." He 


was fortunate in the time of his outset. The 
country's era of extravagance had not com- 
menced. Fortunately to his backwoods iso- 
lation was due his own singleness of pur- 
pose and firmness of principle. And now, 
after this rambling and horribly written 
sketch, I must leave to his old associates, or 
their descendants, the just analysis and ade- 
quate estimate of his character and the in- 
fluence of his example. 

Surviving him, of his immediate family 
group are: The aged widow. Airs. Mary 
Storey, of Avilla ; William Storey, his 
brother ; Jefferson, a son, and a daughter of 
his deceased brother, Matthew; George 
Storey; Mrs. Cabin Keller; and an aged 
sister in England. 


Daughter of Elisha and Hannah Flint, of 
.Yew York, and wife of John C. Smith, of 
New Jersey, was born in Albany county, 
near Albany, New York, January 6, 1806. 
At the age of twenty-two years she was 
united in marriage to John C. Smith, in her 
native state. Being unacquainted with her 
life and having no specific knowledge of her 
individual characteristics, the biographer re- 
lies entirely upon the published obituary, 
and can do no better than to quote it for 
the personal and family history and the 
necessarily brief intimations which it gives 
of personal character. 

"After her marriage she resided with her 
husband in New York for twelve years. In 
1840 they moved to Wayne county, Michi- 
gan, and in 1843 t0 Noble county, Indiana. 
and settled here. A continuous residence 
•of twenty-three years in Noble county was 
followed in 1803 bv 'a brief residence of 

nearly two years in LaGrange county, when 
they removed to Kosciusko count}, and re- 
sided there five years, until the death of her 
husband, November 28, 1870. Since then 
she had made her home with her children. 
She died at the home of her son, John A. 
Smith, in Ligonier, on the 25th of Febru- 
| ary, 1896, aged ninety years, one month and 
nineteen days. They were .the parents of 
nine children, six of whom and her husband 
preceded her to the other world. The three 
who remain, mourning the loss of a kind 
and affectionate mother, are. John A. Smith 
and Mrs. A. J. Banta. of Ligonier, and Mr. 
C. V. Smith, of Syracuse. 

"She became a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal church in her native state of New 
York, in 1824, at the age of eighteen years, 
and had lived for seventy-two years a faith- 
ful and devoted Christian life." 

These points of her history light the 
retrospect of a long life of usefulness graced 
by a noble tone of spirituality, whose influ- 
ences are, and forever will lie. blessing and 
beautifying the conditions of society, and 
contributing to the best inspirations of on- 
ward and upward progression. 


Wife and widow, first of Caleb Gard and 
lastly of Frederick M. Allen, was born in 
Wurtemberg, Germany. April 14. 1823, and 

died in Noble county. Indiana, January 21, 
1896. aged seventy-two years, nine months 
and seven days. 

Our only accessible source of informa- 
tion as to her life and character is in the 
obituary which is here appended: 

"While vet in her childhood she. with 
her parents, came to America, living for a 


time at Zanesville, Ohio, where she married 
Caleb Card in 1842. In 1844 s he, with her 
husband, removed to Noble county, Indi- 
ana, where they lived together until his 
death, which occurred in 1859. In 1863 she 
was married to Frederick Allen. The)- lived 
together until his death in 1872. 

"As a mother she had diligently, earnest- 
ly and willingly watched over and reared her 
family, consisting of ten children, of whom 
six sons and one daughter remain to* mourn 
her loss. At an early age she embraced 
Christianity and throughout her life she 
manifested a pure, noble, christian spirit."' 


Was one of the early settlers of Green town- 
ship, having settled there, I think, in 1844. 
Although not a resident at the time of his 
death, his residence here for thirty-seven 
years and identification with the early affairs 
of the county entitle him to a place in the 
ranks of the second class of old settlers and 
justifies the insertion in our record of the 
following quotations from his obituary, 
which was published in the Cherubusco 
Truth, after the funeral and interment: 

"Oliver Harp. Sr., departed this life 
Thursday morning. April 16, 1896, aged 
seventy-eight years, six months and fourteen 
days. Deceased was born in Neversink, 
New York, October 2, 1817; was married 
to Miss Jane Coon at Neversink, New York, 
February 2j, 1838, and moved to Noble 
county. Indiana, in 1844. He believed in 
reform of every kind and no real happiness 
could exist unless the individuals lived pure, 
honest lives in every sense. Religiously he 
was a strong Universalist, and believed and 
followed its teachings for years. He was 

kind hearted and exceedingly generous to 
those he mingled with. Eleven children 
were born to them, four of whom have pre- 
ceded their father in death." 

I am able to say, from a limited personal 
accmaintance, that his frank, emphatic ad- 
dress and tones of voice, indicated the very 
philosophy and practice attributed to him 
in the foregoing sketch. He evidently pos- 
sessed an independent mind, had convictions 
of his own and was very frank in promulgat- 
ing them. In his sphere of action he was a 
maker of public opinion and agitator of pub- 
lic thought. 


Who died September 29, 1895, an( l was 
buried in Lake View Cemetery, Kendallville, 
aged seventy-three years, five months and 
twenty-nine days, was born in Pennsylvania 
March 30, 1822. Having a doubt as to her 
being actually an old settler, but thinking it 
probable, and having no information ex- 
cept the published obituary, that is given in 
full, so far as it touches upon her life and 
family history, as follows : 

"She removed with her parents from 
Fayette. Pennsylvania, to Knox county, 
Ohio, in the year 1836. On the 12th of No- 
vember, 1844, she was married to L. J. 
Holmes, with whom she walked life's rugged 
pathway a faithful and devoted wife nearly 
fifty-one years. To them were born six chil- 
dren, three sons and three daughters. The 
youngest son died at the early age of fifteen 
years. The other children remain to mourn 
with the father their sad loss and to cheer 
the closing scenes of his earthly life. The 
deceased was converted in her youth. She 
gave her heart to God and her name to the 



Methodist Episcopal church. She lived an 
humble, quiet, consistent Christian life, and 
died at peace with God and all mankind. 
While she will be sadly missed here there 
is one soothing, comforting thought — she is 
at rest in the place prepared for her in the 
many-mansioned house of our Father. Fu- 
neral services were conducted at the resi- 
dence of L. J. Holmes by Rev. F. M. Hus- 
sey, October i, 1895, and the body was laid 
to rest in Lake View cemetery." 

It will be observed that the notice leaves 
her located in Knox county, Ohio, in 1836, 
when she was fourteen year old. She 
was married to L. J. Holmes eight rears 
afterward, but where is not stated. There 
were eleven years of time after her mar- 
riage, nineteen years after her settlement in 
Knox county. Ohio, within which she might 
have settled in Noble county in time to be 
classed as an old settler, and the impression 
is so strong that she and her husband set- 
tled here shortly after the marriage (if the 
marriage did not occur here), that I have 
assigned her to this place in order of time. 

It will have been observed that these 
obituary characterizations of Christian wo- 
men have a sameness of wording, which 
some might, without thought, regard as 
monotonous. But that is not the right or 
adequate view. They are thus shown to us 
rather as occupying a high plane of woman- 
hood, wearing a common badge of associa- 
tion and aspiration ; the atmosphere in 
which they move is the same, but the indi- 
vidual radiance emanating from personal 
character is as varied as that of the stars. 


Died at her home in Sparta township. June 
4, 1895, aged sixty-five years, one month 

and nine days. The death of Airs. ( Jail. »way 
occurred two days before the last meeting 
(Old Settlers), and probably the funeral 
was on the same day of the meeting; the 
death had not been reported, and therefore 
was not mentioned. 

From a very brief notice in the Ligonier 
Leader of June (>, 1N95. I have learned a 
few facts of her life. 

She was born in Baltimore. Md., April 
25, 1830. Her parents moved when she 
was four years old to the state of Ohio. 
This was in 1834. In the year 1X44 they 
came to Noble county and located on land in 
Sparta township, where die died. At the 
lime of their settlement in Sparta. Rachel 
was aged fourteen years. The next year, 
1845. her mother died. Rachel, at the age 
id fifteen years, being the eldest daughter 
m a large family of children, was called 
upon to fill as best she could the place of 
mother to her brothers and sisters — to be 
the housekeeper. I need not say what that 
involved in care and toil to a girl of fifteen. 
We have np particular account of the man- 
ner in which she entered upon and dis- 
charged the onerous duties of a mother and 
houseeeper. It is not necessary. Tint 
was a time when it was fashionable to be 
content with little; to suffer patientlx ; t • 
face the inevitable bravely and cheerfully, 
ami when treason to love and duty was al- 
most undreamed of. In the absence of 
specific knowledge of the contrary, we are 
bound to assume she did what she could 
without repining; that she endured many 
terrible strains upon her physical and men- 
tal powers and moral integrity, without 
fainting or faltering. 

In [852 she was married, at the age of 
twenty-two. Her husband was lames C. 


Galloway, who afterward was a volunteer 
soldier in the Civil ar. He died about fifteen 
years ago. Eight children were born to 
them, all of whom are living, or were liv- 
ing at the time of her death. 

The brief published obituary closes with 
this sentence, pregnant with beneficent 
meaning : 

"She was a noble, true-hearted mother, 
always kind, gentle and sympathetic." 
Kind, gentle, sympathetic, all undying 
germs of the influences that control, redeem 
and glorify — unconsciously to herself she 
implanted these germs of good; and they 
are developing into influence, unseen, per- 
haps, but real as the certainty of God's 
goodness. And they will flow on in His 
appointed currents of beneficence forever. 

Who died at his home in Noble town- 
ship. August 10. 1895, aged eighty-six 
years, eight months and nine days, was a 
native of Bedford county, Penn.. and was 
born nil the 1st O'f January, 1809. He 
married Nancy Stoner, a Pennsylvania girl, 
a native of Lancaster, born October 26, 
1810. They commenced their married life 
in their native state and remained there un- 
til 1845. when they came to Noble county 
with a family of children, the youngest of 
whom was an infant of a few months. They 
had S18 to start with, six young children 
to support and no land of their own. 

It is well for us to meditate, somewhat, 
on this phase in the life of John River, re- 
membering that the condition was not en- 
tirely exceptional, hut was the lot of many 
settlers of that time. Unquestionably his 
was an extreme case on account of the size 

of his family. We must conclude that the 
first winter, with six helpless children, was 
a time to try the souls and test the physical 
powers of husband and wife. It needs no 
stretch of imagination to comprehend a mul- 
titude of details of suffering and privations, 
over some of which it were no weakness if 
loyal memory should at one moment, but 
only for a moment, shed some tears, and 
the next moment yield to an uncontrollable 
impulse to hurrah for the heroism that 
carried them safely through. 

It is pardonable, I trust, to make the 
contemplation of every one of these typical 
cases an occasion for recognition of the real 
glory of Noble county's pioneer age. If it 
seems a little monotonous, sometimes, it 
may he that the fault is in our defective vis- 
ions. A cloudless sunset sky to-day may seem 
to the indifferent observer the same as all 
preceding ones, but it is not. Each differs 
from all predecessors in some of its hues 
and tints and shadings, presenting a succes- 
sion of new aspects and effects which a 
thousand years of sunsets would not ex- 

The next spring Air. River planted for a 
crop of corn. The next fall while putting 
in wheat he was attacked by malaria in an 
aggravated form of fever and ague, and 
was confined to his bed during the entire 
fall and winter for six months, and all the 
children except one were stricken clown dur- 
ing that time, Mrs. River and one boy only 
being able to keep their feet. How did they 
get through this second winter, so much 
worse than the first? There was hut one 
way. They had to depend, for life itself, 
upon the sympathy and generous aid of 
neighbors, of scant means themselves but 
exeat hearts ; the noble pioneers who would 



divide their last crust with a suffering fel- 
low -heing and heal the breaking heart with 
genuine fraternal ministrations, so pure and 
spontaneous, that it seemed a blessed priv- 
ilege, a holy joy instead of a charitable duty. 
Call those times and those men and women 
rough, uncouth, offensively primitive? No! 
Rather, in the noblest respects, it was our 
heroic age, glowing with spiritual glory and 
redolent of sweetest grace and charm. And 
we all recognize it in the rare moments 
when we can turn away from the brilliancy 
and somewhat superficial pomp of mil ward 
refinement and external etiquette and con- 
template the time and the people when gen- 
uine worth and kindness were recognized 
in all their essential grace and beauty, with- 
out artificial formulas of manner and ex- 

Ten years after their settlement here 
Mr. River bought eighty acres of land in 
Green township, and commenced there in 
the timber. His boys had grown, his forces 
were augmented, but sickness came again 
and sapped the strength of his sons and re- 
duced him to such weakness that he was un- 
able to keep upon his feet. But the work of 
clearing must go on. and he rode and guid- 
ed a horse to haul together and roll up the 
logs, the boys doing the hitching and ad- 
justing, and piling the poles and brush. In 
1 86 1, at the age of fifty-two years, he was 
thrown from a wagon and received injuries 
that crippled him for the remainder of his 
life. Prior to this accident he had sold his 
Green township farm and was about to re- 
move to Kansas; but the breaking out of 
the war of the Rebellion changed his plans 
and he purchased the farm in Noble town- 
ship, where he died. Three of his sons, 
John, Jacob and David, lost their lives in 

the service of their country during the re- 
hellion, one of them, John, starving to death 
in Libby prison. 

Air. River was an active worker in the 
cause of the Christian religion and a promi- 
nent member of the Christian church so- 
ciety. These salient points in his life of 
fifty years in Noble county will serve to il- 
lustrate the arduous labors and formidable 
obstacles and discouragements incident to 
the work of clearing the ground and laying 
the foundations of the noble superstructure 
of civilization; the indomitable spirit that 
overcame and conquered. John River's ca- 
reer was honorable and successful, for him- 
self and for his country. 

Of Elhart township, was born in York, 
Perm., July 31, 1831. He moved with 
his parents to Marion, Ohio, in 1821, 
was married there to Eliza Mawhorter, De- 
cember 24, 1834, and removed to Seneca, 
Ohio, in 1835. After a residence of about 
ten years in Seneca. Air. and Mrs. Baugh- 
man removed and settled in Elkhart town- 
ship. Noble county, some time in the year 
1845. tie resided there fifty years and died 
August 13, 1895. a g' e d eighty-two years and 
twelve days. 

While not of the original pioneers in 
respect to time, he was one of them in the 
matter of pioneer experience, toils and pri- 
vations, and was technically an "old set- 
tler" of the first. <>r oldest class. Of seven 
children born, two survive him. We are 
destitute of the specific details of his life. 
It is said of him, briefly, that he became a 
professed Christian early in life, and was 
thoroughly a quiet, earnest exemplar of the 
Christian religion. 


The facts given above are from the obit- 
uary notice written by Rev. W. R. Howell. 


An old settler of fifty years ago, died Au- 
gust 31, 1895, aged seventy-three years, 
seven months and twenty-nine days. He 
was a native of Germany, born in Hei- 
mathen, W'urtemberg, on January 22, 1822. 
He came to America in 1833, and to Noble 
county in 1845 or r &4-6. The obituary no- 
tice fails to give his township, but alludes 
to the hardships and privations of his pio- 
neer life: from this we conclude that he set- 
tled in the woods, distant from any of the 
more populous localities of that day. The 
notice referred to is appended here in full : 
"John Jacob Schultz was born January 
22, 1822, in Heimathen, Wurtemberg, Ger- 
manv, and emigrated to this country in 
3833, and about fifty years ago came to No- 
ble county, Ind. Another one is added to 
the number of pioneers who shared the 
hardships and the privations of that day, 
whose labor is completed and is no more. 
He died August 31, 1895, aged seventy- 
three years, seven months and twenty-nine 
days. He was married to Barbara Nieden- 
berger, who died three years' ago. To them 
were born six children. Three sons and one 
daughter are living, one son and daughter 
having gone before. Many years ago he 
became a professor of the religion of Christ, 
and died in the faith of Him who gave His 
life for us and liveth evermore." 


Of Jefferson township, died February 3. 
1896, aged fifty-three years, six months and 

eleven davs. He was a native of Morrow 
county, Ohio, was born July 22, 1842, and a 
son of Christian Foster. He came here with 
the family in 1848, then a child of six years, 
and was an old settler by virtue of time. 
He was reared on his father's farm and by 
the plan of distribution arranged by his fa- 
ther became the possessor of the old home- 
stead farm and house. 

Samuel Foster inherited the sterling 
characteristics of his parents, and was 
recognized as an industrious, enterprising 
and honorable man. He exercised a good 
influence, was intelligent, public-spirited and 
prominent in his locality. 

On the 5th day of March, 1868, he mar- 
ried Miss Malinda Thomas, a daughter of 
Rev. Zachariah Thomas, a prominent min- 
ister of the Baptist church. It is hardly 
necessary to say to the people of Albion, and 
Jefferson township, that he was exception- 
allv fortunate in his marriage, nor to make 
especial mention of the well-known intellec- 
tual, spiritual and physical characteristics, 
environments and education that combined 
to render the choice a most fortunate one. 
But in the meridian of life, the shadow of 
disease lowered over his house and obscured 
his future. He was the victim. A cure- 
less malady become chronic, and he was 
doomed to a long period of invalidism with 
great suffering, which the best medical and 
surgical skill could only temporarily alle- 

He leaves a widow and two children, 
several sisters, whose names appears in the 
sketch of Christian Foster, and numerous 
relatives of the well-known families of Fos- 
ter — Thomas. Edwards. 'Walters, and oth- 
ers, among the foremost citizens of the 



Mrs. Susan (Skinner) Gillet, widow of 
William II. Gillet, of Swan township, died 
at her home in Swan, October 29, 1895, 
aged sixty-three years, nine months and 
twenty-six days. Her maiden name was 
Susan B. Skinner, horn in Orleans county, 
N. Y., January 3, 1832. and lived in her na- 
tive state until she was twenty-one years 
of age. having been married in 1851. at the 
age of nineteen years, to William H. Gil- 
let. Two years after their marriage Mr. 
and Mrs. Gillet came to Noble county and 
settled in Swan township. This was in 

Mr. Gillet was a painter and actively 
followed his trade, but he knew the advan- 
tages of rural home and property in land. 
He purchased eighty acres of land near 
Swan and there established their home. 
Twenty-one years afterward he contracted 
the disease often called "painter's colic," 
caused by lead poison, inhaled and absorbed 
when grinding and mixing materials of the 
paint. He died in 1874, leaving Mrs. Gil- 
let and seven children. Two had preceded 
him, in 1862. A third child died after the 
father's death. 

Mrs. Gillet held to the home and farm 
and kept her family together, rearing them to 
manhood and womanhood in habits of in- 
dustry and observance of strict morality. 
She was a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, having joined in her youth 
when the spiritual atmosphere glowed with 
clear light; when noble aspirations were un- 
diverted: when the path of duty was "strait" 
and profession imperatively implied prac- 
tice. In her old-fashioned estimation the 
true erlory of Christianity was without glit- 

ter or intermittent flashes: just a steady, 
beneficent, unblinding light — best and 
purest when devoid of all adventitious daz- 

Mrs. Gillet was a woman of practical 
energy, active usefulness and execu- 
tive ability. She maintained a good home 
for her children, taught them by precept 
and example the essential truths of enlight- 
ened humanity and dedicated them to ca- 
reers (if usefulness and honor. She has re- 
tired from the living procession, but the in- 
fluences of her life and deeds go mi. Her 
memory lives. May her spirit glow in the 
sculs of her posterity, so that the pages add- 
ed by "Old Settlers" of future times shall 
shine with kindred virtues. Six children 
survive her. with several grandchildren. 
One son is a resident and esteemed citizen 
of Albion, the foreman of Croft's Paragon 


An old settler of the year 1853. died at her 
home in Ligonier, March 1. 1896. aged 
fifty-three years, nine months and nine days. 
She was a native of Fairfield county, Ohio, 
born May 22, 1X42, a daughter of James 
and Leah Morrell. The first eleven years 
of her life passed in her native county. In 
1853 she came with her parents to Noble 

Xo unusual events or exceptional ex- 
periences affecting her family or herself are 
known during the first eight years. It is 
presumable that she had the ordinary op- 
portunities of a new- country f< r schi ol edu- 
cation. In her case they almost certainly 
consisted of about seventy-five days' priv- 
ilege of attendance at a log-cabin school in 


winter, with none of the modern appliances 
for illustration and aids to understanding. 
If the teacher had genius, ambition and en- 
thusiasm for the cause, the pupils were ex- 
ceptionally fortunate. If he was a young 
man poorly qualified by education, whose 
main thought was of the forty dollars com- 
ing the spring — whether he did well or 
not — then the school and patrons were for- 
tunate that it was no worse. As to Eliza- 
beth Morrell, individually, we are justified 
in assuming from subsequent developments 
that she profited by her educational oppor- 
tunities. If not in large acquirements in 
positive knowledge, yet in mental and spir- 
itual self -discipline. 

At the age of nineteen years she became 
a partner with Daniel B. Gerber in the pa- 
triotic enterprise of establishing a home 
and founding a new family line. The}- were 
married December 5. 1861. Her history 
for the next thirty-five years is that of most 
of the good women of the old-settler class, 
whose noble examples and efficient influ- 
ences were important, indispensable factors 
of progress and improvement — material, 
moral and spiritual. Knowing as we do 
that the brightest and best aspects of our 
civilization are reflections of the influence 
of the good women of the age of the pio- 
neers and old settlers, it is with peculiar 
pleasure, mournful though it be, that this 
association performs the duty of individual 
commemoration. Her residence of forty- 
three vears covered nearly the entire period 
of the process of development from primi- 
tive conditions to the splendors of advanced 
civilization. How different the Noble coun- 
ty upon which her farewell gaze lingered 
in 1896 from that on which the young girl 
first looked in 1853. What a magnificen: 

material superstructure! Yet how vain and 
hollow, how insignificant, without the in- 
dwelling graces of virtue, morality and spir- 
itual exaltation emanating from the lives 
and labors of them — the glorious "major- 
ity" — who have passed and are passing with- 
in the portals of the solemnly beautiful tem- 
ple whose arches bear the motto: "In Me- 

Mrs. Gerber left surviving her husband, 
Daniel B. Gerber, and five children: Mrs. 
John Yoder, of Ligonier; Mrs. Frank Reese, 
Airline Junction, Ohio; Mrs. W. H. Hart, 
Albion, Ind. ; Miss Carrie and Master Earle 
Gerber, Ligonier ; David Morrell, of Hol- 
den, Mo. : James A. Morrell ( brother of 
David), of Lagrange: and Mrs. A. C. 
Lantz, a widowed sister. 


In a group of citizens of Albion discuss- 
ing the Regulator movement, the inquiry 
was started, whether the world-famous 
criminal, Silas Doty, had anything to do 
with the blacklegism of Noble county at the 
time when its greatest prevalence called 
forth the organized efforts of the citizens 
to suppress it. The writer, remarking that 
a full life of Doty, dictated by himself, was 
somewhere extant, expressed a wish to see 
it, as it would probably settle that question. 
This reference is not to the pamphlet ac- 
count of his trial for the murder of Noyes, 
but a large book, containing a history of his 
life in detail. 

Washington Weaver immediately said 
he had that book, and the same evening the 
writer had possession of it — a nicely print- 
ed and well-bound book of nearly three hun- 
dred pages, giving a detailed narrative of a 



most wonderful criminal career of sixty 
years, from 1816 to 1876. The book was 
published in 1877 or 1878. Doty died in 
1876. He was born at St. Albans. Vt., 
May 30, 1800, the born devil in a respecta- 
ble Christian family, of exemplary parents 
and honorable brothers and sisters ; a family 
where prevailed an atmosphere of daily 
prayer and devotion to the best ideals of 
duty, and truth, and virtue. "Sile" was the 
satanic exception. He. was an irrepressible 
thief in early childhood and throughout his 
life. His energy and industry in crime 
were phenomenal and tireless, and aided by 
his wonderful criminal genius, raised (or 
lowered) him to the undisputed head- 
chieftainship of all the allied tribes of black- 
legs from Virginia to Nova Scotia, and 
from the Atlantic to the Mississippi river 
before he was forty years old. 

In 1823, at the age of twenty-three, with 
his pal. Wicks, he crossed the Atlantic and 
operated for nearly a year in the principal 
cities and adjacent rural districts of Eng- 
land, quickly becoming the leader of the 
desperate gang of thieves, burglars and 
highwaymen there — the most personally 
daring, skillful and resourceful of all. It 
was his purpose to remain in England, ex- 
tending his depredations to the continent of 
Europe until he amassed a fortune ; but 
when absent from London on a horse-steal- 
ing expedition the detectives found and 
raided the lodgings of Doty and Wicks, 
seized their plunder, consisting of money, 
jewelry and other valuable articles, and 
were watching to intercept them on their 
return. Being advised of this by vigilant 
friends they never returned to London; but 
made all haste, traveling by night to Lands 
End, on the southern coast, whence, in dis- 

guise and under assumed 'names, they es- 
caped on the first vessel for the United- 
States and landed in Xew York in the sum- 
mer of 1824. The stuff they had to leave 
behind in the hands of the police was worth 
several thousand dollars ; and they were 
thus compelled to regard the European en- 
terprise as a comparative failure. But 
"Sile" was not discouraged, and for the 
next ten years redoubled his energies and 
multiplied his stealings. In 1834 be moved 
to the west and settled near Adrian, Mich. 
Here he began his connection with the 
blacklegs of northern Indiana. Of that con- 
nection let him speak, in literal epiotations 
from his book. He says : 

"In the spring of 1834 I emigrated to 
Adrian. Mich.) or near there, and rented a. 
small house. * * * It took but a short 
time to become acquainted with all the 
villains in Clinton. Tecumseh, Adrian, Bliss- 
field, and soon in Toledo, Detroit, and as 
far west as Chicago, the Kankakee river 
country. Fort Wayne, Noble and Lagrange 
counties, in Indiana, and all the places in 
southern Michigan, and east to Milan, Nor- 
walk, Cleveland, and as far as Ashtabula. I 
found that a very inefficient ring had been 
formed between these places by our class 
of men; but so imperfect were its workings 
that it did but little. I immediately took the 
matter in hand, and as near as pi >ssible 
brought it up to my standard of thinking 
and doing — extending the ring south in In- 
diana to and along the Wabash river. This 
organization consisted of every possible 
grade of mean rascals — thieves, counter- 
feiters, burglars and highwaymen — who 
were guilty of every act that could be called 
crime under the law. Over this immense 
both- of men I was head chief, and ruled 


with an iron will, When I said. 'Do this or 
that.' it was done. * * *" On ac- 
count of space, only the briefest quotations 
have been given, mainly to establish the fact 
of Doty's intimate connection with the first 
dangerous organization of criminals in the 
country described. It was the greatest and 
most dangerous criminal organization in 
the history of the United States. Its con- 
nections radiated to every part of the coun- 
try east of the Mississippi and north of the 
Ohio, and included the greater portions of 
New York and Canada. 

The organized phase of blacklegism did 
not exist until Silas Doty appeared and cre- 
ated it, beginning in 1834, and extending 
and completing it so that it was in full work- 
ing order and activity about the beginning 
of T836; and it may be said to have com- 
menced its organic career simultaneously 
with that of Noble county; and when, in 
1856, the first aggressive movements of the 
Regulators were initiated, blacklegism as 
an organized power had been in operation 
twentv-five years and hail become an un- 
endurable tyranny. 


At the time of commencing the biog- 
raphy of Harrison Wood, no notice had been 
received of the death of any earlier settlers ; 
and it seemed, as was stated, that he was 
the oldest adult settler who died last year. 
But since the close of the meeting I have 
learned of one — Zenas J. Wright, of York 
township, who settled in 1836 — then nine- 
teen vears of age. He was ahead of Air. 
Wind niic year in date of settlement, and 
was old enough to be classed with the real 
pioneers. His biography should have head- 

ed the roll, in strict sequence to the order of 
dates alone; and it would, had he been re- 
ported. It is the proper idea in the fitness 
of things to give precedence to the "work- 
ing" pioneers. 

Zenas J. Wright was born in Massa- 
chusetts, November 12. 1817. His parents, 
Zenas and Nancy (Willis) Wright, soon 
after went to New York, where the sub- 
ject's youth was passed. It was quite pio- 
neerish then, even in "York sta.e." The 
family came to Noble county in 1836 and 
settled in section 2, York township. They 
were workers ; and a finer looking, more 
stalwart and impressive family of me': — 
father and sons — were seldom ieen. The 
father was a leading Baptist, a deacon of 
the church and was notable and influential 
in society and in religious and educational 
enterprises. So also was the mother and 
sons. There was a flavor of Puritanism, 
that some of the free and easy pioneers af 
fected to scoff at as exclusiveness ; but their 
honest loyalty to the genius of Americri 1 
constitutional liberty, their conservative in- 
fluence in favor of right and justice were 
unquestioned. In short they were the best 
kind of pioneers. 

Zenas J., in 1841, at the age of twenty- 
four, married Mary Ann Arnold and pur- 
chased eighty acres of land, the west half 
of northwest quarter of section 11, and built 
his hom£ directly south, within sight of the 
paternal home. Subsequent purchases in- 
creased his farm to two hundred and eighty 

The citizens of York township showed 
their recognition of Zenas J. Wright's char- 
acter and ability in calling him to public 
service, eight years as township trustee and 
many years as justice of the peace. He 



was not an office-seeker. The best men for 
official services were not then, and never 
have been, seekers for it. 

The writer knew "Juclson" Wright 
forty-six years. Memory teems with inci- 
dents, events, anecdotes and attributes, but 
time and space will not permit the indul- 
gence of a full, descriminative estimate. 
His life and character is one of the many 
stars whose beneficent glow beautifies the 
horizon of memory. 

Mrs. Wright died in 1SS1, leaving nine 
children, five sons and four daughters: 
Silas J., William W., Zenas M., Isaac A., 
Adoniram J., Christa, Elsie ].. Emma and 
Minnie. These sons and daughters doubt- 
less realize the truth that the invisible cur- 
rents of heredity flow on forever, making 
or marring, accordingly as they are kept 
free and clear, or become obstructed and 
turbid. Mr. Wright died October 28, 1896, 
aged seventy-nine years, eleven months and 
sixteen days. 


Wife of Vincent Lane, deceased, was born 
in Pickaway county, Ohio, December 14, 
]8io. Vincent Lane was a native of the 
same county, born January 31, 1803. They 
were married there December 28, 1828. 
Nine years later, in 1837, they came with 
their children and settled in Noble county, 
hid., making their home in York township. 
Mr. Lane had, before moving in the fall of 
J 835, entered one hundred and twenty acres 
in section 30, and a fractional eight}- in 
section 31. of that township. He subse- 
quently owned three hundred and twenty 
acres in York township. 

Vincent Lane became at once a promi- 

nent and leading pioneer. llis character 
and administrative ability at once attracted 
the confidence of the people in the "capital" 
township of the county. Unfortunately his 
brilliant career was stopped by death, twelve 
years after his settlement. He died in De- 
cember, 1X49, of king fever. He had been 
for several prior a comity commissioner, 
and figured prominently in public affairs. 
The writer never knew him personally, hav- 
ing been in the comity only three months be- 
fore his death, hut remembers well the sym- 
pathy and sorrow expressed everywhere on 
the occasion of his death at the early age of 
forty-six years. 

Of Mrs. Lane's characteristics nothing 
could be learned, having never been honored 
by personal acquaintance. She stood high 
in the affectionate esteem of those who 
knew her best, and who concur in attribut- 
ing to her in a high degree the qualities of 
mind and heart that constitute a noble- wo- 
manhood. Mrs. Lane died December 14, 
1896, aged eighty-six years, fifty-nine of 
which were passed in Noble comity, lacking 
but one of all the years of the county's or- 
ganic existence. Forty-seven of those years 
she was a widow. 

Although not personally acquainted 
with either Mr. or Mrs. Lane, the writer 
enjoyed the acquaintance and. it is believed, 
friendship of their sons, George H., John 
C, Lewis and Joseph: and thus had the 
privilege of seeing the inherited intellectual 
and spiritual qualities of the parents as ex- 
hibited in the lives of the offspring. Good 
stock is evidenced by good fruit : and these 
were and are. naturally, examples of excel- 
lent manhood, abounding in mental capac- 
ity, kindness of heart and vivacity of spirit. 
It is said that "the gem of truth lies in 

9 6 


the bottom o the well." That means that 
our just estii lates of the germs of history 
must be derived from the deepest views — 
not from superficial glances. And, as a 
clear view of the gem in the well is impossi- 
ble when the water above is agitated or tur- 
bid, and we have to wait until it is calm and 
clear, so is just recognition of true character 
or just estimates of things done or omitted, 
policies advocated and theories advanced, 
difficult or impossible while the storm of 
agitation and discussion rages . and the 
clouds of temporary prejudice obscure the 
light. The holy time of calm will sooner or 
later surely come. Truth will be seen. 
Right will be vindicated ; and while we may 
be remorsefully ashamed of ourselves for 
mis judgments and misconceptions, the soul 
will be true to itself. The God-in-man will 
resume the throne, and infinite happiness 
will attend the expurgation of error and the 
revelation of right. 


The story of the Noble County Star has 
been written under difficulties. The facts 
were mainly from hearsay evidence. Tlse 
paper stopped before the writer had become 
acquainted with the people, connected with 
it, except partially and as a stranger in the 
county. Coming to the history of its suc- 
cessor, the Albion Observer, the writer en- 
ters the field of personal knowledge, as well 
as of motive and aim, and of every detail 
and incident. In telling the story he begs 
the indulgence of readers in using the "third 

The purchaser of the Star came to Noble 
county on a visit and stopped at Northport, 
on the north bank of the Reservoir ( now 

Sylvan lake), on the nth of September, 
J 1849. He had never before been within 
four hundred miles of Noble count}-, and 
was an entire stranger to everybody except 
one man — J. C. Alvord, his uncle. He had 
been studying law in northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania, and. being a consumptive invalid, 
sought change of scene and climate and re- 

That was an ideal autumn. No poet 
ever described a lovelier. And the mystic 
glory of it did not fade. The air was balmy 
and the mellow light was golden — all the 
time — for two months. He did nothing but 
ramble and lounge, and drink in the quiet 
beauty of sky and lake and woods. It was 
a long, delicious day-dream, and in it came 
returning health. He said: "Surely this 
is God's country," and .stayed, instead of re- 
turning in October as originally intended. 

Accepting an invitation to teach the win- 
ter school, — in a log house in the woods, 
eighty rods southwest of the lake. — he 
passed the winter there and at Northport. 
becoming acquainted with the delightful. 
hospitable people and making a few trips on 
foot to Albion, the county seat. At Albion 
he became slightlv acquainted with several 
of the citizens, especially with YV. A. Coon, 
clerk of the hotel, his father, Michael Coon, 
being proprietor (it is now Mathew's har- 
ness shop and residence, northeast corner of 
Jefferson and Orange streets) ; W. M. Clapp, 
auditor; John McMeans, treasurer; H. H. 
Hitchcock, recorder; William F. Engel, 
clerk, and some others. William H. Austin, 
the newspaper man, was not always at home, 
being much engaged as a violinist for balls. 
But an interview took place, in which Aus- 
tin made known his desire to sell the plant; 
and learning that the proposed vendee had 


mi money to pay, nor property of any kind 
to trade for it, offered to turn it ever without 
a dollar down, taking a note and mortgage 
on the plant, stipulating for the filling out 
of all advance paid subscriptions to the Star 
to be applied on the purchase price. There 
were many of these subscriptions on which 
six months remained unsupplied. Austin 
was to continue the Star until certain legal 
"ads." then running were published the full 
time. That would bring it to about the ist 
of March. The bargain was closed on those 
terms, and the purchaser returned to^ finish 
his teaching and to look out for an office 
force, particularly a foreman. Austin's 
foreman and' printers had already secured 
employment elsewhere and would not stay 
beyond the time indicated. 

Homer King, of Fort Wayne, an ex- 
commission merchant of that city and a 
brother-in-law of J. C. Alvord, was an oc- 
casional visitor to the hitter's home at North- 
port. He had failed in business at Fort 
Wavne, and, being out of a job and "broke," 
proposed to join in the newspaper "enter- 
prise" as a partner. His capital consisted 
of a good business education, much costly 
experience in profitless ventures, a bright, 
genial and generous nature, and an extensive 
acquaintance with the people of Noble coun- 
ty as well as in Fort Wayne, the then great 
emporium of all northeastern Indiana, and 
which had a population about the same as 
that of Albion at this time. 

King felt confident of enlisting en- 
couragement from business men of the "big 
city," and of obtaining a good list of sub- 
scribers and considerable advertising ( the 
event proved that his confidence was not en- 
tirely visionary), and what was more for- 
tunate he was intimately acquainted with a 

good printer at Fort Wayne, whom he felt 
sure of engaging, James B., Scott. The 
partnership was agreed upon and King went 
forth on his mission. 

All this had taken time, and the decease 
of the Noble County Star was close at hand. 
That even occurred the first week in March. 
1850. Mr. Austin's arrangements required 
immediate departure ; his hands, all except- 
ing his "devil," who was his younger broth- 
er, had gone several days before, as soon as 
the types were set for the last number. So, 
after "striking off" the last sheet and dis- 
tributing the papers, be had left with Re- 
corder Hitchcock, the key of the office and 
authority to deliver the plant to S. E. Alvod, 
and was off. This message, with a "good- 
by," was brought to the new proprietor at 
Northport by young Austin, who said his 
brother, with wife and child, had gone by 
the Lisbon road on their way to Steuben 
county, and he was to rejoin them at Ken- 
dallville. He also brought a note from Mr. 
Hitchcock to the same effect, saying "the 
printing materials would be safe and undis- 
turbed until called for by me." "Teems" 
and "Bill" and "Wes" had disappeared, and 
the Star had set forever. 

No word of King's success, or other- 
wise, had been received. The printer and 
foreman was needed badly to "right up" the 
office and get the forms in shape for a new- 
paper. But something, perhaps, could be 
done without him. The new editor had not 
yet become acquainted with his plant. He 
knew but little, and that vaguely, about the 
details of a "printing shop." While wait- 
ing for the master hand to give it form and 
power, why not see what were its o rii- 
ponents? He would do it. Accordingly on 
a bright morning of the brightest March Ik- 


ever saw, before or after, he leisurely went 
on foot over the nine miles of rough road 
from Northport to Albion. Observing the 
few farm openings, the first of which, if 
recollection is correct, was the (now) Os- 
born place, then a rough log house, and 
immediately north of it one of the finest 
peach orchards in the country, the rich ripe 
glories of which had evoked his admiration 
the previous September when he had stopped 
and accosted the owner, a giant Irish-Amer- 
ican, sitting in the doorway, and talked with 
him about the peaches, so very large and 
beautiful, so thickly clustered on the hun- 
dred trees that the orchard seemed a solid 
mass of gold and crimson fruit. That farm- 
er was James B. Kelley, afterward one of 
the most popular hotel managers and pro- 
prietors in northern Indiana, and one of the 
writer's earliest and best friends. In the few 
opened farms on the way oats had been 
sown, and ox-teams were dragging in the 
seed, raising little puffs of dust." Cyrus 
Kimmell's (now Huston's) and the Kline 
farm are remembered as scenes of this work. 
At that time they were unknown to the ob- 
server. Memory is not clear as to David 
Bucher's place (now M. ,H. Kimmfll's). 
The next opening now remembered, and the 
last before reaching Albion., was Barnum's. 
Present impression is that lie was at work 
on the hillside near his cabin, at the south 
end of his farm, singing till the woods rang 
and the birds joined in. He was a good 
singer and whistler fifty years ago. All 
these things, the perfect weather, the dry 
roads, the rich soil, the magnificent woods, 
the early farming and the pleasant people 
confirmed the impressions of the preceding- 
fall ; and the pedestrian came into Albion 
thoroughly in love with this truly Noble 

county. Hope elevated his thoughts and 
gave him the "big-head," a marked and 
pitiable development of visionary exaltation 
that was to last until "shaking ague" should _ 
come and jerk the conceit out of him. And 
it did come — but that was afterward. It 
need not be anticipated. 

Recorder Hitchcock promptly escorted 
him to the middle door of the south row of 
rooms on the ground floor of the court 
house, gave him the key, and, saying he was 
just then being hurried to finish an urgent 
job of recording, hastened back to his office 
at the east end. Soon the prospective editor 
stood in that silent room and gazed around. 
There was an empty, old-fashioned fire-place 
at the south side in the center, and a large 
window each side of the chimney. On the 
window-sills were little piles of "pi," mix- 
tures of various fonts of types that had been 
swept up and deposited there when the of- 
fice boy had no time to separate and dis- 
tribute them ; several warped wooden gal- 
leys leaned against the wall, under the win- 
dows; a hand-press stood in the center of 
the room, the bed elaborately checked with 
lines of rust, the tympan thrown back and 
the frisket elevated, held up by a hook sus- 
pended from the ceiling; type stands lined 
against the end walls and backed against 
the chimney sides to get the best light from 
the two windows against the north walls; 
on either side of the door were heavy tables, 
bearing imposing "stones" of iron in sec- 
tions of 26x34 inches, the upper surfaces 
smoothly ground and polished originally, 
but then reddened and roughened by rust. 
On these iron slabs were the forms of the 
last issue of the Noble County Star, undis- 
tributed and badly pied, and several job 
forms of various sizes, demoralized and 



sprawling, showing many evidences oi 
"picking," many of the picked letters being 
found in the title-head, date lines and hear! 
lines of the paper forms. The whole was a 
most discouraging jumble. Over all was a 
grim accumulation of soot and ashes which 
the March winds had whirled from the wide 
chimney and fire-place, and even as the on- 
looker stood there an occasional breeze mur- 
mured in the chimney and spirit voices 
seemed plaintively saying : 

" Ashes to ashes: dust to dust." 

The first obvious thing to be done was 
to remove the dust and ashes. A greenhorn 
know enough for that. And it was while 
he was engaged with the office bellows, w.ith 
coat off and door and windows open, that 
Mr. Hitchcock again appeared and said the 
room was designed for the clerk's office and 
would have to be vacated soon, as the newly 
elected clerk, Nelson Prentiss, would move 
in early in the summer. He added that there 
was a vacant building belonging to the es- 
tate of Jacob 'Walters, deceased, whose heirs 
and widow were in Ohio, but whose agent, 
Ephraim Foster, resided in Jefferson town- 
ship, this county, and he offered to assist in 
obtaining permission to move the plant into 
that building and in securing a lease. Was 
ever greater kindness? The hearts of the 
people seemed to glow in and reflect the sun- 
shine of that matchless March. The Very 
next day Mr. Foster was in town: a lease 
by the month, at three dollars per month, 
was agreed upon, and before night the editor 
was cleaning the room for the new printing 
office and perspiring profusely. Water had 
to be carried about two hundred feet fn im a 
pond which then covered most of the ground 
now occupied by the Presbyterian church 

and parsonage and the houses of Mr. E. 
Lloyd and the Sarah Bradley estate. The 
only house in that vicinity was the late |udge 
Wildman's, a one-stor) house located on the 
ground now occupied by X. 1'. Eagles' fine 
brick mansion. It was north of the west 
end of the pond. But the writer wishes most 
to call attention to the water-carrying. It 
was done freely, without price, by some vil- 
lage boys who offered their services as soon 
as they saw the printer man toting his first 
bucketful. It seemed by that time to be 
generally understood that this printer fellow 
was penniless, and couldn't fiddle nor teach 
dancing; therefore, everybody, even the little 
boys, were ready to help hem. Ah! the 
glorious sunshine had a sweeter glow from 
such deeds of genuine, spontaneous glad- 
ness. ( Does the reader begin to wonder 
what this has to do with the history of the 
press? The writer feels that it is essentially 
a constituent phase of that history, and the 
single query, whether an impecunious 
stranger could have gone forward with the 
work in the face of coldness and frowning 
discouragement instead of the cordial kind- 
ness which he did meet will suggest the rea- 
son why it is an essential part of the storv — 
the true history. ) 

From the chaotic mass of material of 
the fallen Star Messrs. Alvord and King 
finally succeeded in launching their new en- 
terprise, and on June 6, 1850, the number of 
the Albion Observer was presented. In pol- 
itics it was Democratic and its subscription 
price was one dollar and a half per annum. 
Its Democracy, however, was not of the 
orthodox persuasion, being an advocate of 
the doctrine of "Free Soil." with limita- 
tion of the extension of slavery ah nig the 
lino laid down by the Indiana Democracy 


and its platform of 1848. But it was not 
destined for a long life. In the win- 
ter of 185 1-2 Mr. King severed his con- 
nection and went to California. Mr. Alvord 
continued the publication until the following 
Decanber, and then stopped its publication 
owing to want of sufficient patronage, the ; 
circulation never exceeding four hundred 
copies while advertising was comparatively 
nothing. On the discontinuance of the Ob- 
server a small local paper, the Noble County 
Expositor, devoted to financial and official 
affairs of the county, was issued by S. E. 
Alvord, and continued until March, 1850, 
when it was discontinued. From that date 
until 1854 Albion had no paper ; but in that 
year John W. Bryant, of Warsaw, Koscius- 
ko county, brought an outfit to the town and 
commenced the publication of a Democratic 
paper under the name of the Albion Pal- 
ladium. Theodore Tidball became a part- 
ner of Mr. Bryant, and the paper was issued 
from an office located east of the present 
site of R. L. Stone's drug store, William M. 
Clapp owning the building. 

In the spring of 1855 the press and ma- 
terial were levied on by parties in Kosciusko 
county. With the characteristic energy of 
the men in newspaper business in those days, 
Mr. Bryant went to Columbia City with his 
office force and obtained the privilege of 
issuing the Albion Palladium from the of- 
fice of the Whitley County Democrat. The 
paper was folded, addressed and brought to 
Albion in a buggy each week and there dis- 
tributed. S. E. Alvord gave his assistance 
to Mr. Bryant during these trying days, 
which continued until the autumn of 1855. 
In the meantime Mr. Tidball was hard at 
work organizing a stock company, which 
was finally accomplished, and that fall the 

paper resumed publication in Albion under 
the name of the Noble County Palladium,. 
Tidball & Bryant editors and publishers. Its 
life, however, was brief, and after engag- 
ing with considerable activity and much 
partisan bitterness in the company it closed 
its career in 1856. The press and material 
were purchased by S. E. Alvord, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1857, commenced the publication of 
the Noble County Democrat, G. I. Z. Ray- 
houser, of Fort Wayne, being associated 
with him. 

To follow the fluctuating fortunes of the 
various journals which have sought favor 
and patronage in Albion and other towns 
and cities of Noble county would require 
much space. We therefore briefly summar- 
ize, in order to maintain as near as possible 
a connective record. The Democrat re- 
mained in the field under the editorship of 
S. E. Alvord until 1858, and was discon- 
tinued until September, 1859, when a new 
series was started under the same name by 
E. L. Alvord, a printer from the office of 
the New York Tribune. The end came De- 
cember 25, 1859, and the Noble County 
Democrat became a thing of the past. 

Near the close of the year i860 Joshua 
R. Randall bought the material of S. E. Al- 
vord and commenced the publication of the 
Albion Herald. Mr. Randall was a gentle- 
man of considerable ability and good busi- 
ness qualities, and shortly after the com- 
mencement of the Civil war removed the 
paper and material to Ligonier. The next 
venture to maintain a paper in Albion was 
by Kimmell Brothers, hardware dealers, 
who started the Albion Advertiser, in 1866. 
On the removal of Mr. Kimmell to Ne- 
braska the paper was discontinued and the 
material stored in the office of C. O. Meyers, 


who was the purchaser. Several years 

elapsed before any further effort was made 
to establish a paper. But in the fall of 
1872 S. E. Alvord again made an effort, 
purchasing material for jobbing purposes. 
This, however, awoke the business commu- 
nity to their wants, and at the solicitation 1 f 
many citizens he started the New Era. It 
first appeared as a quarto-medium sheet, 
was enlarged t< > a half-medium and soon 
after blossomed into a six-column Folio. 
Thus the first successful journal of Albion 
was established and the ambition of Mr. 
Alvord rewarded. Its circulation grew rap- 
idly, until in 7875 it reached twelve hundred 
subscribers and was enlarged to an eight- 
column folio. In 1876 Jacob P. Prickett 
and Thomas A. Starr purchased the paper. 
Mr. Alvord retiring. It was then enlarged 
to a nine-column folio, and its policy from 
an independent journal to independent Re- 
publican. In 1878 Mr. Starr retired and 
the paper passed into the control of Mr. 
Prickett. Notwithstanding the defeat of the 
Republican party in the county that year 
Mr. Prickett made the Xew Era a straight 
Republican paper, changing its shape to an 
eight-column folio in 1881 to a six-column 

It will thus be seen that Albion has the 
honor of being the birthplace of journalism 
in Noble county. Efforts, however, were 
made by ambitious young men and politi- 
cians in other localities. It seems that in 
1856, and prior to the presidential campaign 
of that year, a number of Ligonier's promi- 
nent business men and active Republicans 
felt the necessity of having a paper and went 
to Sturgis, Michigan, for the purpose of in- 
ducing the proprietor of the Tribune of that 
place to move their office to Ligonier. -\ 

money consideration and a guaranteed sub- 
scription list of twenty-five hundred was of- 
fered, with liberal patronage in advertising 
and job work. The offer was accepted by 
.Messrs. Woodward & Miller, of the Sturgis 
Tribune, and in less than two weeks there- 
after the first issue of the Republican made 
its appearance. Adrian B. Miller, of Lig- 
onier, was its editor, a brilliant and able 
writer. The paper continued until after the 
campaign and then, about the first of the 
year, was sold to the leading members of. the 
Republican party, J. R. Randall assuming 
the editorial chair and business management. 
Early in 1857 Judson Palmiter, Arnold 
& Pierce became its publishers and editors, 
under a company of about forty stockhold- 
ers, several of whom resided in Albion, 
Kendallville and other portions of the coun- 
ty. Under the conditions its life was some- 
what fitful, and in i860 Mr. Palmiter pur- 
chased the material (except press), moved 
to Kendallville and began the publication of 
the Noble County Journal. Ligonier was, 
therefore, again without a Republican paper, 
and in 1S80 Republicans succeeded in in- 
ducing Mr. E. G. Thompson, of Michigan, 
to li cate there, and on June 4. [880, the first 
number of the Leader was issued. From its 
inception it has met with success and now 
ranks among the best papers in Noble coun- 
ty. In 1800 prominent Democrats of the 
county were anxious to have a thorough 
Democratic paper, and after a prolonged 
conference with Mr. J. I!. Sti ill, of Pennsyl- 
vania, then on a visit in Avilla, an arrange- 
ment was made which resulted in the pub- 
lication of the National Banner, May 3, 
1800. The proprietors were J. P.. Stoll and 
Tin -mas J. Smith. The latter gentleman 
si on sold his interest to Mr. Stoll, who be- 


came sole owner and editor. Its patronage 
rapidly increased, a new building was 
erected to accommodate its increased 
growth, steam power was introduced, and it 
now ranks among the best equipped plants 
in the county. In 1879 the name of the 
paper was changed to the Ligonier Banner ; 
the paper enlarged from an eight-column 
folio to a six-column quarto. In 1881 James 
E. McDonald purchased a half interest in 
the Banner, assuming the chair of the local 
department. It is now known as the .Banner 
Publishing Company, and continues to exert 
a strong influence in county and state pol- 

Kendallville began to feel the wants of 
representation in the journalistic field as 
early as 1862. In that year Barron & Stowe 
issued a small paper, neutral in politics and 
designed for the troops quartered there, 
making a specialty of war news. After two 
years it was sold to O. C. Myers. In 1869 
Hopkins & Piatt began the publication of 
the Daily Bulletin. It was rechristened the 
Independent after a few months, and within 
a year ceased to exist. In 1872 Roof Broth- 
ers issued a small sheet named the Semi- 
Weekly Times; it lived but six months, but 
made a strong crusade against intemperance. 
Kendallville now enjoys the distinction of 
having four excellent papers: The News, 
an eight-page paper, published by Dr. A. S. 
Parker, independent in politics, and estab- 
lished in 1877. The Journal, established in 
1889. Democratic in politics, published by 
O. H. Downey. The Standard was estab- 
lished in 1863, Republican in politics, pub- 
lished by Conlogue & Rerick. The Bee- 
Keepers' Guide, established in 1876, a 
monthly publication devoted to bee culture, 
A. G. Hill, editor and proprietor. 

The town of Avilla has a well conducted 
paper, the News, established in 1886, eight 
pages, independent in politics; Harry L. 
Askew is the editor and publisher. 

Rome City has, enjoyed the luxury of 
several publications. In May, 1876, the Re- 
view made its appearance under the editor- 
ship of Dr. Thornton. After a few months 
he sold to Air. J. R. Rheubottom. In pol- 
itics it is strongly Republican. The same 
year the -paper was removed to Wolcott- 
ville. Three years later (1879) Mr. Rheu- 
bottom established the Rome City Times, ad- 
vocating the "Greenback" doctrine. The 
venture lasted but seven months. In 1879 
Rev. Lowman & Warner started the publica- 
tion of the Herald of Gospel Freedom, de- 
voted to the interests of the Church of God. 
It was finally removed to Indianapolis. 
During the year 1880 W. T. Grose con- 
ducted a Republican paper called the Rome 
City Sentinel, which only lived until after 
the October election of that year. 


The publishers of this volume are in- 
debted to a valued and reliable correspond- 
ent, a journalist at Albion, Ind., for the 
following brief record of the career of Sam- 
uel E. Alvord, the editor of the Star and 
the able Albion county historian : 

"On his first appearance in Albion Sam- 
uel E. Alvord's dignified and noble bearing, 
his fine, imposing appearance, his correct, 
chaste and easy flow of language, as well 
as his entire freedom from ostentation, 
pointed him out as a verv desirable addition 
to the society of the place, and commanded 
the almost immediate confidence and en- 
couragement of the intelligent and inflnen- 



tial portion of the community, and in a short 
time the correctness of said first impres- 
sions were verified to the satisfaction of the 
whole community. 

"He first grasped the editorial pen. and 
soon newspaper columns reflected his thor- 
ough and accurate knowledge of politics ; his 
political speeches evidenced his much mure 
than ordinary oratorical powers ; his fre- 
quent lectures upon literary and scientific 
subjects plainly showed his wide survey of 
the wide fields of literature and science, 
while the rhetorical and captivating orations 
delivered by him, upon various occasions, 
plainly exhibited his intimate acquaintance 
with both ancient and classic lore, as well as 
with fiction of the highest order. There- 
fore, when his universally conceded high 
mental endowments, together with the high 
literary and scientific attainments exhibited 
by him at the early period above alluded to, 
are remembered, as well as the further well- 
known fact that these were supplemented by 
half a century of further incessant, unre- 
mitting research in the same wide-spread 
but delightful fields, I feel that the high at- 
tainments I have claimed for him should not 
be considered exaggeration. 

"While his religious views, upon certain 
points, perhaps, can not be considered in 
strict harmony with the strict standards of 
orthodoxy, still, perhaps, no one had a clear- 
er vision of 'God in every tree," or more 
plainly heard the Divine voice 'in the winds.' 
And it may truthfully be said of him that he 
needed not 'the wrath of the mad, unchained 
elements to teach who rules them.' 

"And whether beholding the 'heavens on 
fire with falling thunderbolts/ or viewing 
the 'milder majesty' of the great I Am, he 
believed it the duty of every one to learn 

to 'conform the order of his life to the 
beautiful order of the great Creator." as 
plainly exhibited in his works. He never 
made any public profession of religion, lie- 
cause, as he claimed, he believed that certain 
church dogmas were to a considerable ex- 
tent tinctured with some of the ancient and 
medieval forms of superstition, still he al- 
ways manifested a strong anxiety for the 
progress of the cause, feeling that such 'il- 
lusory beliefs," which to some extent had 
substituted the 'mysterious and the occult 
for the natural and the common place." were 
being rapidly eliminated from church creeds 
by more and more liberal constructions 
thereof. Such objections he seemed to seri- 
ously deplore as hindrances to the progress 
of a great cause. — simplv 'tares among the 
wheat,' and, therefore, all calls by the church 
for material aid, generally, met with ready 
and liberal responses from him. 

"He was not a politician in the usual 
modern acceptation of the term, nor was it 
possible for him to become a popular one 
with a majority of such, as his mind towered 
so immeasurably above the usual debasing, 
revolting tricks and demagogism resorted to 
in the modern manipulation of political 
wires, that when any such debasing condi- 
tions were proposed, as necessary prelim- 
inaries to success, they were so promptly 
repelled that,' generally, offense followed. 
To him they were simply insulting ti 1 the 
native simplicity and commendable dignity 
which actuated and governed his political 

"He was imperfect because human. ( >c- 
casionally he exhibited weaknesses that were 
regretted by his friends, and. also, by him- 
self, but, to a great extent, these were ob- 
literated by his very many towering virtues. 


as the weak, twinkling light of the stars is 
obscured by the much more powerful beams 
of the glorious orb of day. But there are 
still a few who remember his weaknesses 
and seem to glory in them, as it always has 
been, that 

" Certain minds look upon the lily with microscopic eyes, 
Eager and glad to seek out specks on its robe of purity 
And now, as ever, it is found that 

Great minds gaze on the sun, glorying in his bright- 
And taking large knowledge of his good, in the broad 
prairies of creation: 
What, though he hatch basilisks? what though spots 

are on the sun? 
In fullness is his worth, in fullness be his praise." 

"As is generally known, his greatest 
weakness was his 'unthinking generosity' in 
money matters. 

"But the same weakness was exhibited 
by Webster, Clay ami others among the 
greatest and best men of the nation, vet by 
a great and appreciative people these spots 
are obscured by the gigantic intellects, the 
great services and the many noble virtues 
of the men. 

"Like those just mentioned, it seemed 
that the great desire of Mr. Alvord for the 
acquisition of knowledge so far dominates 
that for the accumulation of wealth, as to 
leave him but little time to- devote to the 
latter, and the result was that he died com- 
paratively poor in point of earthly treasure. 
But though no costly, ponderous monument 
shall be erected to his memory to point fu- 
ture generations to his honored dust still his 
venerable form, his exalted mind, his tower- 
ing intellect, his useful life and his 'unpub- 
lished charity' will be remembered long 
after the costly marble placed over the grave 
of many among the gay, the wealthy and the 
proud, who died with plethoric purses, but 

impoverished minds, shall have crumbled 
and their names shall cease to be 'uttered, 
revered or even remembered.' 

"And the good people of Noble and sur- 
rounding counties are anxiously awaiting 
the unveiling of the monument to his mem- 
ory which will prove much more durable 
than polished granite and which is, for the 
present, deposited in the sanctum of the pub- 
lisher of 'Alvord's History of Noble Coun- 
I ty. Indiana," and which is confidently e 
pected not only to rescue from oblivion very 
much valuable and interesting matter con- 
nected with the history of said county, but 
also to faithfully reflect the calm, benevolent 
and highly intellectual features, indisputable 
evidences of the classical learning and clas- 
sical style of its eminent author, as well as 
to throw 'streams of light' on his many 
'deeds of love and the glorious record of his 
many virtues.' May it ever be 'held up to 
men, bidding them claim a palm like his. and 
catch from him the hallowed flame." " 

The folloing brief biographies are taken 
from addresses made by Mr. Alvord at the 
meeting of Old Settlers, at various times, 
and reproduced here by himself: 

Mercy Hopkins was born in Pittsford, 
Rutland county, Vt.. January 3, 1803, 
and died at the residence of her son. Frank 
A. Baker, in Allen township, Noble county. 
Ind.. March 22, 1895. aged ninety-two 
years, two months and nine days. She was 
married to Silas S. M< tt April 1, [821. To 
this union were born two sons and one 
daughter: Matthew. Silas and Ruinda 
( Potter), all of whom preceded their mother 
to the spirit world many years. After the 



death of her first husband she married 
Alpheus Baker, February 7, 1830, who died 
in January. 1888, in his ninety-third year. 
By her last marriage seven children were 
born, four of whom, Timothy, Caleb, Mary 
(Richards) and Frank are still living. For 
the past twenty-five years her home had been 
with her youngest son, Frank, four miles 
south of the city of Kendallville. 

Mr. and Mrs. Baker came to Noble 
county in August, 1836, and settled in a 
log cabin which stood near the present site 
of the school-house in Lisbon. A year or 
two later they removed about half a mile 
further west and began to make a home on 
what has been known for years as the Baker 
farm, then an unbroken forest, and now oc- 
cupied by Mr. T. D. Baughman and Mr. 
'George Tyler. Mr. and Mrs. Baker's fam- 
ily was the third to settle in Allen town- 
ship, Mr. G. T. Ulmer's being the first. He 
came in 1834 and settled where hidings' ad- 
dition to Kendallville is now located; Sam- 
uel Weimer's was second. They came in 
the spring of 1836 and settled near Avilla. 

When Mr. and Mrs. Baker arrived in 
Noble county there were ten in their fam- 
ily, four of Mr. Baker's by a previous mar- 
riage, three by her first marriage and three 
by their last union. They came with little 
means, and the privations and hardships 
peculiar to settlers in a new and heavily- 
timbered country were experienced by them. 
They brought, however, an abundant sup- 
ply of indomitable energy, perseverance, 
heroic endurance and fortitude, which 
served them even better than money, and 
they prospered, reared their children and 
lived to see them fill honored and useful 
places in life. Mrs. Baker was a well- 

formed, healthy woman, and possessed a 
rugged constitution, an essential requisite to 
resist and combat the sickly malarial influ- 
ences so peculiar to the early history of this 
county. She seemed well fitted for pioneer 
life and appeared to enjoy it. She was a 
most exemplary Christian woman, endowed 
with all the attributes of a grand and noble 
womanhood, and it may be said of her that 
she filled and rounded out the full measure 
of life's aims, purposes and duties. She 
was never happier than when ministering to 
the comfort and happiness of her family, her 
neighbors and friends. 

A peculiar feature, and one that deserves 
more than passing notice, is the war record 
of her family, of which she was justly proud. 
Mr. Baker, her husband, was a soldier yi 
the war of 1812, and no less than six of her 
sons and two sons-in-law took prominent 
parts in the bloody drama of the war of the 
Rebellion, and several of them carry gun- 
shot wounds inflicted upon them during the 
contest. During the last year or two of 
her life she was afflicted somewhat with 
rheumatic trouble, but the immediate cause 
of her death was perhaps the result of a fall 
she sustained in February last, which frac- 
tured the bones of her hip. She was ten- 
derly cared for 'by Mr. and Mrs. Frank- 
Baker and her daughter. Mrs. Mary Rich- 
ards, who was called here from her home 
in Michigan. Her funeral took place on 
Sunday afternoon and was largely attended. 
Mrs. Elizabeth (Crone) Jones, of Garret, 
a former neighbor and highly prized friend, 
delivered an impressive funeral discourse. 
The remains were laid beside those of her 
family in the Lisbon cemetery near by, and 
overlooked the scenes of her pioneer home. 



Was a native of Jefferson county, ' N. 
Y., born in LeRoy township, August 16, 
1816. He came to Noble county, Ind., 
in 1843, am l settled in Swan township on 
the land he occupied until his death. In 
1850 he married Jane E. Knapp, to which 
union were horn five children, two of whom 
preceded them to the spirit land. Mr. Lyon 
died at his home in Swan township on the 
28th day of July, 1895, aged seventy-eight 
years, eleven months and twelve days. 

"When Mr. Lyon settled in Swan town- 
ship the general condition of the country 
was but little advanced from that of 1840 — 
the original date of this association. The 
only distinction between them is the arbi- 
trary one of time, and it is well known that 
to the settler whose land war? uncleared and 
cabin to he built the outlook in 1843 was Dut 
very little better than in 1840. The real 
test, after all, is in the actual circumstances 
of the case. Air. Lyon was a man of twen- 
ty-seven years when he came. He became 
a worker in the mission of improvement and 
civilization at a time when some who now 
outrank him as old settlers (in time) were 
young children, incapable to "either hold or 
drive" the plow of progress. An attack of 
hip disease at the age of sixteen years seri- 
ously threatened his life, and for five years 
he struggled uncertainly between death and 
life. He partially recovered, but during his 
whole after life was afflicted and his physical 
energies impaired. His condition governed 
in choice of occupation and he became a 
school teacher, continuing in that honorable 
and useful vocation for many years with a 
success that gained him popular esteem and 
exerted a salutary and elevatirs' influence. 

He settled permanently in 1843 and 
made his home, though unmarried, on the 
farm where he died. Seven years after his 
settlement, as before stated, he was married 
to Miss Jane E. Knapp. Especially during 
the earlier years of his life on Noble county 
soil Mr. Lyon experienced more than an 
ordinary share of the hardships and priva- 
tions of pioneer life. He had to endure and 
suffer many things which an able-bodied 
man could have overcome or avoided. He 
was an enemy to injustice, dishonesty and 
crime, and was an active member of the 
"Regulators" in the later 'fifties. Though 
not able to give efficient personal aid in pur- 
suit and arrest, he was vigilant and keen in 
detection and ever ready when financial aid 
was needed. 


Horace H. Warner was born in the 
town of Truxton, Cortland county, N. Y., 
April 25, 1822, and died at his home in 
Rome City, Ind., November 28. 1896, 
aged seventy-four years, seven months and 
three days. He was united in marriage 10 
Ursula J. Hitchcock at Parma, Monroe 
county, N. Y.. April 2j, 1S47. They 
moved west to Indiana in October, 1849, 
and located in Noble county, one and one- 
half miles west of Rome City. Here Father 
Warner labored hard and earnestly for many 
j-ears,* clearing up his land and making, as 
it were, the forest to blossom as a rose. He 
owned two hundred acres and nearly all the 
work of felling the timber, logging and 
clearing" up the land ready for the breaking 
plow was done mainly by himself, his loving 
wife being his greatest helper in all things. 
He also, with his team, helped his neigh- 


bars in their clearings and ether work on 
their farms, lie was one of the pioneers of 
that early day, was a great worker, and 
lived to enjoy with his family for many 
years the benefits of his labors and a remu- 
nerative reward. Father Warner and fam- 
ily left the farm in April, 1883, and soon 
thereafter built and occupied the presen' 
home in Rome City, where they enjoyed 
great peace and happiness for many years 
and a much needed rest from their excessive 
farm labors. Mother Warner preceded him 
to the spirit land February 6, 1894. Fa- 
ther Warner had been troubled with a weak 
heart for many years, and had undergone 
treatment for the same for a long time. 
Finally the heart could not be sustained any 
longer by his competent physician or any 
earthly help, and ceased to operate very sud- 
denly. He was a kind and loving father, 
very patient in his illness. We shall miss 
him greatly in the home, the last year of 
his life having been so 1 tender and loving. 
He was prayerful to the end and died peace- 
fully, believing and trusting in his Heavenly 
Father. He told us that he was near the 
end of his journey and felt willing to go; 
'he wanted to be with dear mother and for- 
ever at rest. He told his neighbors ami 
friends that he realized his enfeebled condi- 
tion and was ready to depart. The only re- 
gret he expressed was in leaving his dear 
daughter, whom he loved as his own life. 
He always manifested a warm interest in the 
welfare and prosperity of the Methodist 
Episcopal church of Rome City, and gave 
largely of his means toward its erection and 
the needed expense of the same. He leaves 
a loving and sorrowing daughter, Mrs. G. 
T. Brothwell. her husband, one brother and 
other relatives to mourn their loss. The 

funeral was held at his late residence Tues- 
day, December 1st, at 1 130 P. M., and was 
conducted by Rev. T. J. Fetro, of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. A brother, Ros- 
well K. Warner, of Marion, and a nephew, 
Lorenzo D. Warner, of Palmyra. X. Y., 
with relatives from Lima. Indiana, were 
present at the funeral. A large num- 
ber of friends and neighbors were in attend- 
ance, ilis remains were laid to rest in. 
Orange cemetery. 

Who came to Noble county from Ohio in 
the year 184S, and who died August 19,. 
1895, aged ninety-five years and twenty-four 
days, was a prominent figure in the ranks 
of the old settlers, and one of the foremost 
citizens of Jefferson township. He was hi mi 
in Baltimore county, in the state of Mary- 
land, July 2j, ]8oo. His life began in the 
first year of the century. I le migrated when 
a young man to Morrow county, Ohio, and 
there, on the 4th of March, 1824, he wedded 
Miss Elizabeth Edwards, a young woman of 
excellent mental and spiritual characteristics. 
Nine children were born to them during 
their union of forty-eight years. The noble, 
faithful wife and loving mother left them 
on the 6th of February, 1X72. Five chil- 
dren preceded him to the tomb; four, with 
several grandchildren and many other rel- 
atives, survived him. This is the entire- 
substance of his very brief published obit- 

Christian Foster was a man of great en- 
ergy, both physical and mental. He was 
successful and prominent as a business man, 
active, resolute and ambitious. His mind 
was intent upon accomplishing the umost 


that was possible in his sphere of action. His 
nature was frank and outspoken. His man- 
ner and address was pushing and emphatic, 
sometimes bordering upon the boisterous 
and censorious, when his sense of right and 
convictions of the fitness of things had been 
shocked and crossed ; but he was not sullen 
and silently revengeful. His way was that 
of open rebuke and denunciation. His 
strong, aggressive, conquering spirit re- 
jected the restraints of diplomacy, and some- 
times the suggestions of toleration, when in 
the heat of combat. The blow was struck | 
(figuratively), the sentence pronounced, the j 
step taken, sometimes prematurely, perhaps, 
as it may have appeared to those who knew 
not the hidden influences and felt not the 
■sting of unrevealed wrong. Sometimes men 
are misjudged upon false evidence, which 
they have ho chance to refute. We mean 
this in reference to the elements of character. 
We never heard of any ground for mis- 
judgment of Christian Foster from his acts. 
By his acts, in business intercourse with his 
fellow men, he was known universally as an 
upright and honorable, as well as a strong 
and successful man. He became wealthy by 
honest toil, keen sagacity and prudent hus- 
' bandrv of the fruits of his labor and econ- 
omy. But that was not all. He was an 
advocate of true principles. He desired that 
all should shape their course by right prin- 
ciples and reap the rewards. He was a 
preacher as well as an exemplar of well-di- 
rected effort and rectitude in dealing. He 
was assertively in favor of honesty. He was 
also aggressively opposed to fraud of every 
kind, and his emphatic, uncompromising de- 
nunciations of it often gave an impression 
of hard-heartedness and bigotry. But this 
was a mistaken view. "Uncle Chris" was 

one of the most kindly-disposed and sym- 
pathetic of men. He pitied and gloried in 
being able to aid the unfortunate. 

As his sun descended, the aggressive fire 
subsided and the gentler spirituality of his 
character became manifest. Resignation, 
gratitude, humility, took the places of ag- 
gressive force, self-sufficiency and self-asser- 
tion. His ruder vital energies had done 
their appointed work and spent their stormy 
force. The spirit of the inner shrine came 
forth and its mild halo made the physical 
decay more noble than the strenuous, pas- 
sionate prime. Resting from all its tur- 
moils the calm soul could meekly but con- 
fidently say to a neighbor and confidential 
friend : "I am willingly waiting for the last 

A guilty conscience could not have said 
that. It revealed the true character. It was 
final evidence. It summoned divine charity 
to her mission, and at the sweep of her holy 
wand the fogs of misconception and all the 
clouds of error vanished from the sky of 
retrospection, and only love and veneration 
attend him to his pedestal m the temple of 
honored memories. 

Mr. Foster's surviving children are : 
Mrs. Joanna Smith, widow of Emanuel 
Smith ; Airs. Rebecca Easter, wife of Wash- 
ington Easter; and Mrs. Jane Franks, wife 
of Uriah Franks. Grandchildren: Mrs. 
John Koons, daughter of Mrs. Joanna 
Smith ; Mrs. Melvina Hines, daughter of 
the deceased wife of Benjamin Black ; and 
two daughters and one son of the late Sam- 
uel Foster, of Jefferson. His kindred bear- 
ing the names of Foster and Edwards are 
numerous in Noble county, and so far as 
known are active, useful, patriotic citizens, 
and promising boys and girls. 



A pioneer of Jefferson township, who died 
at his home in the fall of 1895, aged sixty- 
nine years, was'the second child and eldest 
son of Jehu and Margaret (Levering) Fos- 
ter, born in Morrow county. Ohio, Octo- 
ber 6, 1826. He was about eleven years old 
when his parents moved, in 1837, to the 
township with their family of six children : 
Mary A., aged thirteen; John L., eleven : 
Samuel M., nine: Margaret L., seven; Eliz- 
abeth, five; and Sarah M. They settled in 
the southwest quarter of section 11. It was 
a primeval forest. Magnificent walnut, oak. 
poplar, maple, beech and other woods in 
dense rank towered above the jungles of 
undergrowth and interlocked their branches 
and interwove their foliage in lofty arches 
over the shadowy aisles into which 

" A few shorn rays of sunlight fell, 
To glorify the gloom." 

But we need not attempt to describe the 
grandeur of a mighty, unbroken forest, nor 
to interpret its impressions upon those whose 
sense of its beauty and sublimity is con- 
fused with that of its appalling immensity 
as an incumbrance to be removed. It must 
be done. There was no retreat. It was like 
the situation of Houston and his little band 
of Texans after they had crossed the river 
at San Jacinto to attack a Mexican army of 
double their number, drawn up in battle 
array, and had sent adrift the bridge of 
boats by which they had crossed. It was 
"conquer or die." 

John Foster, although in his childhood, 
was the oldest boy, and thus was drafted 
into hard and unremitting toil — a campaign 
in which there was battle every dav. But 

he had a leader whose example was stronger 
than his commands, and so. performance of 
duty, patient, cheerful endurance and for- 
ward-looking faith were virtues to be emu- 
lated instead of arbitrary demands to be me- 
chanically obeyed. All the inspirations and 
aspirations of his environments were benefi- 
cent and exalting. His mother, a noble 
woman, had all the self-sacrificing devotion 
and loyalty of the ancient Spartan matrons 
without the barbarian grossness. She in- 
spired courage, strength, endurance by her 
splendid example. She was a woman of 
great physical as well as mental power, de- 
veloped into a symmetrical form and hand- 
j some features with much vivacity and charm 
of expression ; a source of good inspiration 
as well as an efficient material help to her 
husband. The whole family, as they re- 
spectively became physically able, contrib- 
uted their aid in clearing the farm and es- 
tablishing the home. 

John remained with his parents, assist- 
ing in the work until long after his ma- 
jority. He obtained a good common 
school education, and was recognized 
and appreciated as a bright young 
man and all-around "good fellow." 
That meant that within a powerful and 
handsome physique there was good brain 
and a big heart. He learned and worked 
to some extent at the carpenter and joiner'^ 
trade, but soon abandoned it for farming. 
In January. 1850, he married Rose A. Eley, 
daughter of Michael Eley. a Jefferson town 
ship farmer. (Her brother, John H. Elev, 
married John Foster's sister. Sarah.) 

His first purchase of land was the north- 
west quarter of section 1, in York town- 
ship, which he sold, and in 1863 purchased 
of Jesse Wylde the northwest quarter of 


section i. in Jefferson, six miles east of his 
first land. This was an improved farm, and 
here he passed his remaining thirty-two 
years in the quiet pursuits of farm life, en- 
joying the deserved esteem and confidence 
of a wide circle of friends and acquaint- 

His wife and three sons, Eugene, Del- 
mer, Perry, and several grandchildren of his 
Immediate family survive him. He also left 
two brothers. S. M. Foster, of Albion, and 
Alvin D. Foster, of Kendallville; three sis- 
ters, Mesdames J. H. Shanck and J. H. Ely, 
of Kendallville, Mrs. J. K. Riddle, of Jef- 
ferson, in Noble county; and his eldest sis- 
ter, Mrs. John Steele, in Nebraska, with a 
host of nephews, nieces and other near rel- 
atives who mourn his loss and, with this as- 
sociation, honor his memory. 


Was born in Genesee county, N. Y., 
September 25. 1829, and came with his par- 
ents to Noble county in 1837. He married 
Lydia Simon August 15, 1852, and settled 
on the farm in Swan township where he 
lived until his death, March 24, 1896, aged 
sixtv-six years, five months and twenty-nine 
days. His wife had died April 19. 1885. 
To their union were born eight children, of 
whom (inly three are living. He was again 
married, uniting with Mrs. Sarah Simon on 
the 29th of March. 1888. 

He joined the Lutheran church at 
Bethlehem March 5, 1853, and remained a 
faithful member until death. He was an 
obliging neighbor, a loving and devoted 
husband, a kind and affectionate father. He 
was buried in the Bethlehem cemetery near 
his home, respected and mourned by all. 

In those five words, "respected and 
mourned by all," Mr. J. M. (Simon) War- 
ner has the sublime record of a life, the 
details of which cannot be obtained. But 
it can be truthfully stated that much of his 
life was unknown by reason of his retiring 
disposition, and only his immediate neigh- 
bors realized his sterling worth. 


Daughter of John and Mary Cosper, and 
widow of the late Philander C. Isbell, died 
at her home at Kendallville on the evening 
of February 21, 1896, aged seventy- four 
i years, eleven months and sixteen days. She 
I had been a widow- not quite fourteen months, 
her husband having preceded her on the 31st 
of December, 1894. 

Mrs. Isbell was a native of Holmes coun- 
ty, Ohio, born March 5, 1821. She lived 
there to the age of thirteen years when, with 
her parents, she moved to Tecumseh, Mich- 
igan, in the year 1S34. Two years after- 
ward there moved to Tecumseh another 
Ohio family of Wayne count}-, of whom 
one was a son of seventeen years, Philander 
C. Isbell, and there was formed the mutually 
agreeable acquaintance that grew into the 
marriage of these young pioneers on the 24th 
day of December, 1838, he being about two 
months under twenty and she about as much 
less than eighteen. The next year, 1839, 
fifty-seven years ago, this young couple 
came to Noble county, Indiana, and joined 
in the battle of the pioneers with the pri- 
meval forests and its formidable auxiliaries 
— want and loneliness, physical weariness 
from extreme toil, racking agues and burn- 
ing fevers. They first settled in Allen town- 
ship and there cleared a farm. 


To the earliest pioneers their surround- 
ings were productive of the noblest influ- 
ence. In the best sense they were happily 
situated, notwithstanding the privations, 
toils and external solitude that now seem, 
by contrast, so painful and repellant. The 
more that is thought about it the clearer 
the conviction grows that, while their sturdy 
efforts were clearing the course for a grand 
material progression and laying broad and 
firm f( mndations for the material superstruc- 
tures of civilization, their hearts and souls 
were being attuned by the silent influences 
of their environments to that sublimer 
strain of emotion and aspiration which, 
transmitted, should sanctify the dazzling- ac- 
complishments of succeeding generations. 
And while it is peculiar to the pioneer age, 
it is not strange that the very earliest set- 
tlers — those who remained and endured and 
became the founders of the "state," men and 
women, with \ y few exceptions — imbibed 
a deep, religio- tone of thou 1 'it and feeling 
that impelled to church assoc itions wherein 
presided a spirit from the presence of which 
that of vain doctrine and theoretic distinc- 
tion shrank and fled. 

Mrs. Isbell joined such a circle of kin- 
dred spirits at the age of twenty-one. Her 
husband had preceded her the year before 
in assuming such relations. For a concise 
review of her personal and family history 
the following is quoted from the published 
obituary : 

"To this union were horn seven sons and 
two daughters, two of the sons dying in in- 
fancy. The others have grown to manhood 
and womanhood. She lived to see the fam- 
ily, through Christ, hearing fruits of right- 
eousness. Though her form is now silent in 
death she yet lives and speaks through the 

lives which she blessed and the characters 
which she helped to form." 



A settler of the year 1846, who died at his 
home three miles northeast of Albion on 
April 15, 1896, was a native of the state 
of Pennsylvania. He was horn in York 
county of that state April 17, 1821, and 
therefore lacked but two days of seventy-five 
years. From a carefully prepared notice 
written by Rev. George Bretz at the dicta- 
tion of the widow of the deceased pioneer, 
and published, are taken the following facts 
of his personal history : 

At the age of eleven years he went with 
his parents to Canton, Ohio, in 1832. and 
resided there or in the vicinity for thirteen 
years. In 1845, being twenty-four years 
old, he joined the Masonic order, receiving 
his initiation in a lodge in the town of Mas- 
sillon, Ohio. The next year. 1846. he came 
to Noble county, arriving here in November. 
Two years and a half afterward he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Lewis Potts, a pio- 
neer of 1836, ami a prominent, public- 
spirited citizen. The marriage took place on 
the 19th of May, 18.50, and on the 4th of 
August following, less than three months 
from the wedding daw the young wife was 
summoned to another sphere. In 1854, De- 
cember 21, he married Louisa, the sister of 
his deceased bride, and this union continued 
until his death, over forty-one years. His 
wife, one daughter, six grandchildren, the 
son-in-law and one sister survive him. The 
sister is .Mrs. Christiana Skinner, of Albion. 
widow of James Skinner, the well-known 
pioneer of Jefferson township, who died 
many years ago. 


Mr. Kline was a carpenter by trade, hav- 
ing served his apprenticeship in Ohio before 
coming to Noble county. It so happened, 
however, that his interests attached to farm- 
ing, and he gradually abandoned his trade. 
Of the extent of his work as a carpenter we 
are not informed, but from the character of 
the man are prepared to hazard the asser- 
tion that what he did do was well done, to 
the limit of his skill and ability. 

In vindication of his views and opinions 
on all the various questions of interest to 
society and mankind, from the greatest to 
the least, he was strenuous, aggressive and 
firm ; often, it seemed to his opponents, even 
to the point of unreasonable stubbornness. 
The language of his soul in this respect was 
appropriately uttered by Scott in his poem, 
"The Lady of the Lake/' through the voice 
of Fitz-James, when alone in the mountains 
he was confronted by Roderick Dhu and his 
clan. Backed against a mighty rock, he 
said — 

ie — come all — this rock shall fly 
firm base as soon as I." 

And yet John Kline's so-called stubborn- 
ness was not wanton. It had always a basis 
of logic or foundation of conviction which, 
if possibly defective sometimes, was at least 
fully approved by his judgment and con- 
science. He was simply inflexible in cham- 
pionship of what was right and just and true 
in his convictions. That this inflexibility 
may in some natures become too habitually 
predominant, and include non-essential is- 
sues, is true- If it was so in him it was 
"a fault that leaned to virtue's side." 


In 1832 there is evidence of the purchase 
of over one thousand acres for speculation 

in Perry township. There were two classes 
of speculators in land, non-resident and 
resident. The former were the odious "land 
sharks" whose operations most retarded set- 
tlement and improvement, whose heartless 
greed snatched thousands from the hands of 
honest industry and diverted it from use in 
local improvement to the offers of alien mo- 
nopolists; or, large tracts of the best land 
were entered and held for years by non- 
resident owners — who coolly saw their hold- 
ings enhanced in value two, three, four and 
five-fold by the hard labor of settlers im- 
proving the adjacent country — without lift- 
ing a finger to assist or encourage. 

Settlers, who had saved something more 
than the cost of entering the land for sub- 
sistence and improvements, were not only 
bitterly disappointed but almost hopelessly 
crippled, financially, by being compelled to 
pay two or three-fold prices for desirable 
lands that had l>een taken by these sharks 
and were held for immense speculative 
profits. Thus, in scores of instances, in the 
years of early settlement half the savings of 
years of toil and economy, brought here by 
settlers who intended therewith to promote 
the improvement and prosperity of the new 
country, were drawn back and away from 
the lines of intended usefulness by the hand 
of avarice : and. instead of strengthening 
the factors of development and progress, the 
money was added to the capital of older sec- 
tions of the country; and the wise policy 
of the government, to aid in developing the 
resources of the public domain by selling the 
land at a nominal price, was thwarted to a 
great extent in all parts of the splendid 
Northwest Territory, and Noble count}- dis- 
trict experienced its full share of the evil. 

Of the other class of speculators, those 



actual settlers of ample means who, found- 
ing their own homes, sought out the must 
desirable locations and fruitful soils in dif- 
ferent parts of the district and entered large 
bodies or numerous tracts for the purpose of 
enormous gains on their investments, it may 
be said, in partial mitigation that the wealth 
thus accumulated remained here ; but in a 
majority of instances it resulted in the ag- 
grandizement of the few to the injury of thu 
mam- and against the interests of the county. 
We need not cite personal examples by 
actual names. The facts existed. They 
constitute history in themselves and illus- 
trate the workings of a system and the 
effects of an evil as clearly under fictitious 
names and assumed conditions as real ones. 
Illustrative of the foregoing we give the 
substance of a following conversation that 
occurred in the cabin of a settler on a winter 
evening: A neighbor and his wife — Mr. 
and Airs. Smith — had called to have . an 
evening chat with the Joneses, who were im- 
migrants from the same neighborhood in 
Pennsylvania. Both families were poor, al- 
most destitute of earthly possessions except 
their quarter-sections of rich land, clothed 
with magnificent forests, and their rough 
cabins and scant, home-made furniture. The 
cabins had barely been completed to a habit- 
able condition when winter came. Fleecy 
festoons adorned the silent forests; the in- 
tensely gloomy avenues had arches of inter 
locking branches, draped in snow; the 
foliage and the forest flowers hail disap- 
peared and all the graceful undergrowths 
were covered with dead-white palls. But 
within the Jones cabin was the cheerful glow 
of a fire that crackled and roared and sent 
up volumes of flame and showers of sparks 
above the to]) of the capacious chimney and 

diout the 

diffused a genial warmth throt 
cabin. Assembled around that 
hearthstone on the winter evening mentioned 
Smith and Jones and their young wives sat 
and talked — of the past and then present — 
of the scenes and persons and events of the 
dear home-land; of fathers and mothers; of 
brothers and sisters; of childhood's sports 
and the enjoyment and experiences of youth ; 
of spelling schools and religious revivals; of 
bridals and births and funerals; of the un- 
counted things of the blessed memories of 
which their minds and hearts were full; of 
present conditions and hopes ; of the future. 
dimly seen, hut to their simple rectitude of 
vision proffering no crowns but those of 
righteousness, no rewards but those of 
modest merit. Both men had been at a 
barn-raising that day for John Cosgrove, a 
neighbor five miles distant. It was a very 
large log barn, with a long shed extension 
for horses and cattle. The magnitude of 
Cosgrove's improvements was the admira- 
tion, not unmixed with envy, of the entire 
community. Speaking of this, Jones said; 

"Cosgrove's was the biggest raisin" 
we've had in this section. It's wonderful 
how he's getting ahead; has more acres, 
cleared than all the rest of us. and nearly as 
many horses and cattle as any ten other set- 
tlers put together; he's bound to get rich in 
short order." 

"Well," replied Smith, "I don't think 
there's anything wonderful about it. cmi- 
siderin' that he has the help of other's 

"Other folks' money; how's that?" said 

"Why, didn't you know that there's half 
a dozen other settlers that have given from 
$100 to $200 apiece towards makin Cos- 


grove' rich; that his land don't cost him 
more'n half as much an acre as theirs did 
them? Take your case and mine: we've got 
a quarter-section apiece; as good land, of 
course, as can be found anywhere; but we 
paid him $400. Well, that's $400 more'n 
he paid the government for the same land. 
Then there's Tom Dunlap, Jim Sanford. 
Rob. Diehl and Ben Murphy, every one of 
them as good as gave Cosgrove $100 apiece. 
He entered their four eighties ahead of them 
and thev had to pay him twice as much as 
he paid for their land, and that took^about 
all thev had saved up for improvements. 
Now they are crippled, as you and I are, for 
want of that very money that Cosgrove got 
without its costing him a cent or a day's 
work ; $800 clear profit taken from six 
neighbors. Is it any wonder that he can go 
ahead and get rich?" 

"But where did he get the money to 
enter so much with?" 

"Why, he got $2,000 that was willed him 
by old Elkanah Cosgrove, his grandfather, 
who died in Maryland last year. John got 
word of it two weeks after his cabin-raising, 
and he went back and got the money. With 
that money he first added to his first quarter- 
section the best two eighties joining, which 
made him a solid half-section, all for $400. 
Then he commenced entering the finest 
tracts in this and other townships until he 
spent $1,600 of his legacy. He has got back 
from us six settlers that $1,600. and is now 
the owner of one hundred and twenty acres 
which he holds for sale for $1,400, besides 
his home farm of three hundred and twenty 
acres." Mrs. Smith here interposed — 

"And anybody can see how high-flyin' 
Malinda Cosgrove is gettin'. The last time 
we had preachin' she says to me: 'Nancy 

Smith, I don't see how you manage to make 
that calico dress last so long and look so 
well, with all your work. Now, she had on 
a brand new alpaca dress herself; and she 
spoke so everybody could hear. I thought 
'twas real mean, though I never thought at 
the time that probably other folks' money 
went into her finery. And it was sickenin' 
to see how poor Susan Murphy looked up 
to her, just because she had on nice toggery, 
that like as not Ben's money helped to buy." 
Mrs. Jones agreed with Mrs. Smith, and 
the men agreed — that Cosgrove' s operations 
savored strongly of extortion, and were very 
unfortunate for the new settlement. All felt 
that it was unjust that such things were 
permissible. Such were the beginnings of 
the growth of a parasitic classism that would 
at length exhaust the vital sap of the tree of 
liberty- and wither its foliage. 


Previous to the year 1832 no white man 
had made the present site of Kendallville 
his home, but everything was just as it had 
been placed by the fashioning hand of the 
Creator. During the autumn of 1832, or 
perhaps the spring of 1833, a man named 
David Bundle, a tall, awkward specimen of 
the gams homo, who. like the immortal 
Lincoln, usually displayed about a yard of 
uncovered leg ( at the lower extremity ) , ap- 
peared in the primitive forests of Kendall- 
ville and erected a small round-log cabin, 
with the assistance (some say) of the view- 
ers appointed to establish the Fort Wayne 
and Lima road. The cabin was little better 
than a wigwam, as it was very small, and 
the roof was made of bark, while the floor, 
which was lacking at first, save the one 



funned by nature, consisted of clapboards, 
rudely rived from some suitable log. Tins 
building was located near where the present 
residence of Hiram Roberts stands. Travel 
had already begun along the Fort Wayne 
road, as settlers from Ohio or farther east 
first went to the land office at Fort Wayne, 
and afterward came north to settle upon the 
lands they had purchased. A settlement had 
been formed before 1833 in the northern 
part of Lagrange county, and it was mainly 
through the petition of these people that the 
legislature was induced to order the survey 
and establishment of the Lima road. This 
road was traveled by a few teamsters when 
Bundle first built his cabin, and. with the 
prospect of getting a few extra shillings in 
view, a small unpretentious sign was hung 
out that entertainment could be obtained. In 
the fall of 1833 Mrs. Frances Dingman, 
whose husband bad died in Fort Wayne 
while the family were in search of a home 
in the wilds of Indiana, appeared at Bundle's 
cabin, and, having purchased his righl and 
title to the property for a pittance, moved 
with her family into the log cabin, where 
she continued the entertainment of the trav- 
eling public, while Mr. Bundle disappeared, 
and bis fate is still unknown. Whether or 
not Bundle owned the land or whether he 
was anything more than a squatter: at least 
be was easily induced to transfer his right 
in the cabin to Mrs. Dingman, who did own 
the land. This woman possessed consider- 
able money, a will of her own and a family 
of five or six children, several of whom had 
almost reached their majority. She em- 
ployed some man to clear a few acres of land 
and, in 1836, immediately after the erection 
of the Latta sawmill, in Orange township, 
she erected the first frame house in Kendall- 

ville. a small roughly constructed affair, 
which was built near the old log cabin. Mrs. 
Dingman found many hardships to contend 
with, and when at last, in about 1N37, after 
a brief o urtship, Truman Bearss asked her 
to become his wife, she consented, and the 
couple, happy in the enjoyment of genuine 
love, walked over to the Haw Patch, about 
twenty miles distant, to have the ceremony 
performed. They were bound together in 
Hymen's chains, and then started for home, 
but the gloom and darkness came on and 
they were compelled to pass the night in the 
woods. A fire was built and here the newly 
made man and wife sat staring at each other 
with loving eyes until morning, when thev 
started early and succeeded in reaching 
home in time for a hearty wedding break- 
fast. In about the year 1835 George Ulmer 
located on what is known as Iddings' addi- 
tion to Kendallville. William Mitchell, in 
the spring of 1830, built a double loo cabin 
near where his son now resides. Thomas 
Ford came soon afterward. Ezra T. 1 shell, 
Henry hidings and Daniel Bixler appeared 
in about 1836. all locating within an area of 
what is now Kendallville; Imt as they were 
scattered around a considerable distance 
apart it was not yet dreamed in their philos- 
ophy that a thriving village was destined to 
spring up around them. Isbell was the first 
shoemaker in town. John Finch, a wagon- 
maker, located before 1840 where Deible's 
warerooms now are, and John Gipe erected 
a blacksmith simp on the south side of the 
creek on west Main street in 1830. In 1N40 
there were living on the present site of Ken- 
dallville the families of Mrs. Dingman (or 
rather of Mr. Bearss), William Mitchell. 
John Finch, George Ulmer. Ezra T. Isbell. 
Henry Iddings. Daniel Bixler and possibly 



two or three others, representing- a total 
population of about thirty-five or forty. Mr. 
Mitchell entertained the public, though no 
sign was hung out. By 1840 the settlement 
had assumed the appearance of an embryonic 
village. A short time before this, through 
the influence of Mr. Mitchell, who owned 
about five hundred acres of land and pos- 
sessed considerable means, a postoffice was 
established at his cabin, but a few years later 
it was removed to the residence of Hiram 
Iddings, but, in about 1849, was re-estab- 
lished at the store of Samuel Minot, who had 
erected a small building ( yet standing) on 
the old George Ackley property, and had 
placed therein between two thousand and 
three thousand dollars' worth of a general 
assortment of goods a year or two before. 
The office took its name from Postmaster 
General Amos Kendall, and was known as 
Kendallville, and the village, as soon as it 
was laid out, in 1847, was christened after 
the name of the postoffice. Kendallville did 
not grow to any noticeable extent between 
1840 and 1849, as perhaps not more than a 
dozen families lived within its limits. Lis- 
bon, however, was at the summit of its 

Some time about the year 1847 a com- 
pany of wealthy men at Fort Wayne and 
along the Lima road associated themselves 
together, with a capital stock of about sev- 
enty thousand dollars, for the purpose of 
transforming the old Fort Wayne and Lima 
road into a plank road. Pursuant to the law 
of the state, this road was leased by the 
company for a term of years, and sawmills 
were erected all along the line to furnish 
three-inch oak plank, which were to be laid 
down on suitable sills, at right angles to the 
direction of the road. The planks were 

sawed and laid down in 1847 and 1848, and 
toll-gates were established from six to ten 
miles apart, and superintendents of sections, 
living along the line, were employed to keep 
the road in repair. The plank road was fifty 
miles long, and in some places deviated from 
the old Lima road. A few small dividends 
were struck, but the road failed to repay 
the stockholders for the outlay of construc- 
tion and the stock steadily depreciated in 
value. Many of the largest stockholders at 
Fort Wayne and along the road were wise 
enough to get rid of the stock to eastern 
capitalists, upon whom much of the burden 
of failure fell when the enterprise collapsed. 
Toll was collected on portions of the road 
until about 1858, when the route was turned 
over to the county commissioners. 

The above facts have been dwelt upon, 
as the subject was one which for several 
years affected the financial welfare of every 
tax-payer within the corporate limits of the 
city. The writer may have made some mis- 
takes above, as the facts in the case were ex- 
tremelv hard to get. If so. the forbearance 
of the reader is asked. "You know how it is 


Kendallville children first went to' school 
about a mile and a half northwest, to the old 
log school-house on the Sawyer farm, west 
of road and south of creek, and the next was 
east of road and north of creek. School 
was taught there prior to 1840. Soon after 
this house had been built another was erect- 
ed between the residences of Ryland Reed 
and Hiram Iddings, and as this was nearer 
than the other house, the scholars were sent 
to it. Cynthia Parker and Miss Wollingfi ird 
were earlv teachers at the Iddings school- 


house. In about the year 1847 a '"g school 
building was erected on the line between 
Allen and Wayne townships, about forty 
rods west of the Fort Wayne road. Here 
the village children assembled to receive in- 
struction. No school-house was constructed 
in Kendall ville proper until 1858. For sev- 
eral years previous to that date, however, 
select schools had been taught by competent 
instructors in vacant rooms here and there in 
town: but this was found to be unsatisfac- 
tory; and accordingly, in 1858, a three-story 
frame school building, about 30x60 feet, was 
erected on the site of the present school 
structure, at a cost of about thirty-five hun- 
dred dollars. The two lower stories were 
devoted to the use of class recitations, while 
the third story was used as a hall in which 
to hold public exhibitions, lectures, etc. 
From one hundred and eighty to two hun- 
dred scholars were in attendance from the 
beginning. Dr. Riley, an accomplished schol- 
ar and an efficient instructor and organizer, 
was employed and taught two years, when 
he was succeeded by W. W. Dowling, who 
likewise taught two years. During the win- 
ter of 1863-64, which was very cold, the gov- 
ernment troops encamped at the town suf- 
fered so much that the colonel ordered the 
evacuation of the school-house by teachers 
and pupils, and transformed it into a hos- 
pital for the sick of his command. Small- 
pox broke out among the men at the hos- 
pital, but luckily it was prevented from 
spreading. After this talk was freely in- 
dulged in by the parents of scholars that the 
school-house could not be used longer as 
such, owing to the liability of the children 
catching the smallpox. A secret attempt 
was made, during the summer of T864, to 
burn the house, but without success, al- 

though late in the fall the attempt was re- 
peated, resulting in the destruction of the 
building. School was then taught in the 
basement of the Baptist, Disciple and Pres- 
byterian churches, and in the public halls of 
the town, until the present fine brick school 
structure was erected, at a total cost, includ- 
ing finishing, bell, desks, apparatus, etc., of 
nearly forty thousand dollars. The house 
is 61x81 feet, is three stories in height, has 
ten regular school rooms and several others 
which could be made such if necessary. It 
is one of the finest school structures in north- 
ern Indiana. It was built by means of city 
bonds, which were issued and sold, but 
which after a time depreciated considerably 
in value, owing to several reasons, one be- 
ing the hard times at the close of the war, 
and another the heavy taxation for the pay- 
ment of railroad bonds. Money was hard to 
obtain, and it is said that while the city was 
kicking like Balaam's donkey against the 
payment of the railroad bonded debt, the 
school-house bonds were sold at a discount 
as soon as they were issued — were thrown 
upon the market and sold at a discount. 
The building was begun with money 1 about 
seven thousand dollars) raised by subscrip- 
tion, and with the personal liability (about 
six thousand dollars) of James Colegrove, 
James B. Kimball and Freeman Tabor. 
These amounts were afterward covered by 
city bonds. The bonds were paid by install- 
ments, and were issued in the same manner, 
the most at any one time being fifteen hun- 
dred dollars, due in one year; fifteen hun- 
dred dollars due in two years; two thousand 
dollars, in three years; five thousand dollars, 
in six years'; five thousand dollars, in nine 
years; and hve thousand dollars, in twelve 
years; the first three installments drawing 


interest at six per cent, per annum, and the 
last three at ten per cent, per annum. Tins 
issue of bonds was made in March, 1867. 
The school-house debt has been liquidated. 
Within the last few years a high school has 
been created, and now young men and wo- 
men, with thoughtful faces, pass out into 
the world with "sheepskins" of the Kendall- 
ville high school. The present enumeration 
of school children in the city is about eleven 


The Baptists built the first church in 
town, the building being now occupied by 
Catholics. The house, a frame structure, 
was erected in 1856, and ten years later was 
transferred to the Catholics for two thou- 
sand dollars. They have owned it since. 
The Baptist church was used by several de- 
nominations which had contributed means 
for its erection. A few years later the Meth- 
odists built a frame church, which after be- 
ing used a few years was destroyed by fire. 
After the Baptists sold their church they 
soon bought that belonging to the Protestant 
Methodists. This they still occupy. These 
two and the German Lutheran are now large 
brick edifices, tastefully and handsomely fin- 
ished, and are a credit to the city. All the 
others are frame buildings. William Mitch- 
ell, one of the most prominent and charitable 
men ever residing in the city, gave each re- 
ligious society ( eight in all ) a lot upon which 
tn build the church. He also gave the fine 
large lot upon which the high school build- 
ing now stands. The old Baptist church 
was an important building. Prior to 1863 
the Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians, and 
possibly other societies, met there alternately 
to worship, and the old house was almost 

constantly filled with one unending song of 
praise and thanksgiving. Before its erec- 
tion, and subsequent to the year 1852, meet- 
ings were held in various vacant rooms and 
halls ; but all this inconvenience is now gone 
and the sweet-toned bells calling Christians 
to worship are heard from many quarters. 
The Lutheran St. John's congregation was 
organized in 1856, and was first served by 
Rev. Schumann, holding the first meetings 
in private houses. In 1865 Rev. A. Y\ uest- 
man was called to take charge of the con- 
gregation, which continued to grow by the 
advent of German Lutherans. In 1871 Rev. 
Ph. Fleishmann succeeded Rev. Wuestman, 
and by this time it was found that the con- 
gregation had outgrown the capacity of the 
old church. Accordingly, in 1873. a new 
brick edifice, valued at ten thousand dollars, 
was erected. The old building was made 
use of as a school room. Connected with the 
congregation is a private school. The enu- 
meration is about one hundred. At the death 
of Rev. Fleishmann, in 1879. Rev. George 
M. Schumns was given charge of the con- 
gregation. Since the origin of the society 
up to 1900 four hundred and fifty-four per- 
sons have been baptized, two hundred and 
twenty-eight confirmed, and two hundred 
and seven deaths have occurred. 

Mr. Minot had opened his store. He 
built an asliery and manufactured a con- 
siderable quantity of pearl-ash. which was 
conveyed by wagon to Fort Wayne. Minot 
also built a sawmill, which soon had all it 
could do in furnishing lumber for the plank 

Israel Graden opened witli a small stock 
of goods about 1848, but the next year sold 
to Minot & Evans. Two years later the 
store was sold to Clark & Bronson. 


On the ist of June, 1849, William Mitch- 
ell secured the service of the county surveyor 
and laid out twenty lots on the east side of 
Main street. 

Luke Dig-gins opened the first hotel of 
consequence not far from 1850. Four years 
later Jesse Kime built the old Kelly House, 
controlled by Judge Burnham and James 
Kelly. Diggins' house was known as the 
"Calico House," from the Dolly Varden 
style in which it was painted. 

The first follower of Esculapius was 
Dr. Cissel. who appeared in 1849. James 
Haxby was the first attorney, although there 
were several pettifoggers before him. 

In [852 Samuel Minot built a large frame 
four-storied gristmill, placing therein three 
run of stone. Four or five years later the mill 
was purchased by George F. Clark, who 
greatly increased its usefulness. He shipped 
by rail large quantities of excellent flour to 
different points. About the beginning of the 
Civil war the property was transferred to 
parties from Toledo, and after it had been 
heavily insured it was burned to the ground 
and the insurance money was demanded and 
obtained. Damaging charges were made, 
but were never substantiated. 

Thomas Evans, a cabinetmaker, ap- 
peared about 1852. 

George Baker placed a small stock of 
groceries in the Graden building, but soon 
sold out to William Mitten. After the dis- 
solution of Minot & Evans the latter con- 
tined the business with Mr. Parkman. Rood, 
Daniels & Company started in 1853, with 
dry goods and railroad supplies. A few years 
later Northam, Barber & Welch opened a 
store. Jacob Lessman appeared about 1856, 
but sold to J. F. Code a short time after- 
ward. A Hebrew partnership ( Loeb Broth- 

ers ) began selling ready-made clothing 
about [856. Peter Ringle bought out Evans 

in 1854. M. M. Bowen engaged in the mer- 
cantile pursuit not far from 1857. About 
1857 Mr. Welch bought his partner's inter- 
est, and soon afterward effected a partner- 
ship with G. W. Greenfield. Haskins & 
Roller started about 1858. 

F. & H. Tabor built the gristmill now 
■ owned by Mr. Brillhart in the year 1857. 
The mill, which cost $6,000, was supplied 
with three run of stone, and in 1859 a saw- 
mill was attached to it. Mr. Tabor claims 
that this was the first circular sawmill in 
northeastern Indiana. At the end of six 
years F. & Tl. Tabor disposed of their inter- 
est in the mills, but in 1804 built another 
sawmill and the following year a gristmill. 
These mills cost over $7,000. The grist- 
mill has been rebuilt within the past few 
years, and G. C. Glatte started up not far 
from 1857. 

On the 6th of January, 1858. Mitchell 
& Hitchcock (William Mitchell and Henry 
H. Hitchcock ) began a private banking busi- 
ness in Kendallville, and continued until De- 
cember 31, 1861, at which time the firm was 
dissolved. Hitchcock going out. the business 
being resumed by William Mitchell & Sons 
(William Mitchell. John Mitchell and 
Charles S. Mitchell), continuing thus from 
January 1, 1862, to June 11, 1863. On the 
1 2th of June the business was merged into 
the First National Bank of Kendallville, 
William Mitchell being elected President and 
Charles S. .Mitchell cashier. The first board 
of directors were William Mitchell. John 
Mitchell. Charles S. Mitchell. William M. 
Clapp, of Albion, and William W. Maltby, 
of Ligonier. The first stockholders were 
the above, with the addition of Mrs. M. C. 


Dawson, of Kendallville. William Mitchell 
and Charles S. Mitchell acted as president 
and cashier until their respective deaths, in 
September, 1865, and September, 1866. 
Since the death of William Mitchell his son, 
John Mitchell. has been president of the bank. 
John A. Mitchell was cashier from Septem- 
ber, 1 866, to January 10, 1871, at which 
date Emanuel H. Shulze succeeded him. 
Mr. Shulze died in November, 1878. Jacob 
G. Waltman became cashier on the 14th of 
January, 1879, and has held the position 
since. The bank is doing a good business. 

Thomas Brothers opened with a stock in 
1859. Other merchants were engaged in 
business during these years, and since that 
time their name has been legion. 

Jacobs & Brother engaged in the mer- 
cantile business in 1862. 

Artimus Doggins built a three-story 
frame south of the depot grounds and moved 
his cabinet shop 'into it, and after several 
years it was sold to W. S. Thomas for a 
hub ami spoke factory, during which time 
William Cliilds. who had figured largely in 
sawmills, real estate, etc, and had built the 
brick tavern near the Lake Shore depot, 
finally failed and bankrupted several of the 
best citizens. 

William H. Austin started the first news- 
paper at Kendallville in April, 1849, it also 
being the first newspaper in Noble county, 
.mil was issued and published from the sec- 
ond story of Samuel Minor's store, and this 
building is yet standing and known as the 
George Aichele property on South Main 
street. The paper was called the Noble 
County Star, and afterward removed to Al- 

bion and sold to Samuel E. Alvord and then 
the name was changed to Albion Observer. 
Mention of these journals has also been 
made in the paragraph headed "Noble Coun- 
ty Press," but in this local record a slight 
repetition will not be deemed superfluous. 

During the spring of either 1859 or i860 
Mr. Judson Palmiter, of Ligonier. a man of 
bright intellect, who had previously been 
connected with the Ligonier Republican in 
an editorial capacity, went to Kendallville 
and established the Noble County Journal, 
the first newspaper ever published there. 
The political complexion of the Journal was 
Republican; subscription price, $1.50 per 
year: and soon a circulation of about five 
hundred was secured, which was afterward 
about doubled. The Journal was published 
by Piatt & McGovern. The editor, Mr. Pal- 
miter, was a cautious, forcible writer; and 
the local columns of the Journal were crowd- 
ed with terse, spicy news. In the prolonged 
editorial fight between the Journal and the 
Standard the editor of the former was de- 
termined, skillful, and often justly wrathful 
and vindictive. His words were daggers, 
and his sentences two-edged swords. He 
conducted the paper with abundant success 
until the latter part of 1808, when the office 
was sold to Brillhart & Kimball, and J. S. 
Cox took the editorial chair. The Journal 
continued thus until the 1st of January, 
1870, when it was purchased by Dr. N. Teal, 
who. in August of the same year, transferred 
the entire property to C. O. Myers, and the 
Journal was then consolidated with the 
Standard, which .was established in June, 
L863, by Dr. Myers, but the excellent busi- 
ness qualifications, practical experience and 
indomitable energy of its founder soon 
placed it in the front rank of county jour- 


nals. The Standard has always been a stal- 
wart Republican paper, fearless and inde- 
pendent; and from its inception, to the pres- 
ent time has received liberal patronage and 
universal public confidence. Several of 
its contemporaries and rival publications 
have gone "where the woodbine twineth," 
while the Standard has been steadily grow- 
ing in patronage, power and influence, and 
now enjoys a larger circulation than any 
other paper in the county. The Standard 
editorials were extremely bitter, dealing out 
invective and denunciation that rankled long 
in the hearts of enemies, while friends were 
treated with uniform kindness and courtesy. 
Political and other differences between the 
Standard and the Journal were fought to 
the last ditch, and the personal enmitv en- 
gendered will long be remembered by the 
citizens of the county. On the ist of No- 
vember, 1880, Dr. Myers sold the Standard 
office, which he had occupied successfully for 
seventeen and a half years, to H. J. Long. 
August 1 J. 1882, it was purchased by Rer- 
ick & Conlogue. and so continued until April 
I, 1887, when Dr. Rerick sold his interest 
to his son, John D. Rerick, and after that 
the firm name was Conlogue & Rerick. 

The first issue of the Weekly News ap- 
peared on the 13th of November, 1877, the 
editor and proprietor being Dr. A. S. Par- 
ker, an old and respected citizen of Kendall- 
ville, where he located in 1857. Nearly two 
years before the first issue mentioned above 
Dr. Parker had purchased the paper, which 
was then at Garrett, and had continued its 
publication there until compelled by the pres- 
sure of hard times to make a removal, which 
he did, as stated above. The first issue com- 
prised two hundred copies only, as but little 
effort had been made to secure subscribers, 

though the two hundred copies went perma- 
nently into two hundred homes. It started 
out without any special friends to boost or 
back it up. Without assistance the editor 
and family have labored until at present the 
circulation reaches nearly a thousand, and 
new names were added daily. Its politics is 
Democratic, though its editor is not so blind 
a partisan as to believe all that is good po- 
litically is within his party. The paper is on 
a solid financial basis. 

The short-lived papers of Kendallville 
have been as follows: In 1862 Barron & 
Stowe issued a small neutral paper, about 
twelve by fifteen inches, designed to circulate 
among the many troops then quartered there, 
making a specialty of war news and inci- 
dents of camp life, especially those in the 
camp at the town, and affording an excellent 
means of advertisements of the merchants 
and others to reach the eyes of the "boys in 
blue." The circulation soon ran up to nearly 
five hundred, and continued thus for about 
two years, when the office was sold to C. O. 

In the latter part of about 1869 Hopkins 
& Piatt began the publication of a small paper 
called the Daily Bulletin ; but, after it had 
continued a few months with partial suc- 
cess, the official management was greatly al- 
tered, the publishers becoming Piatt & Hop- 
kins, and Thomas L. Graves taking the edi- 
torial chair. The paper was rechristened 
the Independent, came out with a bright 
face, and was designed to be, as its new 
name indicated, independent. At the expi- 
ration of a few months the office was re- 
moved to Michigan, and the Independent 
ceased to exist in 1870. while the circula- 
tion was about three hundred. In about 
1872 the Ro,,f brothers began publishing 


the Semi-Weekly Times, a small sheet, neu- 
tral politically, and designed as an advertis- 
ing medium. It was issued about six months 
and then perished. About the time of the 
great temperance crusade in Kendallville, 
some ten or twelve years ago, a temperance 
magazine, published and edited by Shafer & 
Lash, was issued monthly for about six or 
eight months. It was an earnest exponent 
of temperance principles ; but its death was 
contemporaneous with that of the enthusi- 
asm arising from the crusade. 


[Taken from manuscripts sent the author 
of the present work. Its authenticity, while 
unknown to us, is nevertheless reliable, and 
can not be doubted with propriety.] 

The Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 
Railway Company was formed in 1869 by 
the consolidation of the following four rail- 
roads, each (if which was composed formerly 
of two others : Michigan Southern & North- 
ern Indiana: Cleveland & Toledo; Buffalo 
& Erie; and Cleveland, Painesville & Ashta- 
bula. The Michigan Southern was projected 
in 1837 through the southern part of the 
state from Monroe on the east to New Buf- 
falo on the west, but was continued on to 
Chicago in 1852. 

Of the Northern Indiana Railroad the 
Chicago Times of 1877 has this to say: "In 
1835 John B. Chapman, of Warsaw, Indi- 
ana, a member of the State Legislature, in- 
troduced a hill for the incorporation of the 
'Atlantic & Pacific Railroad.' He was ridi- 
culed out of this ambitious title, and finally 
consented to come down to 'Buffalo & Mis- 
sissippi Railroad,' but would not yield an- 
other mile. Work on the road was begun 

in 1835, but in 1837 came the financial 
crash that doomed the railroad to a sleep 
equal in duration to that of Rip Van Win- 
kle. An effort at resuscitation was made in 
1847. culminating finally in the road's pass- 
ing to the Litchfields, under the name of 
Northern Indiana Railroad. The work went 
on slowly until at last, in 1855, the Michigan 
Southern and the Northern Indiana were 
consolidated with a union of those two 
names. The road was completed through 
Noble county early in 1857. Under the 
presidency of the Vanderbilts the road is 
paying its stockholders dividends." 

During the period of survey through No- 
ble county the engineers for the road had 
run two lines some distance south of Ken- 
dallville, but were satisfied with neither. 
Through the solicitation of Samuel Mkiot, 
who advanced the funds necessary, a third 
line was surveyed through the village bv the 
road engineers. This last was found to so 
far excel in every manner the two other 
proposed routes that it was accepted at once. 
From this time the prosperity and growth 
of the village was assured. Due credit must 
be given to Mr. Minot for the assiduous, 
unrequited labor he gave in order that his 
"ain town" might rival a pompous neigh- 
bor, who made many offers in order to se- 
cure the coveted prize, but all in vain. A 
j generous spirit actuated all these sturdy pio- 
neers, and the interest of the individual be- 
came lost in the concern of the community. 
Mr. Mitchell, Judge Hanna and Pliny Hoag- 
land, of Fort Wayne, at this time were en- 
gaged in building a railroad from Crest- 
line, Ohio, to Fort Wayne. Ind.. Mr. 
Mitchell having invested his entire fortune 
in the stock of the company, while the other 
gentlemen appropriated the greater portion 


of their wealth in the same enterprise. At 
the completion of that road it was made 
optional with the stockholders to reserve 
their bonds or to take possession of the land 
they had given as adequate security. Mr. 
Mitchell chose the latter in preference to the 
former — undoubtedly a wise choice, as it 
formed the nucleus of his fortune in after 
years. On his return to Kendallville in 1853 
he exerted all his power and influence for 
the completion of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern Railroad and the making of 
the village a desirable place of residence. 
He surveyed a line of lots on tTTe west side 
of Main street from his residence to the rail- 
road, the price of the lots being placed at 
sixty dollars apiece. To the complaints of 
some disgruntled villagers that the lots 
would never be sold he was utterly deaf; and 
time proved his judgment to be correct, as 
the lots "went off like hot cakes." The 
railroad was completed through Noble coun- 
ty about 1857 and the company at mice be- 
gan to operate the business. So far as is 
known, the citizens of the village contrib- 
uted but little toward the construction of the 

Grand Rapids & Indiana. — About this 
time another road began its struggle for ex- 
istence. From authentic sources is quoted 
the following account of the organization of 
the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railway Com- 

"The corporation first known as the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company 
was duly incorporated and organized by arti- 
cles of association, bearing date of January 
|S, [854, with power to construct, maintain 
and operate a railroad from the town of 
Hartford, in Blackford county, [nd., to a 
point on the line of the state, in the direction 

of Grand Rapids, Mich. Afterward, by 
various articles of consolidation and incor- 
poration with other roads, it assumed the 
above corporate name in June, 1857, and at 
that time had a declared capital stock of 
$2,800,000, including large tracts of valua- 
ble timber land grants in northern Michigan, 
but the paid-up capital of the company was 
so small that it was found impossible to meet 
the expense of constructing the road, in 
which case the land grants, after a certain 
date, would revert to the government. To 
prevent this various expediencies were re- 
sorted to, and at last extension of the time 
for the completion of certain portions of 
the road was obtained. 

"Work was resumed under several con- 
tracts, one of which was with George \\". 
Ceisendorff. of Rome City, dated December, 
1864, to build and equip fifteen miles of 
mad, understood to be between the latter 
town of Lagrange, Ind. ; $19,000 paid 
by Mr. Ceisendorff to the company were ex- 
pended on the road north of Grand Rapids. 
Still the company found itself unable to con- 
tinue the completion of the road, and a new 
executive administration under the old or- 
ganization was effected, that some relief 
might be obtained. Confidence was partial- 
ly restored, and the citizens along the road 
in Noble and Lagrange counties subscribed 
about two hundred thousand dollars in aid 
of the work, the most of which was payable 
conditionally, and hence was unavailable 
until the conditions had been complied with. 
Soon, after considerable difficulty, another 
extension of time until January 1. 1868, was 
obtained. The Pittsburg. Fort Wayne & 
Chicago Railroad was solicited for help, 
and furnished it conditionally by endorsing 
certain stipulations on fifteen hundred one- 


thousand-dollar bonds of the issue of Janu- 
ary. i860. But this seemed to afford only 
temporary relief, as in April, 1869, a num- 
ber of responsible parties living in New 
York, Philadelphia and Pittsburg, and 
known as the Continental Improvement 
Company, obtained such control of the 
Grand Rapids Company that the completion 
of the road- was rapidly pushed forward, 
with the aid of a declared capital of two 
million dollars, owned by the last named cor- 
poration, until, in December, 1873, the road, 
constructed and completed in accordance 
with the contract, was turned over to the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Company. Thus 
it was that after a long, distressing struggle 
for life, the road, at the price of large profits, 
was placed upon a permanent running basis. 
"When the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad Company were projecting their 
road through the county, citizens along the 
hue were asked to take stock therein. Many 
did this in and around Kendallville, and fin- 
ally the city government issued its bonds 
for eighty-three thousand dollars to the rail- 
road company, and received in return stock 
in the company to the same amount. Some 
time afterward it became apparent, from the 
depreciation in the value of the stock, among 
other tilings, that large tracts of valuable 
timber land in northern Michigan, in which 
every dollar's worth of stock had an inter- 
est, had been disposed of in such a manner 
as to deprive the stockholders of any interest 
therein. This led the city to refuse to pay 
its bonds at the par value of the stock, al- 
though it was not the design to repudiate 
the debt. A more detailed account of the 
whole proceeding is as follows: 

' Whereas, a majority of the resident freeholders 
of the City of Kendallville have petitioned the common 

council of said city to subscribe for and take $83,000 
capital stock in the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, 
for and on behalf of said city, and to make and issue 
bonds of the city in payment thereof; and, whereas, it 
further appears, that the railroad, as proposed to be 
constructed, will run into and pass through said city; 

" ' Be it resolved by the common council of the 
City of Kendallville, That said city will subscribe for 
and take $83,000 capital stock in aid of the Grand Rapids 
& Indiana Railroad, and thatbondsof said city shall be 
issued in payment therefor, as follows: Eighty-three cor- 
porate coupon bonds of $1,000 each, signed by the mayor 
and attested by the clerk of said city, and payable twenty 
years from the loth day of May, 1867, with interest at 
the rate of six per centum per annum, payable annually 
on the 1st day of May of each year (both principal and 
interest) at the office of the treasurer of said city, that 
said bonds shall be delivered to the proper officer of said 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company only on 
condition — First, that the company issue to the City of 
Kendallville. in lieu thereof, certificates for capital stock 
of said company to the amount of $83,000; Second, that 
sufficient guaranty be given to said city by the presi- 
dent of said railroad company that all moneys arising 
from the sale of said bonds shall be expended upon 
that part of said road lying between the Allen county 
line, in the State of Indiana and the city of Kendall- 
ville; that the committee upon ordinance prepare and 
report an ordinance to carry into effect these resolu- 
tions.' " 

At a meeting of the city council on the 
ioth of June. 1867, that portion of the above 
resolution requiring the president of the rail- 
road company to guarantee that all money 
arising from the sale of city bonds should 
be expended upon that portion of the road 
lying between the Allen county line and 
Kendallville was unanimously "rescinded 
and repealed." It w 7 as further ordained, at 
this session, that so much of the above reso- 
lution as referring to subscribing and taking 
eighty-three thousand dollars stock in the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, and to 
issuing city bonds in payment therefor, "be 
and the same is hereby repealed." This was 
accomplished by a unanimous vote. Imme- 


diately afterward the following' resolution 
was offered : 

" 'Be it resolved by the common council of the city 
of Kendallville, That whereas, the Grand Rapids & In- 
diana Railroad Company has prepared a proper certifi- 
cate for capital stock in said company to the amount of 
830 shares of $100 each, and by its president, Joseph K. 
Edgerton, has also executed a written guarantee that 
the proceeds of the bonds ordered to be executed by 
said city by special ordinance adopted May 8, 1867, 
shall be applied in the construction of said railroad 
between Fort Wayne and Kendallville, and not else- 
where, and the said company having consented to de- 
liver to the said city the private obligations or subscrip- 
tions to the capital stock of said company made by the 
citizens of Kendallville during the year L866; Now, 
therefore, the treasurer of said city is directed to receive 
from said Joseph K. Edgerton the certificates of stock- 
as aforesaid and the written guarantee and the private 
obligations or subscription aforesaid, and in payment 
therefor to deliver to said Edgerton the bonds executed 
by virtue uf the special ordinance aforesaid, being eighty- 
three corporate bonds — coupon bonds of $1,000 each; 
and the said city treasurer is further directed, upon ap- 
plication to deliver said private obligations to the several 
citizens of the city who executed the same and who now 
reside in said city.' 

"This resolution remained pending 
until the next session of the Council, when 
il was voted upon and passed without a dis- 
senting- voice. On motion, Mr. Edgerton 
was appointed to cast the vote of the city 
at the annual meeting of the stockholders, to 
he held at Sturgis, Michigan, on the third 
Wednesday in July. 1867. He was also in- 
structed to vote for Robert Dykes as direc- 
tor of the company, from Kendallville. In 
July, 1869, some misgivings having arisen 
in the breasts of the citizens of Kendall- 
ville regarding the good faith of the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company as to 
the fulfillment of its promises and obliga- 
tions, and the proper disposal or application 
of the city's subscription, the president of 
the company was informed that the city 

would not pay its obligations — would repu- 
diate the payment of its bonds — unless some 
further assurance was received that the stock 
subscribed would he properly expended, and 
that. too. without any unnecessary delay. 
Whether such assurance was received is not 
known; at all events, matters went on until 
it was learned that the Grand Rapids Com- 
pany had in some manner transferred its 
interest in the road to the Continental Im- 
provement Company, and that the stock in 
the road held by the city of Kendallville was 
either worthless, or nearly so, from the prob- 
able fact that the extensive pine timber lands 
in Michigan owned by the company, to 
which all such stock had a claim, had been 
disposed of in a manner to defraud the stock- 
holders of any interest therein, whereupon 
one hundred and fourteen citizens of Ken- 
dallville petitioned the city council, asking 
that the Continental Improvement Company 
be required to furnish the city with eighty- 
three thousand dollars of stock, or upon fail- 
ure to do so such citizens would refuse to 
pay the principal of their bonds, the interest, 
or any part thereof. The petition was or- 
dered on file, and the mayor was instructed 
to employ Morris & Worden, attorneys of 
Fort Wayne, to ascertain the true condition 
of affairs, and whether the city of Kendall- 
ville was liable for the payment of the eighty- 
three thousand dollars stock subscribed. This 
last resolution, however, was soon rescinded, 
and the council employed L. E. Goodwin to 
ascertain the extent of the legal liability of 
the city for the bonds given to the railroad 

"As time passed it became more appar- 
ent to the citizens that they had been out- 
flanked when they gave their bonds to the 
railroad company, and a bitter opposition to 



the payment of the subscription was freely 
expressed everywhere. At last a petition 
with sixty-eight names was presented to the 
council, asking that an agent he appointed 
to see whether the bonds of the city in the 
possession of the railroad company could lie 
negotiated at some satisfactory rate, in view 
of the existing hard times and burdensome 
taxation : but at the next meeting another 
petition, asking that action on the above peti- 
tion lie deferred until after the election of 
the city officers for the ensuing year, was 
presented with one hundred and forty-two 

"At the next session the council resolved 
to appoint a committee of three citizens to 
confer with the holders of the city's bonds, 
as to the best terms such bonds could lie ne- 
gotiated. A conference between the com- 
mittee and Mr. Edgerton, of the Grand Rap- 
ids road, and G. W. Cass, of the Continental 
Improvement Company, was held, and ar- 
rangements were made by which the bonds 
were to be purchased by the city, and, in 
lieu thereof, the stock-held by the city was 
to be transferred to the holders of the bonds ; 
but as this was not followed by the proper 
action on the part of the bondholders, it 
was resolved by the city council that the 
treasurer be instructed to pay no more cou- 
pons on the bonds until further orders. This 
action brought from Mr. Cass the proposi- 
tion to exchange forty thousand dollars of 
the 1 Kinds of the city with the overdue cou- 
pons attached for eight}- thousand dollars 
of the stock in the Grand Rapids Railroad, 
and also- an agreement to discount twenty- 
five per cent, on the remaining debt, if the 
same be paid in one and two years. After 
long debate through several successive meet- 
ings the council finallv rejected the offer of 

Mr. Cass, but agreed to exchange twenty 
thousand dollars and the stock in the city's 
possession for the eighty-three thousand dol- 
lars in bonds held by the Continental Com- 
pany, the twenty thousand dollars to be pay- 
aide in three years in equal annual payments. 
Mr. Cass, by letter, refused to accept this 
proposition, and further debate was indulged 
in by the city council regarding the best 
means of adjusting the difference. A com- 
mittee of three was appointed to go to Stur- 
gis, Michigan — Messrs. Ringle, Cain and 
Orviatt. These men could secure no better 
terms, and accordingly a mass meeting of 
the citizens of the city was called to be held 
on the 2d of August, 1870, at which time 
an almost unanimous opinion was expressed 
not to accept the proposition of Mr. Cass ; 
but in the face of this feeling the city coun- 
cil, by a vote of three to two, accepted the 
proposal. Any further action, however, 
was postponed until a petition, signed by two 
hundred and thirty-eight qualified voters of 
the city, and asking that the resolution of the 
council be rescinded, was presented, when the 
prayer of the petitioners was granted. The 
payment of the coupons on the bonds was 
refused, and after threatening suit against 
the city treasurer for the collection of the 
same the railroad president was confronted 
by a resolution from the council supporting 
the treasurer in his refusal to pay the over- 
due interest. After numerous propositions 
from both sides for a settlement without 
success, suit was finally begun in the United 
States circuit court at Indianapolis, by J. T. 
Davis, for the collection of overdue interest 
on the city bonds. While this was pending, 
further efforts were made to adjust the 

"The city received a proposition from 



certain attorneys of Fort Wayne to the effect 
that if fifteen thousand dollars would be 
guaranteed them the}- would clear the city 
of its bonded indebtedness. This proposi- 
tion was accepted and suit was begun. Va- 
rious other complications arose, until at last, 
in January, 1874, the following contract was 
entered into between the city and Air. Cass, 
representing the Continental Improvement 
Company : 

" 'The said city shall assign and deliver 
to the said Continental Improvement Com- 
pany the certificates for eight hundred and 
thirty shares of the stock in the Grand Rap- 
ids & Indiana Railroad, now held by said 
city. Second, the said city shall pay the said 
Continental Improvement Company twenty- 
five thousand dollars in ten (To) equal an- 
nual payments, with interest payable annu- 
ally on the whole; the first payment to be 
made on the 1st of October, 1874, and the 
remaining payments on the 1st of October, 
annually, thereafter until all shall be paid, 
and the interest shall be computed on the 
twenty-five thousand dollars from the first 
day of October, 1874. Third, the cause now 
pending against said company in the Allen 
circuit court to be withdrawn, and all suits 
against said company in which said city is 
interested, either directly or indirectly, to be 
dismissed immediately by said city. Fourth, 
the installments ($2,500) and interest as 
above stated, as it becomes clue, and at the 
same time surrenders to said city ten thou- 
sand dollars of said bonds or coupons now 
held by said company, and when said city 
shall have performed all the other stipula- 
tions herein agreed to be performed by said 
city, then the Continental Improvement 
Company will, without further payment, de- 

liver to the said city the bonds of the Con- 
tinental Improvement Company.' " 

Thus, after a long struggle and pro- 
longed litigation, the railroad was estab- 
lished and the city government secured from 
serious loss. Under the management of the 
Grand Rapids & Indiana Company the rail- 
road has been doing a prosperous business. 
Her rails of steel, although laid at great cost 
and during a period not at all propitious to 
such an undertaking, have long been trav- 
eled by the prancing steed of iron, distribut- 
ing the luxuries as well as the necessities of 
life from section to section, from city to city, 
dropping them even by the wayside, carrying 
both joy and sadness, both pleasure and pain, 
to the many country folk adjacent to the line 
of travel. To these enterprises the city of 
Kendallville owes much of its present pros- 
perity, and indeed they are enterprises which 
would and do bring success and prosperity 
to any thrifty hamlet, village, town or city. 


In an early day Noble county was infest- 
ed with a lot of horse-thieves and counter- 
feiters that were hard to beat. They were 
gentlemen in appearance, well dressed, edu- 
cated, accommodating, good neighbors, and 
all that. The leaders came here from Sum- 
mit county, Ohio. For a time they con- 
trolled the courts and justices, and many 
people were afraid of what might happen 
from the enmity of these counterfeiters. 

To this kind of business William Mitch- 
ell was opposed. He was one who feared 
nothing — neither man nor devil. One night 
Mr. Mitchell was hauling a load of lumber 
home from the Latta sawmill, five miles 



north of his home. One of the prominent 
blackleg leaders, and a neighbor of Mr. 
Mitchell, had given out that he would give 
Mr. Mitchell a licking. Well, this man 
passed Mitchell on horseback twice in the 
woods that night, passing the time of night 
with him. Then Mitchell got a club and 
laid it on the lumber ready for any emer- 
gency, but the fellow's heart failed him and 
he did not try it. 

Next day this same man was riding by on 
horseback, and Mitchell went out and asked 
him what there was about his saying that 
he was going to lick him. The blackleg said 
it was so. "All right." said Mr. Mitchell, 
"we will try it right here," and at that they 
went at it, and they were pretty evenly 
matched. Parties came along and pulled 
them apart. The blackleg found that he 
could not scare Mr. Mitchell worth a cent, 
and ever afterward Mr. "Blackleg" was a 

In the fall of 1840 two young men named 
Smith and Turner broke jail at Bluffton, 
Ind., and came into this neighborhood. 
'William blunter, of Huntertown, Allen 
county, came to Mitchell's house. A reward 
was offered for the capture of Smith and 
Turner, and Mr. Hunter told Mr. Mitchell 
that these parties. Smith and Turner, had 
been in jail for horse-stealing. They had 
been seen in the neighborhood, and it was 
known where they were stopping. 

Mitchell went to Rice's. Sawyer's, Oak 
and Tom Johnson's for help in capturing 
these two men. Mitchell and Hunter, the two 
Johnsons and a few others went to the house. 
When thev stepped inside they found Smith 
and Turner ready to travel, saddlebags on 
their arms, talking to their host. Smith 
made a break for one door and one of the 

Johnsons went after him. Smith went for 
and into a field of standing corn. Johnson 
could not run as fast as Smith, and the lat- 
ter got away. It is pretty hard to follow a 
man on the move at night in a field of stand- 
ing corn. Turner broke for the stable, 
where horses were saddled, and Mitchell af- 
ter him. They ran fur half a mile, and each 
got so tired that they rolled over down- 
timber. Finally the Rice boys came along, 
heard the hallowing and captured Turner, 
took him to Brown's tavern, two miles south, 
put him in bed, tied with a rope, and set a 
fellow to watch him. While the crowd was 
outside talking the situation over, Turner cut 
the rope, jumped and ran for dear life, but 
was caught straddle of the picket dooryard 
fence, taken back to bed and later lodged in 
jail at Bluffton. He broke jail again, and 
I in May, 1841, the barns of Asa Brown (in 
j whose tavern Turner had been kept at 
Brown's ) and of Mr. Mitchell were burned 
I one night at the same time. Mitchell was in 
Ohio at the time, near Defiance, working as 
a contractor on the Wabash & Erie canal. 
The neighbor who had harbored Smith and 
Turner was the first man at the fire, and got 
on top of our log house to keep the sparks 
from setting fire to it. My mother told him 
to come down, and he did, like Davy Crock- 
ett's coon. She sent John Steel to take his 
place. John Steel was true blue. The barns 
were soon rebuilt. The sympathizers with 
these blacklegs were known. There are 
man)- weak people who are afraid to stand 
for the right at all times and under all con- 

Some years later the Regulators were 
organized. Some good men and some bad 
men went into this organization. They ter- 
rorized suspects and strung them up with a 


rope to cause them to tell what was wanted 
to he known, and finally it resulted in a mob 
which hung- a man by the name of McDou- 
gal, south of Ligonier — a stain which No- 
ble county will never get rid of — mob law. 


The farm products along the Mongoqui- 
non (or Lima) road, for sixty miles north 
of Fort Wayne, all went there for a market, 
the outlet being the Wabash & Erie Canal. 
Well, a wagon road through a dense wilder- 
ness s, i, ,n comes to be almost impassable, and 
the Fort Wayne merchants and enterprising 
men along this road conceived the idea of 
building a plank road. Stock in the corpora- 
tion was payable in cash, dry goods, grocer- 
ies, hardware, saddles, harness, boots and 
shoes, labor, and, in fact, almost everything 

Now, to convert this stuff into the pay- 
ing for the labor, sawmills, timber, etc., was 
a task that William Mitchell, of Kendall- 
ville, was selected to superintend, and the 
exchanging and trading of the above got to 
be called "dicker,*' and Kendallville "Dicker- 
town" — no money or so little that it cut no 
figure in the trading. 

The plank road was built from Fort 
Wayne to Kendallville. and then straight 
north through South Milford, in Lagrange 
county, to Union Mills, and then west to 
Ontario. This road was a wonderful benefit 
and opened up the country. When a team 
of horses got on the plank road away they 
went. What was a load became as nothing 
as soon as they struck the plank. .Men ran 
foot races and everybody was happy because 
thev were out of the mud. 

During the construction of this plank- 

road in Swan township a gang of men were 
laying the planks across a small marsh, and 
when loaded teams from the north came 
down on to the marsh they had to be turned 
around by the plank men and go back to get 
around the swamp. One of these plank men 
takes a piece of coal and marks a hand point- 
ing east on a board for a sign, and it read, 
"Go, Damn You." That sign told the story, 
and all that was necessary to say to the trav- 
eler to keep him from getting down into the 
swamp, where he had to be turned back. 

When the plank road was constructed 
from the south up to Kendallville, the people 
along the Mongoquinon road were asked to 
contribute toward the construction on that 
line; but they thought the road had to go 
that way, and far-seeing men on the line 
through South Milford and to Union Mills, 
in Lagrange county, held out inducements, 
and the planks were laid on that line, and it 
opened a more direct road to Kendallville 
from the north as well. 

Brown's Tavern (no hotels then), now 
Lisbon, got to be a prosperous place, and 
when the Michigan Southern & Northern In- 
diana Railroad was prospected the line ran 
through Lisbon; but Lisbon was a high ele- 
vation and the valley of the Elkhart was. 
adopted, which brought the line through: 

As a matter of history it may he stated 
that William Mitchell, of Kendallville, 
owned and laid out the town (now city ) 01 
Kendallville, and he. in connection with 
Samuel Hanna and Pliny Hoagland, of Fort 
Wayne, under the firm name of William 
.Mitchell & Company, took a contract in 1852 
to construct the Ohio & Indiana Railroad 
from Crestline. Ohio, to Fort Wayne, 
lnd., one hundred and thirty-one miles 



While doing this Mitchell took stock in the 
railroad and paid for the stock in lands upon 
which Kendall ville now stands, and several 
hundred acres adjoining the city at a good 
price. Later on, when the Michigan South- 
ern & Northern Indiana Railroad was being- 
located, he bought the land back from the 
Ohio & Indiana Railroad, and the last pur- 
chase was better than the first sale. So 
much for foresight. 


The following reminiscences by John 
Mitchell are decidedly interesting: A per- 
son looking at the map of Noble county, 
I ml., will notice two angling lines of wagon 
roads running northwest and southeast — 
one runnng through the west side of the 
county, called the Goshen road, the other 
through the east tier of townships, called 
the Mongoquinon or Fort Wayne and Lima 
plank road. 

These roads were the first in the county, 
and those on which Indian traders and land- 
hunters found a way for transportation. 
These roads were at first Indian trails, and 
afterwards became the great highways on 
f whch were transported the products of the 
country down to Fort Wayne, where a mar- 
ket was made by the Wabash & Erie canal to 
Toledo, Ohio. 

It will be found that from Fort Wayne 
north nearly fifty miles the Mongoquinon 
road angles most all the way. and it may be 
observed that all the first roads leading into 
Fort Wayne angled through the country on 
the shortest line, and these became the main 
lines of travel and commerce. 

On the Mongoquinon road settlements 
started at Marseilles, Tamarack, Brown's 

Tavern ( which later became Lisbon) ; then 
came Kendallville. Avilla. Swan, and Hi 
Cramer's Corners began to show signs of 
commercial prosperity, and the Darwinian 
theory, "The Survival of the Fittest," was 
to be the result. 

The east half of Noble county was a 
dense wilderness in August, 1836, — a forest 
of whitewood. black walnut, hard and soft 
maple, ash, oak and beech, such as would 
pall the heart of the strongest in these days, 
covered the ground, and had to be got rid 
of before crops could be grown. One who 
never saw such timber as grew in this coun- 
try cannot imagine the quantity that covered 
the ground, any more than can one who 
never saw the effects of our Civil war 
imagine what war is. Talk can give but 
little idea of either. 

One asks why should people seek to 
make a home in such a wilderness, when the 
prairies of Illinois and southern Michigan 
were already cleared and ready for the plow? 

I Emigration came here from central Ohio 
and farther east in Pennsylvania. "West- 

1 ward the star of empire takes its way." and 
they came from a heavy-timbered country 
and were not afraid of timber, were used to 
chopping- and clearing, and then again, the 
lands in the east half of Noble county were 
in 1836 in the hands of the government and 
sold at one dollar and a quarter an acre. 
The settlers were poor people and looking 
Eor cheap hinds. Two dollars and a half to 
five dollars an acre was the usual price, 

1 where land was bought from "eastern specu- 
lators," as they were termed then. Again. 
you would hear this argument used: Land 
that would not grow timber (meaning 
prairie land) would not grow farm crops. 
For several years there was an exodus 



of strong men from Wayne. Allen and Swan 
townships, who went to the prairies up north 
with grain cradles to assist in cutting the 
wheat there and earn a little money to pa} 
their taxes. Money was very scarce in those 
times. Black salts made from ashes 
gathered from log heaps was a cash article. 
Skins of animals were received in payment 
of store debts. The merchant then bought 
his goods on a year's time in New York. 
Profits were large, time of payment 1< nig. 
But the country merchant then did not suc- 
ceed better than now. 

Log houses and log stables were made 
comfortable by stopping the cracks with 
chinking and mud. The clapboard roofs 
were held down by logs running crossways 
of the clapboards, with blocks to keep the 
logs apart. Many a time the writer, as a 
boy, has waked up on a winter morning to 
rind the bedclothes covered with snow, 
drifted through the cracks of a clapboard 
roof. It was nut cold then. Young blood 
flows quick and warm. Get out in the snow 
barefooted before you go to bed and see how- 
warm your feet will get. Try it once, young 

Nails were then unknown, and there 
was no money to buy them with even if they 
were known. No fences at first: soon came 
brush fences and wind-rows of timber. All 
stuck ran in the wends and with bells on. 
In the woods you could hear the ax of the 
woodman, the tinkle of the bell on cattle 
and horses, the crack of the hunter's rifle 
quite a way oft". One knew about where to 
find the cattle and horses each daw Some- 
times thev strayed farther off and then had 
to be brought home. No underbrush then; 
the Indians had kept the young brush burned 
off for hunting the wild game. The woods 

were full of deer, turkeys and wolves. Now 

and then was seen a hear or a wildcat, and 
coons without number and many fur-hearing 
animals abounded. 

Everybody's hogs ran together in the 

wo ds and were wild. They got fat in the 
fall of the year on "shack" (acorns and 
beechnuts). They had good nests in the 
woods fi r winter, made from leaves of the 
trees on the warm side of a fallen trunk. 
The leaves kept the ground from freezing 
and they could hud the "shack" by rooting 
I the snow away, and then the thick woods 
made the climate warmer than now. The 
pork from hogs fattened on "shack" was 
sweet but soft, and the buyers at Fort Wayne 
and farther east would stick their fingers 
through it and call it "shack pork." When 
fried it all went to grease, and would not 
stick to a chopper's ribs like that from corn- 
fed hogs. 

The breed soon got to be of the razor- 
hack variety, and the bristles on some of 
them were used by the early cobblers with 
the wax-end to sew leather and to patch 

Each man owning hogs had a mark, 
which mark was recorded in the county rec- 
ords. In this way people could tell their 
own hogs in the general round-up in the fall 
of the year. . 

House floors were made of "punch- 
eons:" that is, basswood split into slabs and 
then with a bfoadax smoothed off a little on 
the upper side. Cracks pretty wide on the 
edges and a corner out of the end of one 
hoard made a place to put your hand in and 
roll the puncheon over and then go down 
into a hole in the ground for a cellar. It 
answered until we could do better. 

This country was full of "cat swamps" 


(small depressions of from a few rods to sev- 
eral acres). These were full of brush and 
water — the water drying out in the fall of 
the year and getting green and yellow — a 
breeder of musquitoes and poison — malaria. 
The air we breathed, the water we drank, 
nothing but poison. It is a wonder every- 
body did not die. Shaking "ager" was the 
principal occupation of the newcomer. Peo- 
ple would shake until their teeth would 
chatter. Shake the bed. shake everything, 
and no fun about the shaking, I tell you. 
It was in dead earnest. And then came the 
fever. As Mace Bowen would say, 
"Mighty souls, goodness gracious, what a 

Drink water, more poison. Take bone- 
set tea, lobelia tea, then purge, then "puke, ' 
first one end, then 'tother. Lively work, but 
the "ager" had to be worn out. Quinine, 
quinine, quinine and calomel to the end. 

In such a country the writer's father and 
mother came with two small boys — the 
eldest six years old in blackberry time in 
1836 — to make a home. The Pottawatomie 
Indians were here for two years after our 
arrival. They were friendly, begging for 
something to eat. Papooses strapped to a 
board and hung on the squaw's back was 
their way of carrying a child. ■ I have seen 
the board set down by the side of a log house 
while the squaw was inside ; an old sow came 
along and rooted the youngster over, and 
the cry of the young Indian brought the 
squaw out to drive the hogs away and do 
some grunting herself and move on. 

What a courage for a delicate young 
woman to- come from eastern Xew York 
among entire strangers to bring her children 
into the wilderness! 

The people were all alike — no formali- 

ties then. Their wants were few, and if a 
man was honest he had no trouble at all in 
getting on in the world. The every-day 
clothing of the men and boys was pretty 
ragged. They were patched and patched, 
and then patched and patched again, until 
they were in colors like Joseph's coat of old. 

Wild honey was abundant, and during 
! the winter and early spring people could 
track bees to the bee-trees a long ways 
through the woods, then by cutting the bee- 
tree down they got plenty of wild honey. 
And to a boy there seemed to be no end to 
an appetite for the sweet. 

There were few horses among the first 
settlers. Oxen were the main draught 
animals used in destroying the forest. No 
roads. No use for buggies or carriages. 
Oxen were trained and got to be experts, 
both team and driver, and it is wonderful 
what they can be taught to do in such sur- 
roundings and in the hands of an expert ox- 
driver. The writer has seen them in a 
logging-field where timber was put into log 
heaps to burn, when the oxen would get 
excited and run to the heap, break a log- 
chain, break the yoke sometimes, bellow and 
paw the ground in excitement. These 
breaks would occur when the log was too 
big or fast at one end. 


The low muck lands of the country pro- 
duced a wild grass, which answered very 
well until tame grass could be grown. This 
wild grass was cut with scythes, and in the 
cutting many massasoger snakes and other 
kinds were slain. 

All children, boys and girls alike, were 
barefooted in warm weather, and it took 


pretty conl weather to cause them to put on 
.shoes, because they had to be mighty saving, 
as shoes were not plenty and had to be 
made to last a long time. I knew of one 
young girl who carried her shoes under her 
arm nearly a mile through the woods and 
when near the Sunday-school room put her 
shoes on. This seems a large story in the 
year 1901, yet it was true, and that girl, now 
an old lady, is a resident of the state of 
Washington, and delights to tell of those 
experiences when she was young. Well. 
I see I have got switched off from the wild 
grass question. The reader will pardon, as 
at seventy-one years and past, I cannot hold 
the gray matter down to the text as well as 
I ought to, but the wild marsh grass was a 
godsend to this country. It kept the farm 
animals alive: it made roofs for stables and 
sheds, and would turn the water almost 
ecpial to the feathers on a duck's back. One 
of my early recollections was as a bare- 
footed boy in carrying water to a lot of men 
who with scythes were cutting this wild hay, 
and then hear the massasoger snakes shake 
their rattles all around you : it makes a fel- 
low wake up, you bet. 

Cattle and horses in early spring, after 
the hay was used up, were taken to the low 
grounds, where the soft maple, elms and 
basswood trees were cut down, and the stock 
lived on the ends of the limbs, buds, etc., 
and got pretty well filled up. I have often 
seen the deer, several together, eating- 
browse with cattle and horses and when men 
were chopping close by. It shows how 
hungry the deer were. 

If one were going through the woods to 

a neighbor's or after cattle, the old trusty 
flint-lock rifle was always taken along, and 
with the woods full of game, was pretty- 
sure to find something to take home. 

The water of Noble county runs into 
Lake Erie through Cedar creek, the Little 
St. Joe and the Maumee rivers; also into 
Lake Michigan through the Elkhart and 
Big St. Joe rivers; also into the Gulf of 
Mexico through the Blue into the Eel and 
the Wabash, and the Tippecanoe into the 
Wabash, Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Per- 
haps there is no other county in the United 
States where the water runs in three differ- 
ent directions, as does that of Noble county. 
The county is full of lakes. Good author- 
ity has placed the number at three hundred. 
I will not vouch for the exactness of this 
statement, but in a carriage ride of five 
miles east and north of Kendallville one 
can see seven different lakes and all full of 


For many years the elections of Wayne 
township were held in the school-house at 
Wayne Center. The Digginses, Brun- 
diges, Graydons, Stantons, Iddings, Tryons 
and other old wheel-horses of the Whig and 
Democratic columns used to have great 
times at the elections. The first few years 
the Center school house was surrounded by 
plenty of thick and low oak brush, each 
party had a jug of whisky hid in the brush 
and a drink of this whisky was supposed 
to he the price of a vote, and each party 
was mighty careful that the other fellow 
did not find their jug in the brush, and of 
course there was a great deal of very pri- 
vate conversation going on ; each party had 



to go way out and talk low and look all 
round and Lie very wise, so the other fel- 
lows did not get the start of them, and to- 
wards the close of the polls the veterans 
would g"et a little thick-tongued and would 
be voluable with arguments against the op- 
position, and sometimes scraps and hair- 
pulling would take place; but wiser coun- 
sels would prevail until the next election, 
when patriotism would again come to the 
front and the old issues be raked over as 
before, Whig and Democrat alike. 


Political speeches by Governor Bigger 
and other Whig politicians, with fifes and 
drums for music (no brass bands in those 
times), were to be the order of the day at 
North Port (in Orange township). Then 
there was no Rome City. William Mitchell, 
of Kendallville, bought a black steer from 
James Skinner (a Democrat), of Jefferson 
township ; then it was common to say if a 
man changed his politics that he changed his 
coat; well, the black steer changed his coat 
all right. At this time Fred Acus (now 
living at Albion), as a boy was working 
for James Skinner on the farm. Mitchell 
paid Acus twenty-five cents, all in silver, 
to bring the steer over to Mitchell's house, 
about eight miles, and Mitchell said to Acus, 
"Now, Fred, that is all your own" (the 
twenty-five cents). Mr. Acus has told the 
writer this story within a few years past 
and with great pleasure. Well, the black 
steer was skinned, the head, horns, tail and 
legs left on the body ; a stout green pole 
run through the body and out far enough 
at each end to rest on poles chained together 
with log chains so the body was up from 

the ground two or three feet ; then fires were 
built about it and kept hot all night ; plenty 
of salt and pepper brine was applied from 
pails at the same time and the ox was care- 
fully watched that some "Loco foco" Dem- 
ocrat, with evil intent, did not get away 
with the beef. The ox was well roasted and 
well seasoned, and to hungry men and boys 
plain bread and a hunk of beef tasted good, 
and was mighty filling. Well, early next 
morning the fife and drums could be heard 
through the woods as the Whitfords, Is- 
bells, Tryons, Sayles, and others crossed 
Bixler lake in canoes (dug outs) from the 
east settlement, on their way to Brown's 
tavern ( no Lisbi in then ) , the gathering place 
of the delegation. Old Charley Isbell, who 
had fought under General Scott at Lundy's 
Lane in 1812, with military cap and coat, 
and brass buttons and big sword swinging 
round, and his horse rearing up and excited, 
led the way till it made a boy step high 
and feel mighty big. Well, the procession 
started from Brown's tavern ( now Lisbon ) , 
and when they got to the creek at Kendall- 
ville, near where Deiblie's factory now is r 
it was found that one of the sleepers under 
the bridge had been weakened, so the teams 
had to be turned round, and fences let down,, 
and crossed the creek in Mitchell's field. 
Now the roasted ox was ready, horns and 
head decorated with a profusion of toma- 
toes, then supposed not to be fit for people, 
but good for hogs to eat. The writer, as a 
boy of ten years, with others, rode in the 
wagon with the beef. Well, we got up to 
the north side of the creek, just north of 
where Frank Oviatt now lives, and there 
was a low piece of road; Stephen Sawyer 
— a large, tall man and a Democrat — was 
working out his road tax by shoveling the 



soft mud into the road. Some one asked 
Steve what he was doing that for. He said 

"To stall them d d Whigs." and so we 

laughed and moved on. After the speaking 
plenty of bread and hard cider was on hand 
and stout men with long, sharp knives sliced 
the roasted beef off, and with a chunk of 
bread each and all were filled. Uncle 
Jimmy Madison, of Rome City (a Demo- 
crat ), has told me many a time how he was 
standing in the crowd and looking on, and 
my father, taking him by the arm and say- 
ing, "Jimmy, come and have some Whig 
beef." and Madison said he did and it was 
mighty good, too, and so ended the barbecue 
at North Port in 1840. 



IN 184O. 

Ransom Greenman, of Allen township, 
and the writer — both boys — were sent horse- 
back with the election returns (not official) 
from Wayne and Allen about midnight of 
the day of election, through the woods, by 
trail, to Port Mitchell, the then county seat 
of Noble county. Boy-like, we hallooed 
and sung nearly all the way. When we got 
to Jim Skinner's (a Democrat) in Jefferson 
comity, Air. Skinner came to the door in his 
shirt-tail and asked the news. We reported 
our return largely Whig and hallooed and 
hurrahed, and Skinner said "go to hell" and 
went in the house and slammed the door 
shut, and so the fun went on. We got to 
Port Mitchell just about daylight. 


Name. Date of Appointment. 

William Mitchell December 7,1836 

Samuel Minot, March 7, 1840, office 

discontinued May 29, 1849 

Barzilla T. Black April 1 ',. 1857 

Justus Barron March 29, 1861 

Benj. G. Cissell January 19, L864 

James J. Lash October 5, 1866 

Edwin Lisle June 25, 1869 1 

Chas. O. Myers March 24, 1873 

James Nellis November 20, [877 

John R. Smith January 13, 1886 

James R. Bunyan December 21, 1889 

Jeremiah Foley February 7, 1.S94 

Samuel B. Brillhart January 14, 1898 

The following correspondence is self- 
explanatory : 

Fort Wayne, Ind.. Friday, August 28, 1896. 
Friend J. Mitchell, 

Kendallville, Indiana: 
My daughter, Mrs. Ann Elizabeth Lewis (who was 
a visitor in your family some forty years ago), will leave 
on to-morrow morning train with her daughter, for Lig- 
onier to visit her sister (Mrs. \V. N. Beasel), and ex- 
pecting they will have to wait a short time for the train 
from the east, would be pleased to meet you if it would 
be convenient for vou to do so. 

My health is as good as could be expected for a 
youth of eighty-four years. 

Verv respectfully yours, 

O. W. Jefferds. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., September ::. 1896. 
Mr. and Mrs. John Mitchell, 

Esteemed friends: 

Your letter of the 29th ult. was received on Sunday 
morning, saving vou met my daughters, and took them 
in; and I must acknowledge my obligations to you, for 
your kind entertainment of them between trains, which 
they say, were hours spent very pleasantly and will 
be long remembered. I was very sorry you missed me 
last fall. As soon as I heard of your call, I went down 
town to look yon up, but I could not get any trace of you. 
I thank you for your invitation to visit you, and know I 
would be well cared for, but for these reasons I beg you 
will excuse me. 

I suppose you have not much recollection of 1840 
election, when we had the log cabin and hard cider 
clubs, and sang the old song (to the tune of the striped 

For Tippecanoe and Tyler too, 

We'll beat little Van— (Van Buren); 

Van is a used up M-a-n, 

Ami with them we'll beat little V a n — 

Oh! have you heard from Vermont— mont — mont 



All honest and true? 

It's 30,000 for Governor Grout, 

Tippecanoe and Tyler too, 

And with them we'll beat little Van, 
Van — Van is a used up man-a-n. 

The next verse was have you heard Irora Maine? 
-which said, that it had gone hell bent for Cephas 
Kent (candidate for governor), for which I expect to 
hear a similar result in a few days, and not surprised to 
hear the same from nearly every other state. 

Fort Wayne, Ind., 
September 18th, 1896. 
Friend Mitchell: — 

Yours of the 1-1 th inst. was duly received, asking for 
information about the location of the Northern Michigan 
Canal about 1838. As well as I can recollect, it was to 
run from Lake Michigan (Michigan City) to Fort Wayne 
and connect with the W. & E. Canal, expecting the 
Lake (Michigan) to feed it as far south as the Elkhart 
river, which they proposed to dam, as well as the outlet 
of the surrounding marshes, and make a reservoir to feed 
to Fort Wayne. The line was run to Fort Wayne and 
connected with the W. & E. Canal, about one-half mile 
east of the G. R. & I. K. R. crossing of the W. & E. 
Canal, near John Orft's present residence. 

A contract for the reservoir dam, and several others, 
were let. In April. 1839, the first estimates were to be 
paid at the Chief Engineers office, at Port Mitchell, 
where Judge Hanna had a mill and store, managed by 
his brother-in-law (Taylor) and perhaps there were five 
or six families who comprised the town. Major S. 
Lewis of this town was one of the three Canal Commis- 
sioners, whose duty it was, to attend to the payment for 
the State was sick and got me to go for him, the State 
furnished the money through the Fort Wayne branch of 
the State Bank, and M. W. Hubbell, the Teller, took it 
out there. We started out with Col. M. S. Wines (who 
had a job this side of Port Mitchell) and went to Hunter- 
town, and struck in west about a mile, to the line of the 
canal, through the woods (no settlers on the line) to his 
iob, and on to Port Mitchell. I do not recollect of the 
number of contracts, but the dam. and the one north of 
the dam in which Frank Aveline of this place had an 
interest. After the payments were made Hubbell and I 
started for home, and struck the Mongoquinong state 
road at Wright's Corners I think, and on our way home 
I think we stopped a short time at your fathers. Mace 
M. Bowen, a boy of about l(i or IS years of age, I think 
carried the mail to White Pigeon, nearly as far back as 
that. Can't he recollect anything about the canal? 

After some twenty-five or thirty years the G. R. &I. 
R. R. ran their line of road from this place up through 
Michigan, and they struck the dam at Rome City. Now 
is it not probable that they occupy about the same ground 
of the projected canal? If there are any persons now 
living who cleared up that part of your county, I should 
think they would recollect of seeing, some of the old ex- 
cavations which were left. 

I think the above covers all your questions. 

Respectfully yours. 

O. W. Jefferds. 


These regiments were the Thirtieth, 
Forty-fourth, Seventy-fourth, Eighty- 
eighth. One Hundredth, One Hundred 
and Twenty-ninth, One Hundred and 
Thirty-ninth, One Hundred and Forty- 
second, One Hundred and Fifty-sec- 
oncl, Seventh Cavalry and Twelfth Cav- 
alry. The Thirtieth was at first com- 
manded by Col. Sion S. Bass. It first 
moved to Indianapolis, thence to Camp 
Xevin. Ky., thence to Munfofdsville and 
Bowling Green, and in March, 1862, to 
Nashville. It participated in the battle of 
Shiloh on the 7th of April, losing its colonel, 
who was succeeded by Col. J. B. Dodge. 
Here the regiment lost in killed, wounded 
and missing about 130 men. It participated 
in the siege of Corinth, and moved with 
Buell's army through northern Alabama, 
Tennessee and Kentucky, and also pursued 
Bragg. It took part in the three days' bat- 
tle at Stone River, losing heavily ; and also 
at Chattanooga and Chickamauga, suffering 
severely at the latter place. It was in the 
campaign against Atlanta, fighting in all 
the battles. At Atlanta it was consolidated 
into a residuary battalion of seven com- 
panies, under command of Col. H. W. Law- 
ton. It fought against Hood at Nashville, 



and pursued him to Huntsville, thence 
moved into east Tennessee. In June, 1865. 
it was transferred to Texas. It was mus- 
tered out of service late in 1865. 

The Forty-fourth, with H. B. Reed as 
■colonel, moved to Indianapolis in Decemher, 
1861, thence to Henderson, Ky., thence to 
Camp Calhoun, thence to Fort Henry, thence 
to Fort Donelson, in which hattle it suffered 
severely. It moved to Pittsburg Landing, 
and fought both days at Shiloh. losing 
thrity-three killed and one hundred and 
seventy-seven wounded. It fought often at 
the siege of Corinth, and pursued the enemy 
to Booneville. It moved with Buell and fol- 
lowed Bragg, fighting at Perryville. It 
skirmished at Russell's Hill, moved to Stone 
River, where it fought three days, losing 
eight killed, fifty-two wounded and twenty- 
five missing. It moved to Chattanooga, 
fought at Chickamauga, fought at Mis- 
sion Ridge, losing in these engagements 
three killed, fifty-nine wounded and twenty 
missing. It did provost duty at Chatta- 
nooga, and was finally mustered out Sep- 
tember, 1865. During the war it lost three 
hundred and fifty killed and wounded, and 
fifty-eight by disease. William C. Williams, 
Simeon C. Aldrich and James F. Curtis 
were its colonels at times. 

The Seventy-fourth, in August. 1862, 
moved to Lousiville, Ky.. thence to Bowling 
Green. It pursued Bragg, and reached 
Gallatin on the 10th of November. Com- 
panies C and K joined the regiment in De- 
cember. Before this these companies skir- 
mished at Munfordsville, and with Bragg's 
advance on the 14th. Were captured, pa- 
roled and then joined the regiment. The 
regiment pursued Morgan, moved to' Galla- 
tin, Nashville. Lavergne. Triune, moved 

against Tullahoma, and skimished at Hoov- 
er's Gap. It joined the campaign against 
Chattanooga, skirmished at Dug Gap, Ga. 
It was one of the first engaged at Chicka- 
mauga, and was the last to leave the field. 
It lost twenty killed, one hundred and twen- 
ty-nine wounded and eleven missing. It 
sirmished continuously at the siege of Chat- 
tanooga, and in the charge on Mission 
Ridge lost two killed and sixteen wounded. 
It pursued the enemy to Ringgold, Ga., 
participated in the reconnoissance on Buz- 
zard's Roost, marched with Sherman on the 
Atlanta campaign, sirmishing and fighting 
at Dallas, Kenesaw and Lost Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek, and many other places 
about Atlanta. It lost in this campaign 
forty-six men. It charged the enemy's 
works at Jonesboro, Ga., and lost thirteen 
killed and forty wounded. Many of the 
latter died. It pursued Hood, and skim- 
ished at Rocky Creek Church. It moved to 
North Carolina, and finally home via Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The Eighty-eighth took the field in Au- 
gust, 1862. It defended Louisville against 
Kirby Smith, pursued Bragg, fought at 
Perryville and Stone River, doing splendid 
work at the latter battle, losing eight killed 
and forty-eight wounded. It fought or 
skirmished at Hoover's Gap, Tullahoma, 
Hillsboro, Elk River and Dug Gap. Ga. It 
fought desperately at Chickamauga. fought 
"among the clouds" on Lookout Mountain, 
charged at Mission Ridge, skirmished at 
Graysville and Ringgold. In the Atlanta 
campaign it was engaged at Buzzard's 
Roost, Resaca, Dallas. Kenesaw Mountain. 
Peach Tree Creek, and Atlanta and Utay 
Creek. It pursued Hood, marched with 
Sherman to the sea, campaigned through 


the Carolina*, fought at Bentonville, and 
moved home via Richmond and Washing- 
ten, D. C. 

The One Hundreth, in November, 1862, 
took the held at Memphis, Term. ; moved 
on the unsuccessful Yicksburg campaign ; 
did garrison duty at Memphis and vicinity ; 
participated in the siege of Vicksburg, and 
then in the five days' siege of Jackson. It 
moved to Vicksburg, thence to Memphis, 
thence to Stevenson and Bridgeport, thence 
to Trenton, Ga. It fought at Lookout 
Mountain, and then moved to Chattanooga. 
It fought at Mission Ridge, losing in killed 
and wounded one hundred and thirty-two 
men. It pursued Bragg' s arm}- ; relieved 
Burnside at Knoxville ; moved on the At- 
lanta campaign, fighting at Dalton, Snake 
Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope 
Church. Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Nickajack Creek, Chattahoochie River, De- 
catur, Atlanta, Cedar Bluffs, Jonesboro and 
Lovejoy Station, fighting- almost continu- 
ously for one hundred days. It pursued 
Hoed, joined the famous march to the sea, 
fought at Griswoldville, Ga., and Benton- 
ville. X. C, then moved home via Rich- 
mond and Washington, D. C. The regi- 
ment fought in twenty-five battles. 

The One Hundred and Twenty-ninth 
moved to Nashville, Tenn., .April, 1864, 
thence to Charleston, Tenn. It fought at 
Dalton, Resaca, skirmished for nearly two 
weeks through the woods and defiles near 
there, fought gallantly and lost heavily at 
Decatur, engaged the enemy at Strawberry 
Run. losing twenty-five killed and wounded. 
Tt pursued Hood, moved to the assistance 
of General Thomas, skirmished heavily at 
Columbia, and fought desperately at Frank- 
lin, one of the bloodiest battles of the war; 

fought in the two days' battle against Gen- 
eral Hood, and joined in the pursuit. It 
then moved via Cincinnati and Washington, 
D. C, to Morehead City, thence to New- 
hern, and finally to Wise's Forks, where it 
j had a severe engagement with the enemy. 
It moved to Goldsboro, Morley Hall, Ra- 
leigh and Charlotte, where it was mustered 
out of service in August, 1865. 

The One Hundred and Thirty-ninth en- 
tered the service at Indianapolis, June, 1864.. 
1 It moved to Nashville, Tenn., and was as- 
signed to> garrison and provost duty in the 
towns and along the railroads, and, in gen- 
eral, was required to guard Sherman's base 
of supplies. At the expiration of one hun- 
dred days the 'regiment left the service. 

The One Hundred and Forty-second en- 
tered the service in November, 1864. It 
moved to Nashville, where it was assigned 
garrison duty. At the battle of Nashville 
the regiment was in reserve. After this, 
and until it was mustered out, it remained 
at Nashville. 

The One Hundred and Fifty-second en- 
tered the service in March. 1865, moving 
to Harper's Ferry, in the vicinity of which 
place it was assigned garrison duty. It was 
stationed for short periods at Charlestown, 
Stevenson Station, Summit Point and 
Clarksburg, where it was mustered out in 
August, 1865. 

The Seventh Cavalry took the field in 
1 December. 1863-. It moved to Louisville, 
thence to Union City, Tenn. It skirmished 
at Paris, Egypt Station and near Okalona, 
fighting severely all day at the latter place. 
In one charge it left sixty of its men on the 
field. During the entire fight it lost eleven 
killed, thirty-six wounded and thirty-seven 
missing. It moved to Memphis, and finally 



to the support of Sherman's base of supplies. 
At Guntown, Miss., a desperate battle en- 
sued, the regiment being driven back with 
a loss of eight killed, fifteen wounded and 
seventeen missing. It was highly compli- 
mented by General Grierson, notwithstand- 
ing the defeat. It fought at La Mavoo, 
Miss., and near Memphis, where seven mem- 
bers of Company F were killed by guerril- 
las. After this it joined in the pursuit of 
General Price; moved with General Grier- 
son on his famous raid, fighting and de- 
stroying rebel property. It mined down 
into Louisiana and Texas, and finally, late 
in 1S05, was mustered out. 

The Twelfth Cavalry was organized at 
Kendallville during the winter and spring of 
1884, Edward Anderson, colonel. It first 
moved to Nashville, thence to Huntsville, 
Ala. Here and vicinity it remained, chas- 
tising guerrillas anil bushwhackers. A por- 
tion was not mounted; the others were and 
were commanded by Lieut. Col. Alfred 
Reed. Many men were lost in the numer- 
ous engagements. After this the regiment 
moved to Brownsboro, thence to Tullahoma, 
where they watched General Forrest. Here 
it had several skirmishes. Companies C, 
D and H participated in the defense of 
Huntsville. The regiment fought at Wil- 
kinson's Pike, Overall's Creek and before 
Murfreesboro, spent the winter of 1864-65 
at Nashville, embarked for Vicksburg, par- 
ticipated in the movements on Mobile, Ala., 
and joined in the raid of General Grierson. 
It occupied Columbus, Miss., Grenada. Aus- 
tin and other points, guarding Federal stores 
and positions. It was mustered out of 
service at Vicksburg in November, 1865. 

The following imperfect "Roll of 
Honor" of men from Noble county who 

were killed, died of wounds or disease, or 
otherwise, while in the service of their coun- 
try during the war of the Rebellion, is taken 
from the Adjutant General's reports, from 
newspapers, and from various other sources, 
and doubtless contains numerous errors. 

Commissioned Officers — Smith Birge, 
captain, died in 1865; E. A. Tonson, cap- 
tain, accidentally killed in 1865; Thomas 
Badley, first lieutenant, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, September 19, 1803; George W. 
Seelye, first lieutenant, killed at Bentonville, 
N. C. March 10, [865; J. D. Kerr, second 
lieutenant, died at Evansville, Ind., March 
25, 1862; Simon Bowman, second lieuten- 
ant, died August 19, 1864; II. Reed, lieu 1 
tenant, killed: James Collier, lieutenant, 
died; I. T. Zimmerman, lieutenant, died in 
1865. * 

Non-Commissioned Officers — J. W. Gees- 
man, sergeant, died at Nashville. Tenn., 
August 19, 1863; A. J. Linn, sergeant, died 
of wounds at Nashville, Tenn.. February 5, 
1863; Addison Harley, sergeant, died at 
Louisville, Ky.. August 5, [864; J. W. 
Clark, sergeant, died of wounds at Mari- 
etta, Ga., September 19. 1804; John W. 
Hathaway, corporal, killed at Stone River, 
December 31, 1862; Rush \Y Powers, cor- 
poral, died at Nashivlle. Tenn., Augusl 17. 
1863; Emanuel Diffendafer, corporal, 
died at Bowling Green., Ky., Decem- 
ber 29, 1862; Samuel Hamilton, corporal, 
died at Annapolis. Md., February 20, 1865; 
Henry Hinkley, corporal, died at Lisbon, 
lnd.. November 19. 1864; Charles Wilde, 
c rporal, died at Memphis. Tenn.. in 1862; 
Henry H. Franklin, corporal, died at Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., November 7, 1804; John D. 
Stansbury, musician, died at Louisville, Ky.,. 
January 23. 1862; L. D. Thompson, wag- 



oner, died at Bowling Green, Ky., Decem- 
ber 7, 1862. 

Privates — William Archer, killed at 
Stone River, December. 1862; Levi Atwell. 
died at Upton. Ky., December, 1861 : Will- 
iam C. Allen, died at Nashville, September, 
1862; Otis D. Allen, died at Louisville, 
February, 1862; William Anderson, died in 
at Camp Nevin, Ky., November, 1861 ; 
William Adkins, died near Nashville, Term. ; 
Daniel M. Axtell, died of wounds at Mari- 
etta, Ga., 1864; John W. Aker, died at 
Louisville. April, 1864; A. M. Albright, 
died in 1865 ; William Abbott, died at Chat- 
tanooga in 1864; Andrew Arnold, died at 
Chattanooga, 1864. 

William Barthock, died of wounds at 
Fort Fisher in 1865 : J. E. Bradford, starved 
to death at Danville in 1864; H. J. Belden, 
died at Evansville, Ind., April, 1862; Solo- 
mon Bean, died at Nashville, November, 
1862; Paul Bean, died at Glasgow, Ky.. No- 
vember. 1862; A. P. Baltzell. killed at Shi- 
lull. April, 1862; James Bailey, killed at 
Perryville in 1863; Henry Brooks, died at 
Madison, Ind., 1862; Peter Betyer, died at 
Grand Junction, 1863; XV. H. Bailey, died 
at St. Louis, 1862; T. A. Barber, died at 
Nashville, 1865; Noah Bowman, died at 
Chattanooga in 1865; L. H. Baldwin, killed 
at Stone River. 1862 ; Josiah Benton, died 
at Kandallville, March. 1864; Henry Blood- 
camp, died at Cumberland, Md.. 1865; Jo- 
seph Bull, died in 1865; Anson Bloomer, 
died at Murfreesboro in 1864; C. Barns- 
worth, died at Chattanooga in 1864; J. 
Bishop, died of wounds, Louisville, in 1863. 

T. P. Cullison. died at Chickamauga, 
September, 1863; Michael Clair, died at Up- 
ton, Ky.. December, 1861 : Daniel Chap- 
man, died at Camp Nevin. Ky.. November, 

1 86 1 ; Patrick Clark, died at Camp Nevin, 
November, 1861 ; George Cullors, died at 
Nashville. May, 1865 ; J. W. Cruchlow, died 
of wounds in 1865; Daniel Coopruler, died 
of wounds in 1865 ; G. Caswell, died at Ken- 
dallville in 1862; C. Conkling, died at home 
in 1864; John T. Cannon, died at Chatta- 
nooga in 1864; James Cook, died at Pa- 
ducah, Ky., March, 1862; Homer E. 
Clough, died at Gallatin, Tenn., December, 
1862; Theodore Coplin, died at Louisville 
in 1863; Lucius Covey, died of wounds in 
the hands of the enemy, October, 1863; 
John Chancey, died near Edisto River, Feb- 
ruary, 1863; William P. Cheesman, died 
in 1863; Joseph H. Clemmons, killed at 
Iuka, 1862: H. D. Collins, killed at Stone 
River in 1862; W. A. Curry, drowned at 
Lousiville in 1863; J. W. Curry, starved 
at Andersonville in 1864; H. E. Cole, died 
at Camp Nevin, Ky., 1861 ; George Cluck, 
died at Collarsville in 1863 ; A. T. dim- 
ming, died at Indianapolis in 1862; W. H. 
Calkins, killed at Mission Ridge in 1863; 
John Clutter, died at Memphis, May, 1865 ; 
Joel Clark, died at Nashville in 1865; John 
Clark, killed at Stone River in 1862; Ma- 
rion F. Cochran, died at Louisville, Decem- 
ber, 1864; A. M. Casebeer, died in 1865; 
W. H. Coates, died in 1865; Alonzo Chase, 
died at home. 

Isaac Dukes, died at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn.. April, 1863; John Dyer, died at Gal- 
latin, November, 1862 : William J. Dyer, 
died of wounds, Chattanooga, October, 
1863; James Dunbar, died November, 1863; 
Helim H. Dunn, died of wounds, Decem- 
ber, 1863; Silas Dysert, died at Bridgeport, 
Ala., February, 1862; J. B. Dillingham, 
died at Collarsvills, 1863: J. H. Drake, died 
at Athens, 1865; John Dingman. died at 


Nashville, March, 1865; Daniel Donehue, 
died, 1865; William Denny, killed, 1864; 
J. A. Denny, died at Nashville, 1864. 

Abner Eddy, died at Camp Nevin, No- 
vember, 1861; Nelson Eagles, starved to 
death, Danville, 1864; John Erricson, died 
at Jeffersonville, Ind., July, 1865; Henry 
Eley, died of wounds. May. 18(12; John En- 
gle, died at Camp Sherman, 1865; Abner 
Elder, died at Madison, Ind., 1862; Peter 
Eggleston, died at Nashville, January, 
1865 ; Henry Eddy, died at Cumberland, 
Mi, April, 1865; Eben Eddy, died at In- 
dianapolis, March, 1805; A. T. Ellsworth. 
died, 1865. 

Orton B. Fuller, killed at Resaca, May, 
1864; Albert XV. Fisher, died at Cairo, Au- 
gust, 1864; Erastus Fisk, died at Upton, 
Ky., December, 1861 ; Mackson Fisk. died 
at Camp Nevin. November, 1861'; George 
Fisk, died at Louisville, January, 1862; An- 
drew J. Follen died at Gallatin, November, 
1863; Charles Folk, died at Nashville, 1864; 
Cepheus Fordam, died at Nashville, 1865; 
Frederick Felton, died at David's Island. 
April, 1865; William Fitzgerald, missing, 
wounded at Shiloh, April. 1802. 

Daniel Groves died at Memphis, Decem- 
ber, 1862; Samuel Gardner, starved to 
death. Danville, 1863; I. J. Carver, starved 
to death, Andersonville, 1864: William H. 
Green, died at Louisville, Ky., June, 1865; 
A. A. Gallonge, killed at Shiloh, 1862; 
Owen Garvey, killed at Chickamauga, Sep- 
tember, 1803; Matthias Green, died at Mur- 
freesboro, February, 1863; B. L. Gage, died, 
18(15 ; Michael Gunnet, died, 1864; Simon 
Gilbert, died in Michigan, 181.4; Wallace 
Gorton, died at home; Cyrus Gyer, starved 
at Andersonville, 1864. 

Daniel Hodges, died at Baton Rouge, 
October, 1864; George Hubbard, killed at 
City Point, 1865; Joseph Hart, killed at 
Shiloh, April, 1862; Henry Hetick, died of 
wounds, Chattanooga, October, 1863; Jo- 
seph C. Hill, died at Nashville, April, 1SO5; 
T. "C. Hollister, killed at Murfreesboro, 
1862; James Hudson, killed at Murfrees- 
boro, 1862; Henry Hart, died at Indianap- 
olis, 1863; John J killer, killed at Stone 
River, December, 1863; C. Hinton. died 
at Henderson, Ky., 1862; William H. Hays, 
I died at Ackworth, Ga., June, 1864; XV. 
Herrick, starved at Andersonville, 1864; 
M. Harker, died of wounds. 1864; Orange 
Homer, died at Gallatin, 1862; Emanuel 
Hoover, died at LaGrange, 1862; Jacob K. 
Hartzler, died at Chattanooga. September, 
1863; Stockton D. Haney, died at New Al- 
bany, Ind., November, 1862; John Hoff- 
man, died at Hickory Valley, 1863; Jesse 
Hull, killed at Dallas. Ga., 1863; Alvin O. 
Hostetter, died at Memphis, September, 
1865; Robert Hamilton, died near Vienna, 
Fla., July, 1864; E. L. Humphreys, died 
in Noble county. 1865; Edwin B. Hanger, 
died at home, April, 1865; Eliphalet S. 
Holy, died at Indianapolis, March, 1865; 
R. Householder, died; Addison Harley, 
died at Nashville. 1864; Elisha Harding, 
died at Kendalville, 1864; C. Hackett, died 
at Nashville. 1864; John D. Harber, died at 
Nashville, 1864; W. Hardenbrook, died at 
Pulaski. 1805. 

Henry Jerred, killed at Murfreesboro, 
1862; J. V. Johnson, died at Corinth. July, 
1862; Hollis Johnson, Jr., died at Gallatin, 
November, 1862; J. D. Joslin, killed at At- 
lanta, 1864; Samuel Johnson, drowned near 
Beaufort, S. C, January, 1865; Silas W. 


Johnson, died at Chattanooga, July, 1864; 
Albert M. Johnson, died at Camp Piatt, 
W. Va.. August, 1865. 

]. W. Kirkpatrick, died at Nashville, 
1865; Samuel Konkright. died at Nashville, 
1863; William H. Kelley, died of wounds 
at Chattanooga, March, 1865; Daniel Knep- 
per. died on hospital boat, August, 1865; 
Barney Knepper, died at Indianapolis, June, 
1862 : L. C. Knapp, killed at Mission Ridge, 
1863; M. D. King, killed at Dallas. Ga., 
1864; Elias Kessler, died at Indianapolis, 
March. 1865: John W. Klein, died at Nash- 
ville, 1864. 

Ashbury Lobdell. died at Beaufort, S. 
C, February, 1865; Jacob Lanellen, died 
of wounds at Fort Fisher, 1865; Joseph 
Longly. killed at Shiloh, April, 1862; Ira 
Lease, died at Murfreesboro, August, 1863; 
Robert Longyear, died at Farmington, 
1862; Jacob Long, died, 1862; Hiram Lind- 
sey, died, 1864; John S. Lash, died at Mem- 
phis, March, 1864; John Louthan, died at 
Vicksburg, August, 1865; A. Lunger. 
starved at Andersonville, 1864. 

Lafayette Mullen, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, September, 1863; Andrew J. My- 
ers, died at Victoria, Texas. November, 
1865; Thomas J. Manhorter, died at St. 
Louis, February, 1865;- James Monroe, 
killed at Stone River, 1862; F. B. Miller. 
starved to death at Andersonville, 1864; 
Simon Michaels, died, July, 1865; William 
Miner, died at Evansville, December, 1861 ; 
H. J. Monroe, died at Andersonville, Au- 
gust, 1864; J. B. Matthews, died at Mur- 
freesboro, January, 1863; L. H. Madison, 
died at Hamburg, Tenn., May, 1862; John 
Mankey, died at Athens, Ala., July, 1862; 
facob Mohn, killed at Shiloh, April, 1862; 
Eli Miser, died at Chattanooga, 1864; 

Corry McMann, died at Louisville, Ky., 
December, 1862; William Martin, died at 
Louisville, January, 1863; Matthias Mar- 
ker, killed at Perryville, October, 1862; 
J. McBride. died at Nashville, 1865; Albert 
Martenus. died, 1865; John H. Mitchell, 
starved at Andersonville, 1864; Charles A. 
Monroe, died, 1863; Wesley Moore, died, 
April, 1864; Sylvanus Mercia, died at 
Huntsville, Ala., 1865; J. McQuiston, 
starved to death at Andersonville, 1864; 
Charles W. Mullen, died at Whitesburg, 
Ala., August, 1864; Henry McGinnis, died 
at Decatur, Ga., September, 1864; John A. 
Madison, killed at Atlanta, 1864; J. H. Mc- 
Nutt, died of wounds, 1865. 

G. G. Nelson, killed at Murfreesboro, 
1863; J. W. Norton, died at Evansville, 
lnd., December, 1861 ; Charles Noteman, 
died at Columbus, 1865; Henry Nichols, 
died. 1865. 

George Oliver, died in hospital, 1864; 
Francis Owen, died at Tuscumbia, 1863; 
Horace D. Odell. died at Gallatin, December, 
1862; T. L. Ourstreet, died at Helena, Ark., 
1862; Samuel W. Orr, died at Keokuk, 
Iowa, 1863. 

H. Plummer, died at Granville, 1865; 
John Poppy, killed at Shiloh. April, 1862; 
William Prentice, killed at Resaca, May, 
1864; John S. Pancake, died at home, Jan- 
uary, 1864; William H. Piatt, died at Mur- 
freesboro, February, 1863; Rudolph Phisel, 
died at Nashville, 1865 ; Daniel Porke, died 
at Camp Sherman, 1863; A. Pennypacker, 
died at Murfreesboro. 1864; Earl Powers, 
\ died at Cumberland, Md., April, 1865; Les- 
ter Powers, died, 1865. 

Henry Ridenbaugh, killed at Mission 
' Ridge, November, 1863; Abraham Reed, 
I died of wounds at Fort Fisher, 1865; 



Charles Rossin, died, December, 1864; 
William Richardson, died at home, April. 
1862; Louis Routsong, died at Louisville.. 
December, [862; Isaac Rambo, died at 
Chattanooga, [865; David Rink, died at 
Bowling Green, Ky., November, 1862; 1 )li 
ver Reed, died at Jeffersonville, Ind., June, 
1864; Robert Reed, killed at Atlanta, Au- 
gust, 1864; L. H. Randall, killed at Chick- 
amauga, 1863; George W. Rogers, died at 
Tyree Springs, Tenn., November. 1862; 
David River, died at Nashville, 1862; .Mil- 
ton Richards, died at Nashville, September, 
1864; William Rosenbaugher, died at In- 
dianapolis, March. 1865; A. Rinehart, died, 

Frank Seamans, died at Grand Junction, 
Tenn., February, 1863; George R. Smith, 
died at Rome City in 1863; J. H. Sparrow, 
died -of wounds at Fort Fisher, 1865; Ed- 
ward B. Segnor, died at Baton Rouge, May, 
[864; Daniel Shobe, Jr., died of wounds, 
Ma\\ 1862; Clark Scarlett, died at Upton, 
Ky.. December, 1861 ; Alfred Shields, died 
at Murfreesboro, December, 1863; P. J. 
Squires, killed at Shiloh in 1S62; John 
Shidler, died at Gallatin, December, 1862; 
Thomas Stokes, died, March, 1863; Elijah 
Starks, killed at Chickamauga in 1863; Ja- 
cob Shobe, died at Murfreesboro, May, 
1863; Amos W. Seymour, died at Bowling 
Green, November. 18(12; David Soule, 
killed at Atlanta in 1864; E. O. Sanborn, 
died at Chattanooga in 1863; Francis H. 
Shaver, starved at Andersonville in 1864: 
Alfred Sutton, died at Washington in 1864; 
J. Seebright, died on steamer Olive Branch 
in 18(14; Jacob Slusser, died at Acworth, 
Ga., June, 1864; Theron A. Smith, died,, 
January. 1865: John Seips. dieil in 1865; 
Uriah Swager. died in 1865. 

Frank Teal, killed at Shiloh, April, 
[862; William Totten, killed at Chicka- 
mauga, September. [863; John Traul, died 
at Huntsville, Ala., January, 1865; William 
R. Truly, starved to death at Andersonville 
in 1865; David Tressel, died at Lebanon 
Junction, Ky., December, 1862; William 
Tressel, died at Gallatin, December, 1862; 
Abraham Tasony, died of wounds. Madison. 
Ind., December. 1863; W. T. Taylor, 
drowned in Mill creek in 1864; Franklin 
Thomas, died at Nashville in 18(13; tsaiah 
Tryon, killed at Kingston in [864; Francis 
Trask, died at Jackson in 1865 ; Marcus B. 
Turney. died at Cumberland, Md., April, 
1865. " 

William Untadt, died at Washington 
I City. 1864. 

Moses Walters, died at Memphis, Oc- 
tober. 1863; George E. Warden, died at 
Scottsboro, Ala., March, 18(14; William 11. 
Williams, died at Marietta, Ga., September, 
1 8; 4; Adam Weeks, died at Rome. Ga., 
18(14; John M. Wells, starved to death at 
Andersonville, 1864; Andrew J. Webb, died 
at Camp Nevin. Ky., November, 1861 ; Ira 
Worden, starved to death at Andersonville, 
1864; Lorenzo D. Wells, died of wounds, 
December. 18(13; Zilia Winget. died at 
Nashville, March, [863; John D. Warner, 
died in 1863; Edmund W'est. died in Ander- 
sonville Prison, 18(14; Hiram Waliill. died 
at Grafton. West Virginia, June. 181.5; 
Joseph E. Walburn. died at Nashville, Feb- 
ruary, 18(13; Hiram W Iford, died in 

[865; W. R. Wiltrout, died at Washington 
111 [864; George Weamei . died of wounds. 
April, 1862. 

William T. Yort, died at St. Louis. July, 
; 1862; David C. Voder, died in Anderson- 
ville Prison. August. 1864; John H. Yeakey, 



died at Nashville, 1862; L. D. Yorker, died 
at Camp Nevin, 1861 ; A. Young, died at 
Memphis, 1862. 

John Zeigler, died at Raleigh, N. C. 

Grand total, 301. 




"No life, however humble and insignifi- 
cant, if characterized by some degree of 
activity and industry, can fail to be instruc- 
tive and useful in memory. If any merits 
are revealed, it is so far good for example; 
if faults are conspicuous and errors numer- 
ous,' it is useful as a warning. Lastly, as 
individual lives are the bases of history, the 
primal springs of destiny, their true deline- 
ation is a debt, due at least to lineal poster- 
it}-, if not to the community and to the 

Such is the beautiful and appropriate 
language which introduces the opening par- 
agraph of an unfinished autobiography of 
one of Noble county's most eminent citizens, 
the scholarly and erudite gentleman whose 
name appears at the head of this review — a 
man whom his fellow citizens repeatedly 
honored with important official station and 
whose fame as a journalist and in the higher 
realms of literature long since won for him 
a conspicuous place among Indiana's dis- 
tinguished men of letters. In touching 
upon the character of one whose life for so 
man)- years was an open hook known and 
read by the pe iple, whose vigorous style as 
a writer still refreshes, whose beauties rav- 
ish, and whose judgment leads captive, we 

may at least claim that the scant eulogy 
herewith presented has worth) precedent, 
for such in all ages has been the homage 
which common mortals have been wont to 
lay at the feet of genius. But in compiling 
this brief biography the writer labors under 
peculiar disadvantages. The material neces- 
sary to the life-sketch of a man. eminent, 
not only in the world of literature hut whose 
distinguished services in one of the most ex- 
acting professions — the law — won for him 
much more than a local reputation, is scat- 
tered through the volumes of many years, 
and to collect it in compact form, now that 
the subject is no more, is a task beset with 
difficulties numerous and formidable. Had 
Air. Alvord lived to complete the beautiful 
autobiography, which he began some years 
at the earnesl solicitation of his chil- 
dren, the literature of the state would have 
heen enriched by a life-story of surpassing 
interest, and from it the biographer of the 
future would have found abundant material 
to speak of its author as one of the noted 
men of his day and generation. Unfor- 
tunately for his friends and for the com- 
munity, this labor of love was deferred 
from time to time for reasons which are 
besl explained in the following words from 
his pen: "I have deferred the performance 
of this duty until nearly three years beyond 



the allotted 'three score and ten,' to a time 
when the usual ambitions of earthly life 
have ceased and motives of personal aspira- 
tion in human affairs cannot justly lie sus- 
pected ; but truth compels me to disclaim 
this as the only reason for the delay. I 
must confess that less honorable considera- 
tions have caused it ; doubt as to the propri- 
etv of thrusting myself and my experience 
upon the notice of others ; dread of criti- 
cism and gossip; fear of misapprehension; 
especially, fear that the performance might 
si amp me as one of the class for whose 
weakness I have always felt the utmost de- 
gree of pity — the representative of vanity 
and egotism — and. more than all, 'the put- 
ting off until to-morrow the legitimate work 
of to-day.' " Thus modestly are set forth 
the primal reasons deferring a work which, 
bad it been finished, would have heen cher- 
ished as a priceless heirloom by his immedi- 
ate family ami friends, besides being, as al- 
ready stated, a literary gem. which in inter- 
est and excellence would have won a place 
with the best literary productions of the 

Samuel E. Alvord was born in the town- 
ship of Wells, in Bradford county, Pa., on 
the 14th day of November, 1824, at the 
house of his maternal grandparents, Samuel 
and Sarah (Seely) Edsall. The grandfather 
was a native of Orange county, N. Y., his 
ancestors being of the Hollanders of Man- 
hattan. The grandmother's ancestors were 
Connecticut people of English extraction, 
as some of their descendants claim, while 
others profess to know that her ancestry is 
Scotch-Irish. The subject's grandparents 
of the paternal line, Nathaniel Alvord, Sr.. 
and Rebecca Deming, were both natives of 
Connecticut, of Scotch-Irish and English 

ancestry, respectively. The migration of the 
Alvords, who were lineal ancestors, occurred 
about the year 1687. The)- were among 
those win) tied from the terrible scenes of the 
great Rapparee insurrection in behalf of 
King James and the Romish church, and 
took refuge in England under the protector- 
ate of William and Mary. Two brothers of 
the name afterwards came to America and 
landed in Massachusetts, about the year 
1700. The families founded by these broth- 
ers were located at Greenfield, in the west- 
ern part of the above state, and in Fairfield 
count}". Conn. Nathan Alvord, the sub- 
ject's grandfather, at an early period lived 
for several years in Vermont, at Bradford, 
where his son, Nathan. Jr., father of Sam- 
uel E.. was born. The family subsequently 
moved to northern Pennsylvania and locat- 
ed in the region known as "The Firelands," 
a large tract granted by congress to the state 
of Connecticut in consideration of the losses 
suffered at the hands of the British under 
the notorious General Tryon, who destroyed 
by fire many of the Connecticut towns and 
villages near the close of the Revolutionary 
war, among which, in 1779. was burned the 
town of Fairfield and much of the land bor- 
dering Long Island Sound laid waste. The 
portion of "Firelands" on which the Alvord 
family permanently settled in Pennsylvania 
was named Bradford county in honor of 
Governor Bradford of Massachusetts. The 
family located in Troy township, twenty- 
five miles south of Elmira, N. Y. About 
five miles north, over a range of hills, dwelt 
the Edsall family in Wells township. Here 
Nathan Alvord, Jr.. became acquainted with 
Hila Edsall, a pupil of his, an acquaintance 
which soon ripened into love, which termin- 
ated. November 16, 1823, in marriage. On 


the 14th of the following November, as al- 
ready stated. Samuel E. Alvord, the oldest 
child of this worthy couple, first saw the 
light of day in the Edsall home. Of his 
childhood home and surroundings we will 
let Mr. Alvord describe in his own inimit- 
able style : 

"My first recollections are of this old 
home. My parents had settled three miles 
west, and my father was studying medicine 
with a Dr. Wood, of Pumpkin Hill, so 
named from the immense crops of pumpkins 
that grew on the first lands cleared there — 
Dr. Wood's 1 icing the principal farm on the 
hill. It was table land, of good soil, on the 
crest of a ridge four hundred feet above the 
valley in which grandfather Edsall's house 
stood. Along the ridge, running eastward, 
was a way — partly foot path, leading 
through dense woods of hemlock, beech and 
ma] ile. for three miles, from Pumpkin Hill 
to intersection with the Elmira road, half a 
mile north, and three hundred feet above 
the Edsall home. One day in the Indian 
summer, when 1 was four years of age, my 
mother sent me with a girl of sixteen, who 
was living with us, on a visit to grandmoth- 
er's. 1 walked nearly all the way, stopping 
often to rest; the young woman carried me 
Over the rough places. Once as we sat on a 
log by the wayside there was a sudden rust- 
ling in the brushes, and a fine large deer 
emerged and bounded over the path. It was 
the first deer I ever saw. Shortly after 
that the light of an opening appeared ; we 
walked out upon the Elmira road ; and lo ! 
there, away below, was a pretty valley, of 
pastures and meadow's. A bright little 
brook shone in the midst, and near it on a 
steep bluff was grandfather Edsall's house. 
wagon-house, granary and stable, and a few 

rods away a large hay-barn. In that house, 
I was told, fmir years before. I was born. 
I ix house was built against a steep hillside 
facing southward. The first story was of 
stone — really, a basement built into the hill, 
twenty feet, and projecting sixteen feet, 
with a framed porch in front. This base- 
ment story was divided into kitchen, pan- 
try, bedroom, and cellar, which was entered 
direct from the kitchen. A winding stair- 
way from this kitchen led up ten feet to a 
hall on the first floor of the main part, 
w litre were sitting room, parlor and bed- 
rooms of commodious size, the whole well 
supplied with the usual furniture and uten- 
sils used by the better class of that day — the 
building and premises breathing an atmos- 
phere of industry and thrift which betok- 
ened a household in which a spirit of happi- 
ness and content reigned supreme." 

Nathan Alvord. subject's father, became 
a successful physician and prosecuted his 
profession in Bradford county for a number 
of vears, building up a large and lucrative 
practice and earning the reputation of one 
of the most eminent medical men in his part 
of the state. The mother was a woman of 
sterling character and left the impress of her 
strong personality upon the mind of her sun, 
who in after years never tired of lauding 
her virtues, and always admitted that what- 
ever success he attained was largely due to 
her gentle influence and wholesome instruc- 
tion. To the early vears under the tutelage 
of parents whose ambition was to engraft 
upon the minds of their children such prin- 
ciples as would insure lives of honor and 
usefulness. Samuel E. Alvord, like thous- 
ands of others, was indebted for that integ- 
rity of character and honorable ambition) 
that pre-eminently distinguished him as a 

[ 4 8 


citizen in the various capacities to which he 
was afterwards called. The world is full of 
such examples and the student of biography 
will have no difficulty in recalling' instances 
in which country life in youth left its indel- 
ible impress upon the most exalted charac- 
ters in history. In these early years, when 
the mind is taking its bent, when youthful 
ambitions are shaping themselves for man- 
hood's achievements, no influences have 
ever been found more potential for good 
than those which the country and farm have 
afforded. The frugalities of the home, the 
chaste purity of its teachings, the broad 
fields, the orchards, and meadow, hill, wood- 
land and dell, the song of the birds, the hum 
of the bees, the laughing brook, the silver 
river — all the wealth of beauty that nature 
spreads out with lavish hand — are the 
teachers of youth whose lessons are never 
forgotten. It was amid such scenes and- 
surroundings that the early years of Samuel 
E. Alvord were spent, and to the end of his 
days he continued a lover of nature and a 
student of its mysteries. 

After obtaining a knowledge of the rudi- 
mentary branches, young Samuel was sent 
to an academy in Pennsylvania, where he 
pursued the higher studies, completing the 
prescribed course and graduating with an 
honorable record, before attaining his ma- 
jority. Remaining in his native county until 
twenty-two years of age, he went to Troy, 
Pa., where, from 1S47 till 1849, he studied 
law under the direction of competent in- 
structors, making commendable progress 
and early displaying the strong mental pow- 
ers and critical analysis by which his subse- 
cpient distinguished professional career was 
characterized. While a student he gave evi- 
dence of rare ability as a writer, and as early 

as 1847 began contributing to the local press 
of Coudersport, Pa., where the versatility 
and power of his editorials soon brought 
him to the favorable notice of the reading- 
public. After his admission to the bar he 
spent some time looking for a favorable lo- 
cation to practice his profession, and hear- 
ing good reports from northern Indiana, 
which he was led to believe afforded better 
opportunities for a young man than were to 
be found in bis native state, he concluded to 
seek his fortune in the new and rapidly 
growing country. Accordingly, in 1849, ne 
came to Noble county, and the latter part of 
that year and a month or two of the year fol- 
lowing taught school in Rome City. In the 
spring of 1850 he located at Albion and 
commenced the publication of a newspaper, 
called The Albion Observer, which was reg- 
ularly issued with varying success until 
1853, when Mr. Alvord discontinued the 
publication for the purpose of engaging in 
the law. From the latter year until 1855 
he practiced at the Albion bar. earning the 
reputation of an able and judicious attor- 
ney, and winning for himself a commenda- 
ble standing among the successful profes- 
sional men of Noble county. Meantime, 
January 26, 1853, he again embarked in 
journalism as editor and proprietor of the 
Albion Expositor, a sprightly local sheet, 
which he published for a limited period, in 
connection with his legal business,' but the 
enterprise proved of short duration, being- 
discontinued some time during the year in 
which the first number made its appearance. 
In 1855 Mr. Alvord was elected clerk of 
the Noble county circuit court, and served in 
that capacity four years, during which time 
he was connected for two years with The 
Noble Countv Democrat, the recognized 


official organ of the local Democracy. Tic 
continued as managing editor of the Demo- 
crat until January, i860, making it one of 
the strongest and best-edited county papers 
in the northern part of the state, and 
through its columns many of his best and 
most noted literary productions were first 
given to the world. At the expiration of 
his official term he resumed the practice of 
law. continuing the same successfully until 
1X72. when his predilection for journalism 
led him to establish The Xew Era. which he 
published until January 1. 1876. when the 
plant was sold to Messrs. Prickett & Starr. 
For a short time after retiring from the 
newspaper business, Mr. .Alvord was en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession, but 
in the fall of 1876. at the earnest solicita- 
tion of his many friends throughout Noble 
county, again became the Democratic can- 
didate for the clerkship, being triumphantly 
elected to the office in November of that 
year and chosen his own successor four 
years later. As a public official every duty 
coming within his sphere was discharged in 
a manner eminently satisfactory to the peo- 
ple of the county and he left the office about 
one year before the expiration of his second 
term, with an honorable record, resigning 
for the purpose of turning his attention to 
other affairs. Shortly after leaving the 
office, he removed his family to the state of 
New York, where he lived for a few years, 
subsecmently returning to Albion and pur- 
chasing of James J. Lesh, in 1886, the Al- 
bion Democrat, which, under his manage- 
ment, continued to make its periodical visits 
until 1893, in January of which year he dis- 
posed of the paper to H. C. Pressler. This 
was Mr. Alvord's last experience in jour- 
nalism, and from the time he sold the plant 

until [896 lie was actively engaged in the 
practice of law in Noble and neighboring 
counties, building up a lucrative business 
which he looked after with the ability which 
characterized his early professional career. 
in [896 he was elected prosecuting attorney 
of the Thirty-third judicial circuit, and after 
serving with credit to himself and satisfac- 
tion to all concerned for one term, yielded 
to a desire of long standing by returning to 
private life with the object in view of devot- 
ing the remainder of his days to literary 

Mr. Alvord's marriage with Miss Julia 
Sweet was solemnized in November, 1851, 
and four children blessed the union — Lillie, 
Edward. Nathan and Edith. Of these. Ed- 
ward lives in the city of Spokane, Wash., 
Nathan is a resident of Beaver, Pa., Lillie 
is the wife of Edwin Engle, and Edith, the 
youngest, is unmarried. 

Mrs. Julia (Sweet) Alvord was called 
from earth, and in December, 1881, Mr. 
Alvord selected for his life companion Miss 
Amanda T. Bidwell, who bore him three 
sons, namely: Lee, who died in September, 
1000; Hugh and Guy. The widow and her 
children reside 111 Albion, and upon them 
the public look with that profound respect 
which is due to the family of so illustrious 
a husband and father as was S. E. Alvord. 

Mr. Alvord has written much and well, 
and. but for his modest)-, would long ago 
have been one of the shining literary lights 
of Indiana. Pie spent much time and pains 
in gathering facts and data for a history of 
Noble county, and his valuable research in 
this line of work will lie greatly appreciated 
by his fellow citizens, as the production is 
by far the most reliable and best written of 
any that has heretofore been published. It 


will be found entire in this volume, wherein, 
in imperishable form, it will be perused with 
increasing interest as the years come and go 
and remain a monument to his genius. 

Mr. Alvord led an active and industrious 
life, and from his early youth every hour 
was diligently employed. He laid broad 
and deep a foundation of usefulness, and 
his fidelity to every trust — and of trusts 
there were many — brought its certain and 
substantial rewards : friends, remunerative 
employment, responsible official station, lit- 
erary fame, and success. In such lives as 
his there are no startling incidents and ro 
eccentricities of character. In his walk and 
conversation, in his ambitions and aspira- 
tions, he sought the table land of life, wbere, 
if there are no dizzy elevations of thought 
and imagination, there are, as a compensa- 
tion, no depressions of infidelity and deceit. 
He lived in an atmosphere free from the 
malaria which breeds intellectual distempers, 
and. pursuing the even course of his way, 
was to the community what the fixed stars 
are to the navigators. To such men as 
Samuel E. .Alvord society is largely indebt- 
ed, not only for progress in material things 
but for those ideas of order and security 
which form its chief guarantees of prosper- 
ity and progress. Taking aii active part in 
public and political affairs, he was a recog- 
nized leader in shaping policies; deeply in- 
terested in the success of government, mu- 
nicipal, state and federal, he sought by the 
most patriotic motives the enactment of 
laws conducive to the general welfare. Mr. 
Alvord was a Democrat, active in behalf of 
his party's interests, but no more of a par- 
tisan than that broad view of Democracy 
which embodies man's faith in the capacity 
for self-government. 

In this connection we can give but a 
brief glance at Mr. Alvord's ability as a 
writer and the success to which he attained 
in his favorite domain of literature. In the 
language of another, "His literary produc- 
tions are characterized by great beauty of 
expression, broad and thoughtful analysis of 
human motives and a sternly realistic view 
of life that penetrates all shams and pours 
the focal light of hard common sense upon 
all problems involved in darkness." 

To whatever subject his attention was 
called, though it might have been one 
strange to his thoughts, he was enabled, 
upon the slightest meditation, to impart an 
interest and_a glow truly surprising. Dur- 
ing the period of his connection with the 
press of northern Indiana, it was universal- 
ly conceded that he contributed much to the 
extension of its usefulness, did more per- 
haps than any of his compeers to elevate its 
moral tone, and he made his influence a po- 
tent factor for substantial good as long as 
he occupied the editorial chair. As a polit- 
ical writer, it is no high sounding eulogy to 
say that he had few equals and no su- 
periors in the state, and it can be truly said 
that the leaders which he contributed had a 
depth of thought and a dash and brilliancy 
of tone not excelled in the great metropol- 
itan journals. His style, always clear and 
trenchant, was variable, partaking largely of 
the nature of the subject under consideration ; 
some of his editorials were characterized by 
a combative energy, a sarcasm withering in 
its intensity, while through all ran a vein of 
originality which stamped them as the work 
of a deep thinker and a sound, logical reas- 
oner. He never failed to impress his_ read- 
ers with the sincerity of his convictions, and 
in discussion was indeed a formidable an-. 



tagonist, yet ever observant of the ameni- 
ties of journalism, and never stooping to 
vituperation or abuse. Aside from his work 
as a journalist he was a graceful and pol- 
ished writer on many subjects, some of his 
literary productions, bearing the stamp of a 
high order genius, while all that ever came 
from his pen is worthy of being put in im- 
perishable form for future generations to 
read. He brought to his aid a mind thor- 
oughly disciplined, and with a quick wit. 
ready fancy and vivid imagination could 
clothe his ideas in most beautiful and appro- 
priate words, which rarely failed to please 
the most critical and exacting. 

I11 every walk of life Air. Alvord was 
easily the peer of any of his fellows, in all 
that constituted true and virile manihbod, 
and during his long- period of residence in 
Noble county his name was synonymous 
with all that was moral and upright in citi- 
zenship. Had he seen fit to have devoted 
his attention exclusively to the legal profes- 
sion he doubtless would have become one of 
the most eminent jurists of the state, and 
had it been his good fortune to give his 
splendid abilities entirely to authorship, the 
world would have been brighter and richer 
by the productions of his pen. As it was. 
he adorned every station to which lie was 
called, and for years to come his name and 
fame will be cherished by a people who 
looked upon him as a lawyer without pre- 
tense, an official whom no bribes could cor- 
rupt, a writer with few peers, and a man 
who, seeing and understanding his duty, 
strove by all means within his power to do 
the same as he would answer to his con- 
science and to his God. He died at his 
home in Albion, August 8. 1901, ripe in 
years and rich in honors, and was followed 

by a large concourse of his fellow citizens 
to beautiful Sweet Hope cemetery, amid the 
silent shades of which his body, "life's fitful 
fever over, rests well." 


Mayor of Ligonier, Ind., and an enterpris- 
ing business man of no inconsiderable prom- 
inence, is a native of Benton township, 
Elkhart county, Ind., and was born Novem- 
ber 18,1861. 

Collins M. and Charlotte II. (Kitson) 
Christie, the parents of Hon. O. W. Chris- 
tie and respectively of Scotch and Dutch 
descent, now- residents of the township in 
which their son was horn, are natives of 
Ohio, and have a family of six children, 
born in the following order: Orean W.; 
Milo E., who is cashier in the Lake Shore 
Railway Company's freight office at La 
Porte, Ind.. is married and stands very high 
in the esteem of the officers of the railway 
company and of the residents of La Porte; 
Delvin E. is a banker in Illinois and is un- 
married : Adrian A. is a teacher in Elkhart 
county. Ind. ; Leona is the wife of Curtis 
Green, a prosperous farmer and also a resi- 
dent of Elkhart county: Laura Edith, who 
was formerly a teacher, is now postmistress 
at Benton, Ind.. and makes her home with 
her parents. 

Hon. Orean \\". Christie was educated 
primarily in the district schools of Elkhart 
county, and, secondarily, at the Syracuse 
Summer Normal School, and at the age of 
seventeen years he entered upon the perplex- 
ing vocation of teaching and for six years 
followed this profession in his native town- 


ship, where he was both successful and pop- 
ular as an educator of marked ability. This 
position he resigned, however, to accept a 
situation more remunerative and more 
agreeable with the L. S. & M. S. Railway 
Company, with whom he remained about 
three years, when he resigned to accept that 
of bookkeeper for the Ligonier Milling Com- 
pany, and this position, responsible and 
arduous as it is, he has held for eleven years. 

Mr. Christie was united in marriage at 
Warsaw, Ind., July 4. 1889. with Miss 
Theora M. Benner. a native of Kosciusko 
county. Ind., and a daughter of James Ben- 
ner. She was educated at Syracuse and 
there formed the acquaintanceship of Mr. 
Christie when he also was a devotee at the 
shrine of knowledge. One child, Marie 
Cecile. came to crown this union September 
6, 1804. and is now, as may be readily con- 
ceived by the reader, the central attraction 
of the homestead. 

In politics Mr. Christie has been a life- 
long Republican, and in the spring of 1898 
was honored by his party by bis election to 
the responsible office of mayor of Ligonier. 
He is now filling out the third of the four- 
year term, and has had the satisfaction, in 
the meantime, of rendering such services in 
his position as to win the approbation of all 
citizens, of all parties, save, perhaps, that 
of a few disgruntled politicians and envious 

In his fraternal relations Mr. Christie 
is a member of Ligonier Lodge, No 184, 
A. F. & A. M.. and likewise of Ligonier 
Lodge. Xo. 123, K. of P.. in the latter of 
which he is a P. C. C. and has been a mem- 
ber of the standing committee on subordi- 
nate lodge, constitutions and by-laws hi 
the Grand Lods:e for four vears — three 

years of this period as chairman, his pres- 
ent office; he is also a member of the K. O. 
T. M. He and wife are consistent mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian church, in which 
he is an elder, as well as superintendent of 
the Sunday-school, and in the work of both 
the church and school they take an exceed- 
ing interest. 

Mr. Christie is truly a self-made man in 
the colloquial sense of the phrase, and too 
much credit cannot be awarded him for the 
indomitable courage with which he has 
overcome the many obstacles which lie in 
the way of the seeker after a competency 
and the proper station of usefulness befitting 
men of his caliber. 


For many years as a banker and promi- 
nent business man of Kendallville John 
Mitchell has ranked among the distinguished 
citizens of Noble county and occupies a con- 
spicuous place in the annals of northern In- 
diana. No other resident of the community 
has been so long identified with its growth 
and development and none has so indelibly 
impressed bis personality upon the city of 
his residence or exercised so potent an influ- 
ence in directing and controlling the busi- 
ness interests of the county. The Mitchell 
family is of Scotch origin and the name fre- 
quently appears in connection with the war 
/of American independence, in which strug- 
gle one of John Mitchell's ancestors bore a 
brave and distinguished part. This ancestor 
was Andrew Mitchell, a native of Scotland, 
horn in Ayrshire county about the year 1728. 
His father, Robert Mitchell, was born in the 



JUUju*^ bdJF:^L^( 



same part of the country and there spent his 
entire life, dying" when a very old man. 

From the most reliable information ob- 
tainable it appears that Andrew Mitchell, 
about 1753. came to America and engaged in 
merchandising in the city of Philadelphia. 
Subsequently, 1760, he left that place and 
took up bis residence in Schenectady, N. V , 
where he also conducted a mercantile 
establishment. Later he went to Ballston 
Spa, and while living at the latter place on 
a farm he was commissioned second major 
in the Twelfth Regiment, New York militia. 
October 20, 1775. The regiment to which 
he was appointed was raised in what was 
known as the "Half Moon" and "Ballston" 
districts, ami saw much active service in the 
Revolutionary war, during the progress 1 1 
which Andrew Mitchell was reappointed 
second major on the 22d day of June, [778. 
He displayed signal bravery while fighting 
for his adopted country, and from Sims' 
History of Saratoga County. N. Y.. it ap- 
pears that be was not only a gallant sol- 
dier but a cool-headed, reliable officer under 
a number of very trying circumstances. On 
an old county record, bearing date of De- 
cember 31, 1779, his name appears assessed 
with twenty-one pounds and two shillings 
upon a valuation of four hundred and 
ninety-nine pounds, which shows the enor- 
mous taxes our forefathers were obliged to 
pav in order to raise revenue with which to 
prosecute the war and sustain the govern- 
ment. In 1780 he was elected town col- 
lector of Shenectady, and in 1785 the office 
of supervisor was thrust upon him. Sub- 
sequently, in February, 1791. he was ap- 
pointed a justice of the peace — an office the 
same as associate justice now — and from the 
records it seems that he discharged the 

duties incumbent upon him with great effi- 
ciency. In \jn->- he was elected a member 
of the New York assembly from Saratoga 
county, and in that capacity distinguished 
himself as an able and discreet legislator. 
He was married. July 23, [761, to Miss 
Maria Van Eps, a native of the Mohawk val- 
ley, and lived the remainder of his life an 
honored citizen of New York, dying on the 
15th day of October, 1812. 

Charles Mitchell, son of Andrew, was 
born near Ballston Spa, Saratoga county, 
N. Y., January 2, 1773-. He was reared 011 
what, in local annals, is known as the "Old 
Delavan farm." and followed agricultural 
pursuits all his life; he died in the town of 
Root, Montgomery county. N. Y., on the 
1 1 th day of September. 1X57. 

Among the sons of Charles Mitchell was 
William Mitchell, father of the' subject of 
this sketch and a man not only prominent 
in local and state affairs in Indiana, but of 
national repute as a member of the United 
States congress. William Mitchell was born 
January 19. 1807, in Montgomery county. 
N. Y., and grew to manhood on a farm. On 
the 19th day of February, 1829, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Nancy Keller, 
whose birth occurred in the above county 
and state July 4. 1807. In the year 1836 
William Mitchell and family left New York 
for Indiana, coming via the Erie canal to 
Buffalo, thence by steamer to Monroe, 
Mich., front which point the remainder of 
the journey was made by wagon to the pres- 
ent site of Kendallville, The place where 
the flourishing city now stands was a deep 
forest in which no work of any kind had 
been done. At the time of his arrival at 
this new home in the forests of Noble coun- 
ty Mr. Mitchell's family consisted of him- 


self and wife and two children, namely, 
John and Charles Stewart Mitchell, the lat- 
ter (if whom died in Kendallville September 
2, 1866. 

Mr. Mitchell located a tract of about two 
hundred acres of timber land, which he 
began clearing and otherwise improving, 
and it was not long until be bad a comfort- 
able home for that period and a goodly por- 
tion of his land in cultivation. With the 
influx of population the necessity of a trad- 
ing point closer than the nearest market then 
patronized by the early settlers became ap- 
parent. With shrewd discernment Mr. 
Mitchell realized the advantages the locality 
possessed as the center of a region which 
was rapidly being settled by a sturdy and in- 
dustrious class of people. Accordingly, in 
the year 1849, ' ie platted twenty lots, some of 
which he gave away to such persons as 
would locate upon and improve them. This 
inducement had the desired effect, and it 
was not long until quite a number of people 
were attracted to the place, making neces- 
sary an addition to the original plat. He 
then laid out another block of twenty lots 
which were soon disposed of, after which 
another addition was platted and put upon 
the market. It is unnecessary in this con- 
nection to describe in detail the graduated 
growth of the flourishing little town, but 
suffice it to say that in due time all the 
lots in the first three surveys were disposed 
of either by gift or sale, thus rendering 
necessary a still further extension of the 
town in all directions. Its advantages as a 
desirable place of residence as well as a trad- 
ing point becoming apparent, population 
continued to increase, and in the course of a 
few years. Kendallville became the rival of 
its sister villages of N< hie county. Previous 

to this time a postoffice had been established, 
with Mr. Mitchell as the first postmaster, 
his commission bearing the date of Decem- 
ber 7. 1836. He discharged the duties of 
the position in an eminently satisfactory 
manner, meanwhile using all the influences 
he could command to induce settlers to lo- 
cate in the new and thriving town, of which 
he was the controlling spirit. Mr. Mitchell 
was the father of Kendallville. He gave 
the place an impetus which made it in the 
course of time one of the most thriving 
towns in the northern part of the state. He 
took great interest in its growth and pros- 
perity, and to his efforts is directly attrib- 
utable the proud position the city new en- 
joys. During his life-time he always occu- 
pied a position of distinction and influence 
among the people and manifested his interest 
by many liberal benefactions, as well as by 
I inaugurating" and carrying to successful co'n- 
I elusion a number of enterprises for the pub- 
I lie good. In the early 'forties, he obtained 
a contract for the constructing of a part of 
[ the Wabash & Erie canal near Defiance, 
Ohio, and it was while prosecuting this 
work that his barn in Kendallville was 
burned by a gang of "blacklegs," seme of 
whom he had been instrumental in arresting 
j for acts of lawlessness committed in various 
I parts of Indiana, for at that time horse 
I stealing and counterfeiting were of common 
occurrence. Mr. Mitchell took the lead in 
ridding the country of these desperadoes and 
was made to suffer for the activity he dis- 
played in the good work. Through his ef- 
forts two men charged with horse-stealing 
were arrested and taken to jail in Bluffton. 
Sometime previous to the day set for trial 
they succeeded in breaking jail and effecting 
their escape. To avenge for their arrest 



and imprisonment they watched their op- 
portunity for destroying the property of 
Mr. Mitchell, and when a favorable one pre- 
sented itself his barn; together with others 
in the neighborhood, were burned to the 

In 1841 Mr. Mitchell was elected to the 
lower house of the general assembly as joint 
representative from the counties of Noble 
and Lagrange. He served during the ses- 
sion of 1842 and took an active part in all 
the deliberations of the body, bearing the 
reputation of an able and judicious law- 
maker. He presented a number of bills 
which passed both houses, and the laws <> 
which he was the author had a very decided 
influence upon the subsequent history of the 
state. Prior to his election to the legisla- 
ture, Mr. Mitchell served the people of his 
part of the county as justice of the peace. 
In 1848 he was the leader in the construc- 
tion of the old plank road built from Fort 
Wayne to Ontario, Lagrange county, a 
distance of about fifty miles, which opened 
up that section of the country to the trade 
of a large part of southern Michigan. He 
superintended the work, and the enterprise 
was pushed forward in the face of many 
difficulties, chief among which were the 
heavy timbers and swampy condition of the 
country in many places. But little money 
was available, and to procure the necessary 
labor resort was had to trade, the workmen 
receiving their pay in goods at Kendallville. 
A man of less energy would have abandoned 
the enterprise long before completion, hut 
not so with Mr. Mitchell. Having once 
undertaken the work, he bent all his ener- 
gies to- its successful prosecution and it was 
to bis directing and controlling genius alone 

that the road was finally finished and turned 
over to public use. 

Mr. Mitchell, in connection with Sam- 
uel, Hanna and Pliny Hoagland, of port 
Wayne, under the firm name of William 
Mitchell & Co., entered into a contract to 
construct one hundred and thirty-one miles 
of the Ohio & Indiana Railroad (now part 
of the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago), 
the first railroad in northeastern Indiana, 
extending from Crestline. Ohio, to Ft. 
Wayne, Ind. Like his other undertakings, 
this work was also completed under Mr. 
Mitchell's personal direction, and the towns 
and villages along the line, together with 
the wonderful development of the part of 
the country through which the road runs, 
are monuments to his energy and enter- 

Fi r a number of years Mr. Mitchell had 
taken an active part in the political affairs 
of Indiana and early became a leader of the 
Republican party in the northern part of the 
state. In i860 be was elected to represent 
the old Tenth district, composed of Elkhart, 
Kosciusko, Whitley, Allen, Noble, Steuben. 
Lagrange and DeKalb counties, in the Con- 
gress of the United States. He seiwed with 
distinction in that honorable body and made 
a record of which his constituents felt 
proud. He was placed upon some of the 
most important committees, and his sound 
judgment, native tact and superior business 
training eminently fitted him to discharge 
worthily the high trust reposed in him by 
the people of his district. He was a great 
admirer and warm personal friend of Presi- 
dent Lincoln, between whom and himself 
the most pleasant and cordial relations long 



In 1S64 Mr. Mitchell was appointed 
with three others a committee to visit Gen- 
eral Sherman in the field, and, if possible, 
prevail upon him to allow the Indiana sol- 
diers in his command to return home and 
vote at the ensuing presidential election, 
Jesse J. Brown, of New Albany, Ind., be- 
ing- the only one who accompanied him on 
the trip. Previous to their departure the 
matter was submitted to President Lincoln, 
who became so warmly interested in the 
movement that he wrote a strong letter to 
the General, urging him, if possible, to com- 
ply with the request of the committee; this 
letter is still in possession of John Mitchell, 
who prizes it very highly. As is well known, 
the Indiana boys did return that fall and the 
state, which without their aid would have 
been carried by the opposition, was kept in 
line with the party of the Union. 

At the expiration of his term in Con- 
gress, William Mitchell returned to» his 
home in Kendallville and turned his attention 
to his large business interests. He was al- 
ways foremost in advocating reforms and 
measures tending to ameliorate the condi- 
tion of the people, and his influence was in- 
variably upon the moral side of every great 
■question or issue. 

Although of meager scholastic oppor- 
tunities in his youth, yet his good sense, 
sound judgment, wide reading and intelli- 
gent observation made him master of a 
practical education which, with his strong 
character and wonderful energy, insured 
him financial success in all of his business 
affairs. He was a man of decided religious 
convictions, but did not identify himself 
with any church. He was a regular attend- 
ant, however, of the Presbyterian church, 
to which his wife belonged, and contributed 

liberally of his means to the support of the 
gospel at home and in foreign lands. While 
on a business trip to Macon, Ga., for the 
purpose of buying cotton, he died on 
the nth day of September, 1865, in the 
fifty-eighth year of his age, deeply lamented 
by his family and a large circle of friends. 
William Mitchell was in the largest sense 
of the term a western man, although of 
eastern birth. The effects of his strong con- 
trolling power are felt in the city which hie! 
founded and his name adorns the roster of 
Indiana's eminent and distinguished men. 

Mrs. Mitchell was a lady of marked 
worth, possessing many Christian traits of 
character, and, with her husband, had un- 
complainingly and cheerfully shared all the 
straits and hardships of pioneers times, and 
was his active co-laborer when success came 
to him in after years. She died at her home 
in Kendallville, February 18, 1864, preced- 
ing her companion by one year to the other 
life. The father of Mrs. Mitchell was Hen- 
ry S. Keller, who died in the town of Root, 
Montgomery county, N. Y.. October 12, 
1 8 18. Her mother's name before mar- 
riage was Lany Failing; she was born 
August 1, 1770. and departed this life on 
the 9th day of January, 1846. Henry S. 
Keller and wife were both natives of York 
state and descendants of old and prominent 
German families that came to America at an 
early period in the history of the colonies. 
Mr. Keller's father, a patriot of the war of 
1812, was killed in the battte of Oriskany. 

John Mitchell, whose name introduces 
this biography, was born in the town of 
Root, Montgomery county X. Y.. on 
the 2d day of June. 1830. His childhood 
to the age of six years was spent on the farm 
where he first saw the light of clay, and the 



familiar scenes of his first home and its sur- 
roundings are still fresh in his memory. I [e 
recalls the incidents of the long journey by 
canal, lake and overland, to the new place 
of residence in the primeval forests of north- 
ern Indiana, and recounts the part lie took 
in felling the timber, clearing the land, and 
the hundred and one other kinds of labor a 
boy who is reared to manhood in a new 
country was obliged to do. To such sub- 
scription school as his neighborhood afford 
ed he is indebted for his early scholastic 
training, but his attendance was not very 
regular, being confined to about three 
months of each year during the winter sea- 
son. The greater part of bis time was spent 
on the farm, where he learned the lessons of 
industry and thrift which Have character- 
ized his subsequent career. Long hours of 
unremitting toil with little time for rest or 
recreation was the daily routine, the result 
of which was the development of strong bod- 
ily powers and the building up of a sturdy, 
manly spirit. Realizing the need oi a bet- 
ter education than the district schools could 
impart, young Mitchell afterward attended 
a seminary at Ontario several terms, where. 
in addition to mastering the common course. 
he obtained a knowledge of some of the 
more advanced branches of learning. \\ ith 
this as a foundation, be added to bis mental 
attainments as opportunities presented by 
reading such books as he could get hold of, 
so that in the course of a few years he was 
recognized as one of the best-informed 
young men of his neighborhood. 

Selecting agriculture for his vocation, 
Mr. Mitchell entered heartily into the work 
and in due time met with the success his ef- 
forts deserved. He continued farming with 
encouraging results until 1865. when he 

succeeded his father as president of the First 
National Lank at Kendall ville. a position 
which his abilities eminently qualified him 
to fill. Previous to the above date, in con- 
nection with his father and several other 
business men of the town, he assisted in 
organizing the bank and became a stock- 
holder and director. He held the office of 
president uninterruptedly for twenty-nine 
years and as such displayed executive abili- 
ties of a high order; also earned the reputa- 
tion of a reliable and successful financier; 
meanwhile he continued to look after bis 
farming and real estate interests, which had 
grown in magnitude and importance, and 
his attention was also directed to a number 
of other enterprises of private and public 
nature, in all of which the results of bis 
leadership were unmistakably apparent. 

Mr. Mitchell retired from the bank pres- 
idency in 1894, since which time his private 
affairs have engaged his attention. By ju- 
dicious investments he has become the 
owner of a large amount of valuable real 
estate in Kendallville and throughoul Noble 
county, as an agriculturist, and keeps fully 
abreast the times, ranking with the most 
successful and progressive men of this vo- 
cation in Noble county. His various real 
estate transactions have been uniformly for- 
tunate, as has. also every undertaking to 
which he has addressed himself. .Mr. Mitch- 
ell assisted his father when the original plat 
of Kendallville was made and be has lived to 
see the town emerge from the forest, with 
a few log cabins and pole sheds and a popu- 
lation of perhaps a half dozen white fam- 
ilies, and grow to be the industrial and com- 
mercial center of one of the mosl populous 
and fertile agricultural regions of Indiana. 
When he came to the place the red men 

c 5 8 


were still numerous, and but few indica- 
tions of civilization were in evidence. The 
few settlements were as niches in the sur- 
rounding forests and the prophecy of what 
the town has since become would hardly 
have been made by the most optimistic of 
the early pioneers. 

In no part of our great state are the 
changes of last half century more strikingly 
illustrated than in the wonderful advance- 
ment and improvement that have marked 
the history of Kendallville. In its career 
fact has assumed the place of abstract theory 
and practice has ejected speculation from 
her throne. From a wilderness infested 
with savages and wild beasts the country 
has been reclaimed and transformed into a 
very Eden of plenty unsurpassed in all that 
tends to build up an enlightened community 
and make man content with his lot. In 
bringing about this wonderful consumma- 
tion Mr. Mitchell from the beginning has 
been a wise leader and an untiring worker. 
Realizing the needs of the people he has 
ministered to them freely and unsparingly 
and in various avenues; his leadership has 
been fruitful in results, calculated to give 
stability to the community and shape its 
future destiny. Closely identified with the 
place since 1849, his history and the history 
of Kendallville during the intervening period 
have been pretty much one and the same 
thing. He still takes a pardonable pride in 
its prosperity, has a firm and abiding faith 
in its future possibilities, and makes every 
reasonable sacrifice within his power to con- 
vert these possibilities into verities. Fore- 
most in every movement having for its ob- 
ject the public weal, Mr. Mitchell is des- 
tined to be remembered as one of Kendall- 
ville's most unselfish friends as well as its 

greatest benefactor. Mr. Mitchell is as 
much interested in the moral advancement 
of his city as he is in its material progress. 
He has always been an earnest advocate of 
temperance, a friend of churches, and his 
interest in the cause of education has aided 
materially in building up the splendid pub- 
lic school system which the city of Kendall- 
ville now enjoys. Reared a Whig he was 
an earnest supporter of that party until its 
disintegration, since which time he has been 
a Republican. While taking a lively inter- 
est in all political questions, he is not a par- 
tisan in the sense of seeking office, nor has 
..e any part in the methods such as the poli- 
tician resorts to in order to accomplish his 
ends. Mr. Mitchell is a believer in revealed 
religion, and for many years has been an 
earnest and devout member of the Presby- 
terian church of Kendallville. At the pres- 
ent time he holds the office of trustee and 
ruling elder in his congregation. While 
loyal to the church of his choice, he pos- 
sesses a broad, catholic spirit which leads 
him to contribute liberally of his means to 
all denominations. In 1867 he donated to 
a private company twenty-five acres of 
ground for burial purposes, which was plat- 
ted under the name of the Lake View Cem- 
etery. He advanced means sufficient to de- 
fray all expenses until it became self-sup- 
porting, and it is now one of the most beau- 
tiful and tastefully arranged cemeteries in 
this section of the state. His interest in 
this attractive city of the dead has never 
flagged and since its organization to t'hie 
present time he has been officially connected 
therewith as treasurer and trustee, also gen- 
eral manager. On the 1st day of January, 
iqoi. the assests of the Lake View Ceme- 
tery amounted to $15,322.41. 



Air. .Mitchell is a Mason of high stand- 
ing, having taken a number of degrees, in- 
cluding that of Sir Knight. Mr. Mitchell 
was married on the 7th day of January, 
1857. to Miss Sophronia Julia Weston, a 
resident at the time oi Rime City, Jnd.. but 
a native of Geauga county, Ohio. She was 
born in the town of Troy, August 10, [833, 
and was the daughter of Hon. John and 
Fidelia (Lamb) Weston. John Weston 
was born in Middlesex, Ontario county, N. 
Y., August 15, 1809. and died in Kendall- 
ville, Ind., February 9, 1881. His wife was 
born December 4, 1812, in the town of Bath, 
Steuben county, N. Y., and departed this life 
on the ist day of January, 1884. They 
were married December 9, 1830, and in 
185 1 came with their family to Noble coun- 
ty, settling at Rome City, where Mr. 
Weston built a mill and engaged in the 
mercantile business. He was elected joint 
senator from the counties of Noble, Kosci- 
usko and Whitley in 1857, and was promi- 
nent in local and state politics for a number 
of years. He and wife were active mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church of 
Rome City, and are remembered for their 
good work and liberal benefactions in the 
cause of religion, charity and benevolence. 

John and Fidelia Weston had a family 
of nine children, namely: Elon D., So- 
phronia J., Eli B., John E., Elijah, Albert, 
Albert H.. Marilla and one that died in in- 

Mrs. Mitchell was a lady of marked per- 
sonal presence and possessed many sterling 
qualities of head and heart. Like her hus- 
band, she, too, was a member of the Pres- 
byterian church and by her beautiful char- 
acter and sweet, moral nature endeared her- 
self to a large number of friends and ac- 

quaintances in Kendallville. She was popu- 
lar in the social world, and being well versed 
on general topics and widely read in the 
best literature she was calculated to adorn 
any circle in which she moved. The mar- 
riage of Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell was blessed 
with the birth of three children, the oldest 
of whom. Lydia Agnes, born October, 
i860, married Terry D. Creager, of Ken- 
dallville. and died December 15. 1895. She 
left three daughters, viz. : Dorothy, Margar- 
et and Catherine M.. all of whom make Mr. 
.Mitchell's house their home. The second 
daughter is Kate Rice, horn December 18. 
1863, now the wife of Archey Campbell, of 
Kendallville. The youngest of the family, 
William, born August 23, 1865, is a clergy- 
man of the Episcopal church with a charge 
at Redwood Falls, Minn. He is a young 
man of fine intellectual attainments, a popu- 
lar minister, and has before him a career 
of usefulness in his chosen held of labor. 

Thus, only too briefly, have been set 
forth the leading facts and characteristics 
in the 'life of one of Noble county's repre- 
sentative men. He has lived long and well, 
and his career throughout has been above 
reproach. In the language of another, "In 
social life he is a genial Christian gentle- 
man. His domestic habits are pure and 
strong, and his home is the center of* a gen- 
erous hospitaility. There, surrounded by 
his family and friends, he enjoys that repose 
which comes from a cordial interchange of 
kindly deeds with those near to him, ami 
without which life would lose many of its 
charms." To the above beautiful and well 
deserved compliment it may he added that 
never in the course of his long and useful 
life has Mr. Mitchell consciously wronged 
a fellow-man nor acquired one dollar of his 



fortune by questionable methods. "He has 
stood four square to every wind that blows," 
and is a striking type of the symmetrically 
developed man. Actuated by the highest 
sense of honor in all his relations with his 
fellow-man, he has tried to realize his ideal 
of manly living, and there is nothing in the 
future for him to fear. 

jacob a. Mclaughlin. 

West Virginia is the youngest state of 
the American Union east of Indiana, having 
been formed from the 'Old Dominion — the 
"Mother of Presidents" — and admitted as 
a full member of the sisterhood of states 
June jo, 1865 — the dismemberment of the 
old state of Virginia being one of the earliest 
political results of the Civil war. In the 
valley or at the foot of the romantic range 
of the Alleghany mountains which mark tin- 
present dividing line of the two states on the 
east, some two or three years after the state 
was admitted the subject of this sketch had 
his nativity in Pocahontas county, which, as 
every schoolboy knows, was named after the 
historic and heroic Indian princess who 
preserved the life of one of Virginia's early 
English colonists. Captain John Smith, from 
the unreasonable malice of her father, Pow- 

Jacob A. McLaughlin was born August 
18, 1866. in Pocahontas county, as has been 
intimated above, and is a son of William J. 
and Susan E. ( Bible) McLaughlin, the for- 
mer of whom died in his native state of 
West Virginia, November 27, 1887, and the 
latter of whom still survives in that state. 
Of their family of four children the subject 
of this sketch is the third in the order of 

birth and was reared on the home farm, 
which he assisted in tilling until his mar- 
riage, which felicitous event took place in 
Pocahontas county, W. Va., October 14, 
1888, to Miss Sarah H. Gibson, who was 
born in that county on January 10, 1863, 
and who is a daughter of William and Polly 
F. (Gay) Gibson, the former of whom died 
January 21, 1901, and the latter still having 
her home in West Virginia. Of the family 
of Mr. and Mrs. Gibson, which consisted 
of nine children. Mrs. McLaughlin was one 
of the younger-born, and under the benign 
and health-giving atmosphere of her native 
hills and valleys grew to maturity as a per- 
fect specimen of lovely womanhood. 

In the spring of 1889, almost ere the 
bridal wreath had wilted. Mr. and Mrs. 
McLaughlin left their West Virginian home" 
and sought a new abode in Noble count}, 
Ind. They found a suitable farm of one 
hundred and twenty-six acres in Orange 
township, on which they settled and which 
they still occupy. This farm is improved 
with a handsome residence and well-con- 
structed barns and other farm buildings, 
mhI is a very desirable homestead. Mr. Mc- 
Laughlin, although still a comparatively 
young man, is experienced in the vocation 
of farming and keeps his place in an ex- 
cellent condition of tillage and succeeds in 
producing some of the best crops in the 

While but a short time a resident of 
Noble count}-, Mr. McLaughlin has evinced 
a keen and commendable interest in local 
public affairs, and has manifested a desire 
to aid in every way the promotion of the 
general welfare. In politics a Republican, 
he freely advocates the principles of his 
part}' and aids it in every legitimate man- 


ner, but is not offensively forward in thrust- 
ing his convictions upon the notice of others, 
as he accords to every one the right to think 
for himseuf. In religion he and his wife 
adhere to the Presbyterian faith, are consci- 
entious in following the teachings of their 
church, and socially the}' have secured 
through their affability many warm-hearted 


To serve one's country, whether by force 
of arms upon the field of battle or in the 
halls of legislation, is a duty to which all 
American citizens are subject at the call of 
their fellow-men. and it is an axiom that 
he win ) cares best for the happiness and 
material welfare of those who form his 
household will prove the surest conservator 
m public office. Men do sometimes rise to 
positions of honor at the hands of their fel- 
low-citizens who are totally unworthy, but 
the wisdom of our forefathers provided for 
such a possibility, and so framed our con- 
stitution that an unworthy representative 
would soon be condemned at the bar of pub- 
lic opinion and retired to an obscurity from 
which there is no recall. 

Hon. Jacob C. Zimmerman, former rep- 
resentative in the general assembly of the 
state of Indiana from Noble county, and a 
prominent retired merchant, is a native of 
the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, that 
grand little republic which has so long main- 
tained its independence amid the powerful 
empires and kingdoms of Europe. He was 
born October 25, 1827, a son of Daniel B. 
and Anna ( Messerli ) Zimmerman, both na- 
tives of Switzerland. The father was a me- 

chanic in his native home, but on removal 
to America, in 1832, bringing his family of 
six children, he engaged in farming until 
his death. Three children were added to 
this family after removing to America, but 
of the nine born to Daniel and Anna Zim- 
merman five only are now living: John, 
the eldest, a tanner by trade, died in Wa- 
waka, Ind., at the age of seventy-seven 
years, having located there in 1841 : the sec- 
ond was Anna, who died in Tuscarawas 
county. Ohio, the wife of Abram Donney ; 
the third, Elizabeth, resides in Marshall 
county, Ind.. the widow of John Bulman; 
fourth in order of birth is the honorable 
subject of this biography, Jacob C. ; fifth, 
Susan, the widow of Jacob Schwab, a farmer 
.of Noble county; sixth, Mary, wife of John 
A. Wagner. Tuscarawas county, Ohio; and 
Peggy, who married Jacob Dummermuth. 
also of Tuscarawas county. ( Him. 

Hon. Jacob C. Zimmerman settled in 
Noble county, Ind., in 1X49, and worked as 
a carpenter until 1851. when he entered the 
emplo) of Judge Clapp, of Albion, as a clerk 
in his mercantile house. He remained thus 
employed for five years, and then formed a 
partnership with Owen I Hack, of Albion,. 
;in<\ engaged in merchandising. One year 
later he sold out to Mr. Black, and in 1857 
moved to Ligonier and engaged in business 
alone. He occasionally has had partners 
for a brief time, hut mosl of the time has 
been sole proprietor of the mercantile busi- 
ness in which he has been engaged for forty- 
four years. 

Mr. Zimmerman was married in this 
county in 1853, while a clerk in the employ 
of Judge Clap]). Miss Sarah J. Brown being 
the lady of his choice, who became the 
mother of three children: Greelev M.. 


Frank W. and Venona J. They are all asso- 
ciated with their father in his establishment. 
Greeley M. married Miss Ella Baker and 
they have two children: Beulah is the wife 
of Harry D. Stone, of Albion, and Bonnie 
is now a student in St. Mary's Academy at 
South Bend, Ind. The second child of Mr. 
and Mrs. Zimmerman, Frank, married Al- 
lene Kinsley, and is the father of one child, 
Francis K. The only daughter is the wife 
of Schuyler C. Sackett. All of the children 
have had the advantages of a thorough En- 
glish education and are now profitably em- 
ployed in business. In [876 Mrs. Zimmer- j 
man. the cherished wife, and mother of the 
above named children, answered to the sum- 
mons and passed away amid the sorrowful 
lamentations of her loved ones: but her 
memory will ever linger around the lives of 
those most dear to her, and her heavenly 
consolation be made sweeter by the knowl- j 
edge that her upright and exemplary life 
on earth was not all in vain. 

It has been truthfully said that "He who 
taketh unto himself a second wife shows the 
highest appreciation of his former consort." 
No doubt that is a truism not to be denied, 
' and the domestic ties so rudely broken were 
in after years renewed by Mr. Zimmerman's 
marriage with Miss Callie Young. In 1890 
she, too, died, leaving no children, however, 
and from that date the household of Mr. 
Zimmerman has had for its presiding ruler 
his accomplished daughter, who maintains 
the honor and dignity of the position with 
that grace characteristic of those to the man- 
ner born. 

In politics Mr. Zimmerman has ever 
been an ardent and consistent Republican. 
and it is said that in his arguments to sus- 
tain the high position which his party occu- 

pies has often shown that real democratic 
principles can only be found as the result of 
the legislation enacted by the Republican 
party. Born amid the crags and peaks where 
liberty of speech and freedom of thought 
were first proclaimed as the universal heri- 
tage of mankind, it is not to be wondered 
at that aspirations of his youth and a father's 
teachings would find him, in the land of his 
adoption, other than a Republican — intensi- 
fied if possible. His first vote in the land 
of his adoption was cast for the "Pathfinder 
of the Rockies,'' - and from that time until 
the present his vote and influence has ever 
been given to Republican candidates for the 
presidency. In local affairs, however, he 
is fair and liberal and is not inclined to an- 
tagonize a good man of the opposition in 
favor of an inferior of his own persuasion. 
In 1861 he was elected trustee for Perry 
township, and served with distinction for 
seven years. So well did he perform his 
duties that, in 1876, he was chosen to repre- 
sent his county in the general assembly, 
serving with distinction during the session 
of 1877. Subsequently he was appointed by 
the circuit judge as a member of the county 
council for 1900, serving until the succeed- 
ing election. His political life has been 
marked with that same care which he has 
his, private business, and his 

without blemish. 

itlining the record of this emi- 
nent gentleman, of necessity it is brief as 
compared with what his full history would 
be, and we now turn to the fraternal anil 
religious record, which approaches nearer 
to the inner man. Among the first institu- 
tions established in Noble county, in 1853, 
when a few straggling hamlets and partially 
cleared farms comprised the improvements 

ever given t( 

reputation is 

In thus o 



and evidenced her population, the Albion 
Lodge, F. & A. M., was duly instituted, and 
the first candidate who asked for admission 
and was subsequently admitted was Jacob 
C. Zimmerman. In after years he transfer- 
red his membership to Ligonier Lodge, No. 
185. He is also a member of Noble County 
Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, No. 4_\ of 
Ligonier; member of Ligonier Council, R. 
& S. M., No. 59; also member of Apollo 
Commandery, No. 19, Knights Templars, of 
Kendallville, Indianapolis Consistory, hav- 
ing reached the thirty-second degree. 

His religious views are evidenced by a 
consistent membership in the Presbyterian 
church, the faith embraced by his late de- 
voted wife and the daughter now at the head 
of his household. His life has been all that 
a sincere devotion to right and kindly char- 
ity toward his fellow-men could make it, 
and the friends and admirers of his worth 
are to be found in all stations of life and 
wherever duty or business may have called 

To the young his life is an example they 
may well strive to emulate. His success in 
business, whereby he has accumulated a 
handsome property, is the result of a fixed 
and honorable purpose in early life, from 
which nothing had the power to allure him. 
His large mercantile business, his home resi- 
dence, his extensive farming interests which 
embrace over eleven hundred acres, and 
numerous private dwellings and business 
houses in Ligonier, are in testimony of what 
is possible to any young man with fixed 
purpose and honest application. His first 
and only start in life was a three-year old 
colt, which he sold for seventy-nine dol- 
lars, and it is from this humble beginning 
that he has accumulated his present hand- 

some competency. Man, he says, is "never 
too old to learn." Being deprived of the 
educational advantages which surround the 
youth of to-day. his present scholastic abil- 
ity has been acquired by constant study, the 
greater part of his education being acquired 
long after reaching years of maturity. No- 
ble county may well feel proud to class him 
among her most prominent citizens. Know- 
ing this, his example will have a strong in- 
fluence on the many who have come within 
the sphere of his wholesome influence. 


Kendallville has long been noted as a 
thriving industrial and commercial center, 
and its prestige in the business world is 
largely due to such men as George 1'. Alex- 
ander. His efforts toward advancing the 
material interests of the city are so widely 
recognized that they form no secondary 
part of his career of signal usefulness. He 
belongs to that class of representative 
Americans who, while gaining individual 
success, also promote the public prosperity. 
Such men stand pre-eminent among those 
who have conferred honor and dignity upon 
their places of -residence, no less by well con- 
ducted business interests than by upright 
iives and commendable conduct. 

Mr. Alexander was born in Somerset 
county. Penn., April 7, 1844, a sou 
of facob and Elizabeth (Keller) Alexander. 
When he was two years old his father died, 
and some vears after that event his mother 
remarried and removed with her family to 
Wayne county, Ohio, where George P. lived 
until about 1852. He then accompanied 



the family to Allen county, that state, where 
he lived until 1855, in June of which year 
he came to Noble county, Ind., locating 
in Kendallville, where the mother died in 
October, 1878, aged seventy-eight. Her 
second husband was William Edmonds, a 
native of Pennsylvania, who died in 1865. 

Jacob Alexander and wife had twelve 
children, of whom the subject of this sketch 
was the youngest born. While passing his 
youth at the various places where the family 
lived he attended the common schools, and 
while growing up assisted his mother :it 
home and by working for small wages at 
any honorable employment to which he could 
lay his hands. Since 1855, with the excep- 
tion of the time spent in the service of his 
country during the Rebellion, he has been 
an honored resident of Noble county, inter- 
ested in the material prosperity of the city 
of his choice and taking an active part in 
promoting its resources. When a young 
man he learned the plasterer's trade and 
bricklaying, and worked at the same in Ken- 
dallville and elsewhere until April, 1864, 
when he entered the service of the govern- 
ment by joining Company F, One Hundred 
and Thirty-ninth Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry. He served as first lieutenant until 
mustered out the following November, and 
the next January enlisted in Company C. 
One Hundred and Fifty-second Regiment, 
of which lie was commissioned captain. 

Captain Alexander had command of his 
company until the expiration of its period of 
enlistment, August 30, 1865, and proved a 
popular and efficient officer. Entering the 
service toward the latter part of the war. 
his command was not very actively engaged, 
but what service he rendered was bravely 
and efficiently performed. He took part in 

several campaigns and left the army with 
a record creditable in every respect and a 
name for bravery which brought him to the. 
favorable notice of his superiors in com- 

Returning to Kendallville, Captain 
Alexander engaged in general contracting 
and building, which he followed with finan- 
cial success until 1876. During this time 
he erected many buildings of all kinds in 
the city and elsewhere and earned the repu- 
tation of a skillful and honorable mechanic, 
whose work was his best advertisement. In 
the fall of the above year he was appointed 
clerk in the railway mail service, in which 
capacity he continued four years and then 
resigned his position for the purpose of en- 
gaging in mercantile pursuits. During 
the succeeding fifteen years he carried on at 
Kendallville a large business in the grocery 
line, which proved lucrative to the extent of 
enabling him to retire with a handsome com- 
petency in 1894. Since that year Mr. Alex- 
ander has not been engaged in any particular 
business, devoting his time and attention to 
his private interests, which are large and im- 
portant. He has served at different times in 
the city council, and while a member of that 
body took a decided stand for all legislation 
calculated in any way to benefit the munici- 
pality without trenching on the rights of 
the people. He has also been a member of 
the county council, and as such was untiring 
in behalf of the public interests, proving a 
safe and reliable custodian of the important 
trust committed to him. 

Mr. Alexander united with Nelson Post, 
No. 69. G. A. R., a number of years ago and 
has been one of the society's most enthusi- 
astic members. He has served as its com- 
mander, besides filling other official posi- 



turns, and some of his most pleasant hours 
are spent in the lodge room, where with old 
comrades he recalls incidents and reminis- 
cences of the perilous times of long ago. He 
is also a Mason of high standing, having 
taken a number of degrees, including that 
of Sir Knight. 

Mr. Alexander's marriage was cele- 
brated June 18, 1868, with Miss Olivia Dem- 
mon, daughter of the late Leonard Demmon, 
of Allen township, Noble count)-. The 
mother's maiden name was Nancy Boughey. 
She is still living and has been a resident of 
Noble county since a very early day. Mrs. 
Alexander was born in Allen township, 
March 31, 184'), and has passed the greater 
part of her life withih the geographical lim- 
its of Noble county. She has been her hus- 
band's able and willing co-laborer in all the 
enterprises in which he has been engaged 
and has proven a factor in bringing about 
the success which is now his. 

Mr. Alexander is in every respect a rep- 
resentative business man, and his present 
high standing is the result of superior in- 
telligence and clear judgment, directed and 
controlled by wise forethought. In the af- 
fairs of business and of every-day life his 
actions have been governed by a high sense 
of honor, and during his long period of resi- 
dence in Kendallville he has gained the con- 
fidence of all with whom be has had deal- 
ings of any kind. Socially he is quite popu- 
lar, and those whom he meets or with whom 
he has business or other relations unite in 
pronouncing him a most genial, companion- 
able and courteous gentleman. Mr. and 
Mrs. Alexander attend the Christian church. 
of which they are conscientious members 
and to the support of which they are liberal 
contributors. The}- have reared two girls. 

Ida McClain, now the wife of G. E. Moody, 
of Arkansas City; and Theressa Miller, now 
with them at home, aged twenty, brightens 
the family circle. 


Was born in Elkhart county, Inch, Febru- 
ary 11, 1833, a son of Jacob and Thirza 
I Pindell ) Prickett, natives of Virginia, and 
of English ancestry. In 1831 the parents 
came to Indiana and located on a farm in 
Benton township, Elkhart county. Here 
the father secured a mill, although he did 
riot follow milling as a business, being a 
blacksmith by trade. The father died in 
1845, at the age of forty-nine years, and in 
1850 his widow - became the wife of Peter 
Fraser, became the mother of one child and 
died at the age of seventy-one in 1879. 

The family of Jacob and Thirza Prickett 
consisted of eight children, namely : Shelby, 
a promising young man, died in 1850; Nim- 
rod is in the insurance business at Goshen, 
Ind. ; Susanna died at the same time of her 
father and both were buried in the same 
grave; Thomas, the subject of this sketch, 
is the next in order of birth; Jacob P. is 
editor of the Mail, published in Kosciusko 
county; Mahala married Samuel Stettler 
and died in 1864: Mary Jane became the 
wife of D. F. Ott. of Syracuse; and Nancy 
Ann married H. H. Dorsey, of Oswego. 

Thomas Prickett was primarily educated 
in the public schools of Elkhart and after- 
ward finished his studies at the Lagrange 
County Institute. He began life as a 
teacher, following the profession for a num- 
ber of vears. In 1852 be made a trip across 


the plains to California, where he engaged 
in mining for rive years, returning to Elk- 
hart by way of the Isthmus of Panama and 
New York City, landing in that city in the 
winter of 1857. He remained at home a 
short time and then went to Iowa, returning 
Home in the autumn and taking a school 
for the winter term. In the spring of 1858 
he again went to Iowa, where he remained 
until i860, having rented a farm near Cedar 
Rapids. During the excitement incident to 
the discovery of gold near Pike's Peak, 
Colo., Mr. Prickett started for that place in 
the spring of 1859, but receiving unfavor- 
able reports at about two hundred miles west 
of the Missouri river, he abandoned the trip 
and returned to Cedar Rapids and remained 
there till the autumn of i860, and went to 
Elkhart county, Ind., the same fall. 

On the outbreak of the Civil war his 
patriotism was early aroused, and July 22, 
1861. he enlisted at Goshen in Company B, 
Twenty-ninth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. 
He was afterward assigned to Company E, 
Ninth Indiana Infantry, and accompanied 
his regiment to that portion of the Old 
Dominion now known as West Virginia. 
The first engagement in which the regiment 
participated was at Greenbriar, followed by 
the battle at Buffalo Mountain. In the win- 
ter of 1861-62 the regiment was transferred 
to the District of the Ohio, afterward known 
as the Department of the Cumberland, un- 
der the command of General Don C. Buell. 
In 1862 he was with his regiment in the bat- 
tle of Shiloh. The command of General 
Buell was then stretched along the Tennessee 
river as far east as Shell Mound, not far 
from Chattanooga, Term., the right wing of 
the army extending into Alabama beyond 
Huntsville. When General Bragg made his 

famous raid into Kentucky he crossed the 
Tennessee at Chattanooga, and thus forced 
the army under General Buell to withdraw. 
That campaign of rapid and swift move- 
ment is a part of the history of the war and 
need not be repeated here. General Buell 's 
rapid advance caught the rear of Bragg's 
arm}- just after the crossing of Green river, 
thus forcing Bragg eastward and away from 
Louisville. The army under Buell was 
being reinforced by new troops assembling 
in that city, and after the arrival of General 
Buell the entire force was again in motion 
and overtook Bragg at Perryville, Ky. 
Here McCook's corps was engaged in one 
of the most hotly contested battles of the 
war, althi nigh hut a small portion of Buell's 
magnificent army was engaged. The Con- 
federates were driven toward Cumberland 
Gap by our cavalry, while the main army 
pursued its way through Kentucky and into 

In the meantime General Buell had been 
relieved from command by General Rose- 
crans, who fought and won the great vic- 
tory at Stone River, in which the Ninth was 
engaged, Mr. Prickett being, as ever, with 
his command. He was with it at the battles 
of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and 
Lookout Mountain, being under the immedi- 
ate command of General Hooker at Look- 
out Mountain and in the pursuit of Bragg to 
Ringgold. In the winter of 1863 the regi- 
ment was veteranized, and on his return 
from the furlough, in February, 1864, Mr. 
Prickett re-enlisted. The high esteem in 
which Mr. Prickett was held by his com- 
rades is evidenced by his being elected, in 
1861, as first sergeant, and so well did he 
perform his duty that on March 3, 1863, he 
was commissioned second lieutenant, and the 



following September was promoted to first 
lieutenant. He remained with his command 
until March 24, 1864, when he resigned his 
commission and returned home. He re- 
sumed farming, and with his brother Jacob 
erected a sawmill, which they operated in 
connection with his farm. 

In April, 1882, Mr. Prickett left the 
farm and located in Ligonier, and the fol- 
lowing year took a health trip to the Pacific. 
He did not engage in business again until 
1889, when he purchased a stock of shoes 
and engaged in merchandising. In 1894 he 
was elected clerk of Noble county, assuming 
charge of the office in 1896, serving four 
years, during which time the family resided 
in Albion, but returned to Ligonier in No- 
vember, 1900, and is now living retired. 
The family own a fine home in Ligonier and 
a small farm near by. 

Mr. Prickett was married Januarv 21, 
1864, while home on leave of absence, the 
lad}- who became his wife being Miss Martha 
M. Darr. The marriage occurred in the 
house now occupied by them, it then being 
the property of Mrs. Prickett's grandfather. 
Charles G. Vail. Mrs. Prickett was born in 
Benton, Elkhart county, Ind., the daughter 
of David Darr, one of the pioneers of that 
county. Eight children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Prickett : Charles S. died in 
infancy ; Jessie E. became the wife of Charles 
Shannon, a farmer in Elkhart county ; 
Thirza A. married Martin C. Pollock, of 
Angola. Jnd. ; Eva Anna is at home; Eliza- 
beth J. is the wife of Charles G. McLean, of 
Ligonier ; Thomas V. died at the age of 
seventeen; and Lloyd G. and Joe M. are at 

Mr. Prickett has been an active worker 
in the Republican party. Fraternally be is 

a member of Stansbury Post, No. 125, G. 
A. P.. of which he has been commander, 
and is now serving as adjutant. Mr. and 
Mrs. Prickett are representative people of 
the community and enjoy the respect and 
esteem of a large circle of friends. 

WILLIAM ROSS (Deceased). 

Of the revered and most respected resi- 
dents of Orange township. Noble county, 
Ind., whose removal by death but a few 
months ago caused a pang of sorrow ti 1 sin h it 
through the common breast of the township, 
was William Ross, whom further mention 
is made of in the record of George Strater, 
bis son-in-law, given in full on another 

William Ross was born in .Morrow 
county, Ohio. September 21, 1832, where he 
was reared and lived until be came to Noble 
county, Ind., in October. 1858. Pie mar- 
ried, in Morrow county, Ohio, July 1. [858, 
Miss Mary Ann Baer, who was born in 
Wayne county, Ohio, January 6, [837. The 
couple continued to live in the county of his 
nativity, where Mr. Ross was engaged in 
farming and threshing, until the latter part 
of the "fifties, when they came to Noble 
county, Ind., and here Mr. Ross purchased 
a farm of eighty acres of wild land, which 
he improved with modern buildings ami 
converted into a first-class farm, on which 
he passed the remainder of his days, and 
died February 12, 1901. Mrs. Ross -nil 
survives and is a member of the Mennonite 
church, by the members of which she is 
greatly beloved, as well as by the general 


Mr. and Mrs. Ross became the parents 
of six children, three of whom died in in- 
fancy or childhood and three grew to matur- 
ity, the latter being Jennie, who is the wife 
of George Strater, a prosperous farmer of 
Orange township; Walter A., a farmer in 
Lagrange county. Ind. ; and Frank, who re- 
sides on the old homestead, where he was 
born August 12. 1874. 

Frank Ross was reared and educated in 
Orange township, and was married at Rome 
City, Ind., April 6, 1897, t0 ^ ss Mana Van 
Buskirk, a daughter of John Van Buskirk 
and one of the most accomplished young 
ladies of Orange township. 

( Deceased. ) 

Human life is much like the breaking" 
waves upon the seashore, which flash in the 
bright sun for a few brief moments as they 
roll majestically inward — marvels of beauty 
and almost irresistible in power — but only to 
be engulfed in the mighty undertow that 
sweeps them back into the oblivious depths 
of the unfathomable ocean. As the sea has 
rolled in ages past and will continue for 
ages to come, thus will the waves of human 
life follow each other in countless succession 
until heaven's last thunders shall proclaim 
the end of time. 

An enumeration of the men who won 
honor and public recognition in the past and 
added luster to the counties in which they 
acted their parts in life would be incomplete 
without due notice of the distinguished gen- 
tleman whose biography is herewith pre- 
sented ; a gentleman who, by the master- 

strokes of strong mentality, backed by sheer 
force of will, rose to an honored position in 
Noble county and gained more "than local 
repute as a lawyer, jurist and broad-minded 
man of affairs. 

Judge William M. Clapp was a native of 
New England and a splendid type of the old 
Puritan element that in former times gave 
character and stability to that common- 
wealth. He was born in the town of Elling- 
ton, Tolland county, Conn., December 18, 
181 7, a son of Stephen and Mary (Loomis) 
Clapp, both of the same state. 

The Clapp family are of Danish origin, 
and its record is traced back to 1025. Os- 
good Clapp is referred to in English history 
as a Danish nobleman at the court of Eng- 
land during the period of King Canute, 
whose reign date from 1017 to 1036. The 
progenitor of the family in America was 
Thomas, one of three brothers who emi- 
grated to this country in 1633. They aban- 
doned the comforts and pleasures of their 
native land that they might, untrammeled, 
worship God in their own way, and settled 
in Dorchester, Mass. William M. Clapp, the 
subject of this sketch, was of the seventh 
generation in the United States. In youth 
he enjoyed extremely limited educational ad- 
vantages, as he assisted his father nine 
months of the year, with irregular attend- 
ance at school the remaining three. When 
William M. was a child of six his father 
moved with the family from Connecticut to 
Windsor, Ashtabula county. Ohio. This, 
however, did not improve the opportunities 
for an education; but with strong determi- 
nation and great industry he pursued his 
studies both in and out of school. The Judge 
frequently mentioned the pleasures of his 
maple-sugar-boiling days. While thus en- 




gaged in the bush he gave his spare moments 
to Murray's Grammar, committing to mem- 
ory the coarse print — the practice of those 
days — and eventually became master of the 
science. At the age of seventeen years 
he felt himself the master of as good 
a common-school education as could he 
obtained in the neighborhood, and con- 
ceived the idea of becoming a school-teacher. 
Obtaining such a situation, he soon found 
that he could not manage the large and dis- 
orderly scholars to his satisfaction. He in- 
formed the authorities that school-teaching 
was not his strong point, voluntarily ac- 
knowledged his defeat and abandoned the 
field. The following spring he went to Bur- 
ton, Ohio, and engaged as clerk in a dry 
goods store, where he remained eighteen 
months; then to Mantua, Franklin and Ches- 
ter. Ohio. He afterward formed a partner- 
ship with a Mr. Johnson, offsetting his ex- 
perience against the capital of his partner. 
After securing a location and building, John- 
son proved insolvent and the enterprise 

After vainly seeking employment, and 
finding himself in Wheeling. Ya., somewhat 
disheartened and with little money, Mr, 
Clapp fell in with a gentleman and wife qn 
their way to Kentucky as school-teachers, 
and was induced to try his fortune in that 
field. Securing deck passage on a steamer 
about to leave for the lower river, he reached 
Maysville, Ky., after an eight-day trip, hav- 
ing in his pocket a lone one-dollar note of 
the Massillon Bank, Ohio, which proved 
worthless, as the bank had failed. After 
much searching he secured a position among 
the hills, where he taught one year. Subse- 
quently he went to Fayette county. After 
pursuing his vocation of pedagogue there for 

about eighteen months he closed school- 
teaching, but felt that his second effort in 
that direction had proved successful, and sat- 
isfied that he had some money on hand. He 
returned to his home in Ohio. His early 
ambition having been for the profession of 
law, he determined to direct his energies 
wholly in that direction ; but, preferring to 
make his new venture in a region of country 
previously unknown to him, he purchased a 
horse, saddle, bridle and saddlebags, filled 
the latter with his clothing and some provis- 
ions, and set out for Indiana. After a jour- 
ney of eight days he brought up at Peru, 
Miami county, then but a hamlet, although 
the county-seat. Here he secured a place as 
student in the office of E. P. Loveland, and 
by diligent application and hard work he. at 
the end of a year and a half, successfully 
passed a rigid examination and was granted 
a license to practice in the courts of the state, 
his parchment bearing date of March, 1843. 
The following April found him in Au- 
gusta, where the courts of Noble county 
then sat, confidently asking the people's pat- 
ronage, of which a full share was accorded 
him. He clung to the fortunes of the county- 
seat with commendable tenacity, joining in 
its migration from Augusta to Port .Mitch- 
ell, in 1844. thence to Albion, and finally to 
its present location in 1847. To Mr. Clapp, 
more, perhaps, than to any other one man, 
was due the credit of having it where it now 
is. It was during that period that Mr. Clapp 
was county auditor, having been elected in 
1845, discharging its duties for five years 
while maintaining his practice and caring for 
the interests of his clients. In 1848, while 
still actively engaged in his profession, he 
formed a copartnership with H. H. Hitch- 
cock in the mercantile business, which con- 



tinned until 1849, when Mr. Clapp bought 
his partner's interest and conducted the busi- 
ness alone until 1868, when C. P. Phillips 
became associated with him. In 1873 W. 
W. White became a member of the firm, 
with the understanding that the company 
should continue the business and construct 
a building to accommodate the increasing 
trade, which resulted in \ht brick block 
standing on the corner of Main and Orange 
streets. In 1875 Mr. Clapp sold his interest 
in the building to Mr. Phillips, but the fol- 
lowing year the property fell into his hands 
as sole owner. A bank was also established 
as a company affair, but in 1875 Mr. Clapp 
bought his partner's share and became sole 
owner and manager of the institution, which 
was conducted by him and his sons until the 
former's death, and for many years past has 
been successfully managed by Charles M. 
From force of circumstances he became in- 
terested in a woolen mill at Rome City in 
1873, which was operated by the company 
at a loss during that period of business de- 
pression, and in 1878 was completely de- 
stroyed lay fire, without the protection of in- 
surance. As a rule. Judge Clapp's profes- 
sional and business enterprises were emi- 
nently successful, securing to him an ample 

Brought up in the old Whig school of 
politics, he was an active adherent of the 
party until 1854, when, the party becoming 
disintegrated, he allied himself with the Re- 
publican party, and up to the time of his 
death was an ardent supporter of its men 
and measures, and earnest in the support 
of his political convictions. Although for 
manv years he held positions of honor and 
trust, he accepted party nominations at the 
solicitation of his political and personal 

friends and not from his own seeking. But 
once in the field as the standard-bearer of 
the party, his activity was unbounded and his 

i methods irreproachable. In 1856 he was 
chosen to represent his district in the legis- 
lature for a term of two years — elected judge 
of the court of common pleas in i860, and 
re-elected for thirteen successive years. The 
term for which he was last elected should 
have continued for three years longer, but 
by a change in the judicial system through 
legislative enactment the ■ court was abol- 
ished. At the close of his judicial life he re- 
sumed the practice of law, but failing health 
compelled its abandonment and he proceed- 
ed to drop his clients as fast as circumstances 
would permit, refusing new ones. On clos- 
ing his professional career for a time he de- 
voted himself to superintending a small 
farm which he owned joining the town of 
Albion, and looking after his banking' and 
other business interests. 

Judge Clapp was a Royal Arch Mason. 
In religion he was orthodox in belief, but did 
not accept all of the dogmas of any church 
body. He was a liberal contributor to the 
necessities of all the denominations in the 
community, and ever willing to aid in any 
plan which would increase happiness and di- 
minish wretchedness. In the legislature he 
was industrious and conscientious in the dis- 
charge of his duties, a strong partisan, yet 
always tolerant of the views of others. While 
auditor the administration of the office was 
marked for its promptness and correctness. 

j In the days of his professional activity lie 

j stood in the front rank with his compeers. 
In the trial of suits he was usually success- 
ful. The careful preparation of his cases 
made him an advocate of very great power 

! before court and jury. But even stronger 


was his pc isitii m i >f ci ►unseli ir. Should courts 
of arbitration ever be established by legisla- 
tive enactment, men of his mold are the ones 
who will be sought to fill the places. He dis- 
couraged litigation, and liked nothing better 
than an opportunity to settle questions of 
dispute outside the courthouse. This was 
one of the finest traits of his grand charac- 
ter. He was eminently qualified for the re- 
sponsible duties of judge, and during his 
long years of service administered the law 
with impartiality, ability and justness. 

As a financier Judge Clapp evidenced 
marked ability and conducted business on 
principles that commanded public confidence 
and universal esteem. Having been identi- 
fied with the country from boyhood, and at 
a time when it was little better than a wil- 
derness of forests and tangled swamps, he 
was a prominent factor in its present devel- 
opment, and was generously rewarded for 
Ids efforts, while others have been enabled to 
profit by his example and business activities. 

November 14, 1847, ne was united in 
marriage to Miss Mary A. Skinner, of Jef- 
ferson township, Noble county. She died 
November 21, 1875. They were the parents 
of six children, three of whom are living: 
William Frank, Charles Merritt and Adella. 
Judge Clapp was next married December 2j, 
1877, to Miss Angeline Skinner, of Albion, 
cousin to his first wife and daughter of Al- 
fred and Mary (Ross) Skinner; she was 
horn in New Haven, Ohio, June jo, 1842, 
but most of her life has been spent in Noble 

Judge Clapp was the architect of his 
own success, beginning life's battles unaided 
by a finished education, destitute of worldly 
goods, but well stocked with pluck and en- 
ergy- A great reader and a close observer, 

with quick perceptions, and broad minded, 
his judgment almost intuitively gave him the 
power to analyze the character and motives 
of mankind. Cultivated and urbane, in pri- 
vate life and the atmosphere of the home 
circle he shone with a brilliancy wholesome 
and elevating to the inmates, and was charm- 
ingly instructive to the guests who partook 
of his generous hospitality. In closing the 
recond of Judge Clapp it may he said that 
but few men reached so high a place in the 
estimation of his fellow men. lie. like all 
busy men of affairs, looked forward to the 
time retirement from the activities of life 
would bring rest and repose — a period never 
reached. He continued to look after his 
business interests and was active in public 
affairs until the naturally robust constitu- 
tion gave way, and on January 5. 1SS1, the 
successful man of business, the able lawyer, 
the distinguished jurist, the honorable citi- 
zen and broad-minded man of affairs lay 
down the burden of life at the age of sixty- 
three and passed away — not forever, but to 
that resurrection of immortality that hath 
no end. 

William F. Clapp, eldest son of Hon. 
William M. Clapp, deceased, is among the 
prosperous and prominent business men of 
his native city, and evidences many of the 
sterling qualities which characterized the life 
of his father. He was born in Albion, Sep- 
tember 29, 1853. His education was ac- 
quired in the public and high schools, and 
on graduation therefrom matriculated at 
Ann Arbor. Mich., but on account of ill 
health did not complete the college course. 
Mr. Clapp is largely interested in real estate, 
conducts an extensive loan and brokerage 
business, and is the agent for a number of 
the best insurance companies in the country. 


Like his father, he stands high in the estima- 
tion of the business and social community, 
and is no unworthy son of so illustrious a 
sire. He is active in the promotion of enter- 
prises that will advance the material interests 
or add to the prosperity and growth of the 

July 13, 1 88 1, Mr. Clapp was wedded to 
Miss Alice A. Smith, of Albion, a daughter 
of P. T. and Persis Smith, natives of Ohio. 
They are the parents of four children, 
namely : William M., so named in honor of 
"his grandfather, is a lad of fourteen years, 
attending the public school ; Zoe, eleven years 
of age; Kenneth, eight years of age, also 
attending school ; and Helen, eighteen 
months old. 

Mr, Clapp is a member of two fraternal 
organizations — the Masons and the Knights ; 
■of Pythias. In Masonry he holds high rank, 
being a member of the Blue Lodge, No. 97, 
of Albion ; Apollo Commandery, No. 19. and 
Chapter No. 64, of Kendallville; and of the 
Mystic Shrine, of Indianapolis, having 
reached the thirty-second degree. In the 
Knights of Pythias he belongs to Albion 
Lodge, No. 223. 

Charles M. Clapp, second son of Hon. 
William M. Clapp (deceased), is also a na- 
tive of Albion, and was born December 31, 
1855. He is now at the head of the bank- 
ing institution established by his father, and 
follows those conservative and safe business 
methods which insure the confidence of the 
business public and lead to success. In 
1X7X Mr. Clapp was married to Miss Flora 
Woodruff, also a native of Albion and a 
daughter of Samuel and Sarah Woodruff. 
Samuel Woodruff was a prosperous farmer 
of Richland count}'. Ohio, but is now a resi- 
dent of Kansas. Two children have blessed 

this union, namely : Fred R., now in his 
twenty-second year, and a student at Rush 
Medical College, Chicago; and Bernice, a 
young lady of sixteen, attending school in 
Albion. Mrs. Clapp is the efficient and ge- 
nial cashier of the bank over which her 
husband presides. 


Honored and respected by all, there is 
no man in Albion, Noble county, Ind., 
who occupies a more enviable position in 
commercial circles than Jackson D. Black, 
not alone on account of the success he has 
achieved, but also by reason of the honor- 
able, straightforward business policy he has 
ever followed. He possesses great energy, 
is quick of perception, forms his plans read- 
ily and is determined in their execution. 
His long years of close application to busi- 
ness and his excellent management have 
brought him a high degree of prosperity, 
and to-day he occupies a conspicuous place 
among- the eminently successful men and 
representative citizens of the county of No- 
ble. In a large sense, he has demonstrated 
the truthfulness of the adage that "success 
is not the result of genius, but the outcome 
of clear judgment and practical experience." 

Owen Black, father of the subject of this 
review, was born in Lancaster, Penn., in 
the year 181 5. and in 1838 married Eliza- 
beth Goss, a native of Richland county, 
Ohio, where her birth occurred in 1816. 
These parents, in 1853, moved to Noble 
county, Ind., locating in Albion, where for 
a period of fifteen years Owen Black carried 
on a successful trade in the dry goods busi- 



ness. He also erected the first flouring-mill 
ever operated in the town, and additional 
thereto built two sawmills, a number of 
dwelling houses and in other ways contrib- 
uted to the material and industrial prosperity 
of this section of Noble county. He was a 
man of great public spirit and one of the 
hrst to give impetus to a place which will 
always be under a debt of gratitude to him 
for much of the prosperity it enjoys and 
will continue to enjoy for years to come. 

Jackson D. Black was born in Richland 
county. Ohio, in the year 1845. Given the 
advantages of the best education the schools 
in his youth afforded, he became, as soon as 
old enough, his father's assistant in the 
store, and continued in that capacity from 
i860 to 1867. He then became a partner 
in the concern, which, under the firm name 
of Black & Son, did an extensive business 
until 1X70, when D. S. Love was admitted. 
The linn thus constituted lasted until 1872, 
at which time Jackson D. Black purchased 
the interests of his associates and continued 
as sole proprietor until 1880, when the firm 
was reorganized, with J. D. Black and Owen 
Black as associates, under the name of Black 
& Brother. Under this style the business 
was carried on until 1892, since which date 
Jackson D. has operated the store alone with 
a steadily increasing" business and a o ure- 
spondingly enlargement of stock. He owns 
the store building, employs capable assist- 
ants, and his place of business is now rev 
ognized as one of the most solid and reli- 
able mercantile concerns in Noble county, 
and the progressive, yet conservative, policy 
that has been observed from the start has 
gained it public confidence and substantial 

As a business man Mr. Black has clear 

and comprehensive ideas, seeing the end. 
from the beginning and knowing when and 
how to purchase in order to realize the great- 
est returns for the amount invested. By a. 
long residence in the town, and fair deal- 
ing, together with the taste displayed cater- 
ing to the demands of trade, he has won the 
regard of the people, and since establishing 
the business years ago the store has never 
suffered from a lack of paying patrons. Mr. 
Black's judgment and foresight are char- 
acteristics of the man. and amid all the fluc- 
tuations of trade and through various peri- 
ods of business depression he sustained at 
par his high standing as a safe and reliable 
merchant and came through all vicissitudes 
with little or no serious financial embarrass- 
ments. His house, firmly established and 
his credit upon a solid basis, he bids fair to 
continue to he, as he has been in the past, 
one of the leading business men of the city 
of Albion. 

Mr. Black was joined in marriage in 
1870 to Miss Minerva Young, whose birth 
occurred in Northumberland comity, IVnn., 
in the year 1847. Her parents, Samuel and 
Barbara ( Klein 1 Young, of Scotch and Ger- 
man lineage, respectively, were natives of 
the Keystone state, where their marriage 
was solemnized in 1840. They became resi- 
dents of Indiana in 1853, Inciting tempo- 
rarily in the city of Ft. Wayne. The fam- 
ily made the trip from the old home 111 
Pennsylvania to Lima. ( )hio, by wagon, and 
from the latter place rode on the first pas- 
senger train that ever ran over the old Pills- 
bury, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railroad from 
Onto to Ft. Wayne. There Samuel Y. >ung 
loaded his family and household effects on 
a wagon and set out for Albion, which he 
reached in due time, and a little later pur- 



chased a farm in the township of Noble, re- 
moving to the same about the year 1856. 

Mr. and Mrs. Black became the parents 
of three children, two of whom are living 
at the present time. They are: Albert, 
born in 1873. and Harry, whose birth took 
place in 1879. Bessie was born in 1872 and 
departed this life in the month of January, 
1886. The older sen is a highly educated 
young man, is an alumnus of Purdue Col- 
lege, from which he was graduated in 1894. 
and one year later he completed a post- 
graduate course in Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. Harry is also a young man 
of strong mentality, being at this time a 
member of the junior class, Purdue Uni- 

While Mr. Black has not made the ac- 
quisition of wealth the prime object of his 
life, he has, nevertheless, met with most 
encouraging financial results in his business 
enterprises. By close attention and careful 
management he has become the possessor 
of a liberal share of worldly wealth, owning 
at the present time, besides a fine residence 
and other valuable property in Albion, a 
large amount of real estate in various parts 
of the county, including four hundred acres 
of fertile land, nearly all in a high state of 
tillage. 'With the exception of one disaster 
by fire in 1879, entailing a loss of eleven 
thousand dollars, his career has been unin- 
terrupted by reverses of any kind. He has 
at all times maintained a lively interest in 
all that pertains to the legitimate advance- 
ment and material prosperity of both town 
and county, and his means have been liber- 
allv expended in behalf of every moral, 
benevolent and religious enterprise that has 
come before the public. 

Standing distinctively forward as one of 

the representative men of Noble county and 
as one of the most progressive and valued 
citizens of Albion, Mr. Black owes his pro- 
nounced success in life almost solely to his 
own efforts, and is clearly entitled to the 
proud appellation, "a self-made man." His 
life story contains little outside the ordinary, 
and his every action has been open to the 
scrutiny and criticism of his fellow-men, but 
few, if any, of whom have found therein 
anything to condemn. By no means event- 
ful, his career has been true to its possibili- 
ties, and there has not been denied him an 
abundant harvest in due season. Standing 
"four-square to every wiiid that blows," en- 
joying the respect and esteem of the com- 
munity and having gained distinctive suc- 
cess in the temporal affairs of life, Mr. Black 
may truly lie classed with the most notable 
business men of his day and generation in 
the city of Albion and the county of Noble. 


Ex-member of the state legislature of Indi- 
ana, and who was eminent as a dentist at 
Ligonier, Noble county, Ind., was born 
in Starke county. Ohio, near Canton. Octo- 
ber 8. 1838, and is a son of Samuel and Anna 
( Hoover 1 Gants, natives of Ohio and Penn- 
svlvania, respectively. 

Samuel Gants, the father, however, was 
called to his final home when his son, Adam, 
was but eight years of age, and the mother 
was left with twelve children to care for. In 
the settling up of the estate the administrat- 
ors, under the laws then operative, set off the 
widow's portion, which portion would appear 
to be very meager in the eyes of persons liv- 



ing under the more liberal statutes of t< i-day. 
Six knives and six forks were considered to 
be sufficient for the use of this family of thir- 
teen perse his, and consequently they were 
compelled to take their meals in installments, 
and other personal property was adminis- 
tered in a similar spirit of niggardness. 

Adam Gants was educated somewhat 
limitedly in his native state and was reared 
to labor at anything' that would compensate 
him with an honest dollar. When about sev- 
enteen years old he began the study of den- 
tistry under the tutorship of Dr. John C. 
Whinnery, of Salem, Ohio, purchasing 
standard works on the science as his means 
would permit. After mastering the vocation, 
when about twenty-one years of age. he came 
to Noble county, Ind., to engage in prac- 
tice, and on reaching Ligonier had a cash 
capital of one dollar and a half. With this 
amount he "furnished his office," Inlying a 
poplar board and a common chair for that 
purpose, with which he constructed an "oper- 
ating" chair, with a high back. Thus pre- 
pared he embarked upon the active practice 
of his profession. In this he has been very 
successful, as he was at the start the only 
dentist in Ligonier, and as such has held the 
field for twenty years. 

The marriage of Dr. Gants took place 
December 2j. 1863, to Miss Josephine Jon- 
son, who was horn on a farm in Noble coun- 
ty, six miles from Ligonier. Her father, 
a pioneer of Noble county, descended 
from the Jonsons who founded the 
town of Jonsonsburg. near Attica, N. 
Y. To the Doctor and wife have been 
horn four children, viz. : Frank, who was a 
dentist by profession, and died unmarried at 
the age of twenty-three years; the second 

son, Edward, was called away when but six 
years old ; the two surviving children are 
twins — Samuel L. and Emma — and were 
horn on Xew Year's Day. 1S71. Of these, 
Samuel L. was graduated from the dental 
department of the Northwestern University 
of Chicago, and has succeeded to the business 
of his father; he is married to Miss Alice 
Parfitt. of Goshen, Ind. The daughter, 
Emma, is now the wife of Charles Tayler, 
of Kenton. Ohio, who is superintendent of 
the fence department of the Champion Iron 
Works, at Kenton, Ohio. 

Dr. Gants has always taken an active 
and patriotic interest in the political affairs 
of his county, state and nation, but has 
never neglected his professional duties for 
the gratification of any ambition touching 
public office. Nevertheless, he was called 
upon by the more intelligent members of the 
Republican party to represent his constitu- 
ency in the city council of Ligonier. and so 
ably did he fill this position that, in 1899. he 
was selected to represent his party in the 
sixty-first general assembly of the state of 
Indiana, and in this dignified body he man- 
ifested such an acumen that he was appoint- 
ed by the speaker a member of the committee 
on vital statistics, the committee on prison 
reform, and on three other important com- 
mittees, in all of which he performed active 
and effective service. 

On the expiration of his legislative term. 
Dr. Gants resumed his professional practice, 
in which he met with phenomenal success as 
a dentist as well as in the acquisition of sub- 
stantial and well deserved recompense. The 
original "one dollar and a half" which con- 
stituted his fortune on his arrival in Ligonier 
has swollen in amount, and he is now the 

i 7 6 


possessor of a comfortable fortune which in 
part comprises two excellent farms aggre- 
gating two hundred and fifty-two acres, be- 
sides city property in Kenton, Ohio, and a 
line residence in the city of Ligonier, Ind., 
and all this is the result of his individual ex- 
ertion and professional ability. 

Dr. Gants is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias and has also filled the office of past 
grand in the I. O. O. F. He, wife and chil- 
dren are members of the Christian church in 
Ligonier, to the tenets of which they rigidly 
adhere and to the support of which the}- lib- 
erally contribute financially. 

The Doctor states that he has been a Re- 
publican in sentiment since he was eleven 
years of age, and that his "conversion" to 
the principles of the party was brought 
about by the speeches and arguments of a 
liberated slave who had visited the neighbor- 
hood at a time when a Republican was en- 
tirely unknown in the community in which 
he then lived. As a consequence of his early 
conviction he cast his first presidential vote 
for Abraham Lincoln in i860. 

Socially, the Doctor and family enjoy the 
esteem of the best people of Ligonier and are 
prime factors in the constituency of its select 


Fame looks to the clash of resounding 
arms and the smoke and carnage of battle 
for its trophies, but true worth is demon- 
strated by a patient and persistent course of 
honest industry. The record of a life well 
spent, of triumps over obstacles, of persever- 

ance under difficulties, of gradual advance- 
ment from a modest beginning to a place of 
honor and distinction in the commercial or 
industrial world, when imprinted on the 
pages of history, presents to the youth of 
rising generations an example worthy of 
emulation. Such a life is that of the large 
manufacturer and distinguished citizen, a 
brief review of whose remarkable career we 
shall here endeavor to present. 

David C. Walling is distinctively one of 
the foremost business men of Indiana, and 
is executive head of one of the largest and 
most important manufacturing enterprises 
in the West. His name has become known 
from one extremity of the Union to the 
other. Further than this, the high reputa- 
tion achieved by the products of his factory 
has caused his fame to be heralded abroad, 
and to-day the names of Flint & Walling are 
almost as familiar in certain European coun- 
tries as they are in the United States. Con- 
tributing by his enterprise and progressive 
methods to the material and industrial 
growth of Kendallville and occupying a pre- 
eminent station among the great manufac- 
turers of the state, he is regarded as a repre- 
sentative citizen in every sense of the term 
and a man whose influence for years has 
been a potent factor in advertising to the 
world the marvelous resources and remark- 
able development of the commonwealth of 

David C. Walling was born in the town 
of Alden, Erie county, N. Y., .September 6, 
1835. He is a son of James S. Walling, 
who was also a native of the Empire state, 
and who in early life followed the pursuit 
of agriculture as a vocation. James Walling 
was born in the year 1810 in the county of 



Otsego, and when a young man entered into 
the marriage relation with Harriet E. Lord, 
whose birth occurred about the year 1800. 
Airs. Walling was descended from an old 
New England family whose history is trace- 
able to a very early period in the annals of 
that section of the country. 

In 1866 James S. Walling and family 
came to Kendallville, and made this city his 
home the remainder of his days. During 
his later years he was engaged in religious 
work as a colporteur for the Presbyterian 
church, and as such traveled quite exten- 
sively throughout Indiana and other states, 
accomplishing great good in the cause which 
he represented. He was the father of three 
children, namely: David C, whose name 
initiates this article; Harriet, wife of Sar- 
dius Wescott, of Perrysburg, Ohio; and 
Mary, afterward Mrs. David Humphrey, 
who died at Elkhorn, Wis., at the age of 

Until his eighteenth year David C. Wall- 
ing lived amid the familiar scenes of his 
birthplace, and while a mere youth the best 
of his mind was revealed and his career 
foreshadowed by the fact of his seizing every 
opportunity to familiarize himself with the 
use of such tools as fell into his hands. 
When old enough he entered the common 
schools, where he applied himself to the 
studies assigned with diligent and ready 
comprehension. The training thus received 
was later supplemented by a course in an 
academy at Fredonia, N. Y.. where he made 
commendable progress in some Of the more 
advanced branches of learning and laid a 
firm intellectual foundation for his subse- 
quent career as one of the west's most enter- 
prising and successful business men. Leav- 
ing school when about eighteen years old, 

he yielded to a desire of long standing by 
turning his attention to mechanics, entering 
a manufacturing establishment in the city of 
Fredonia for the purpose of becoming a 
machinist. After remaining there one and 
a half years and becoming quite a proficient 
workman, he accepted, about 1855. a posi- 
tion in a machine shop at Xorwalk. Ohio, 
where he continued eleven years, meanwhile 
bending all his energies to master every de- 
tail of the vocation which he had selected 
for his life work. 

In January, 1866, Mr. Walling severed 
his connection with his employers in the 
above city and came to Kendallville, Ind., 
where, in partnership with William W. 
Hildrcdth and die late Simeon Flint, lie en- 
j gaged in the machine and general repair 
business, the original style of the firm being 
Hildredth, Flint & Walling. These partners 
were all sound, practical business men. and 
their establishment, from a small beginning, 
soon grew to be one of the leading industries 
of the place. A building of sufficient ca- 
pacity to meet the current demand was 
erected and for several years the manufac- 
ture of various kinds of agricultural imple- 
ments, general repairing and job v.. 
cupied the attention of the firm. The part- 
nership continued as originally organized 
until 1S7J. when .Mr. Hildreth disposed of 
his interest to A. 1'.. Park & Bros., after 
which the stvle of the firm was changed to 
that of Flint, Walling & Company. They 
continued to manufacture agricultural im- 
plements and do general mechanical work 
until 1N74. when the plant was greatly en- 
larged and the manufacture of windmills 
and pumps introduced. From the above 
}ear dates the most rapid and substantial 
growth of the enterprise, which, since thai 

i 7 8 


time, has continually increased in importance 
and magnitude until it is now not only the 
largest industry of the kind in the state but 
in the United States, if not in the world. It 
continued to do business under the firm name 
■of Flint, Walling & Company until 1886, 
when an incorporation was effected under 
the style of the The Flint & Walling Manu- 
facturing Company, Mr. Walling being 
elected president, a position which he still 
holds. Mr. Flint was identified with the 
firm until his death, on the 15th day of 
March. 1894. since which date the concern 
has been operated under the direction of the 
present official management, namely : D. C. 
Walling, president; X. B. Xewnam, vice- 
president: H. I. Park, secretary and treas- 
urer; and H. PI. Macomber, superintendent. 
It is not the province of a work of this 
kind to give in detail either the history or 
present business status of the mammoth en- 
terprise of which Mr. Walling is the leading- 
spirit and executive head. A few facts, 
however, taken from the beautifully illu- 
strated catalogue which the firm issues from 
time to time will doubtless prove of interest 
to the reader and afford him some concep- 
tion of the magnitude of the Flint & Wall- 
ing plant and the enormous extent of its 
business throughout the United States and 
various countries of the old world. In 1879. 
■when the superior quality of the goods of 
the firm began to be known, the demand be- 
came so great as to render necessary an en- 
largement of the plant and the manufacture 
of other machinery and appliances of vari- 
ous kinds to satisfy the demand. In 1889 
still greater additions were made, and it was 
about that time that the famous Steel Star 
Mill. which the firm makes one of its special- 
lies, was introduced. The evolution of this 

far-famed mill marks one of the most im- 
portant eras in the history of modern ma- 
chinery. Improvement after improvement 
was added, new and original devices in- 
vented, until the mill has nearly supplanted 
the mills made by other firms, and it is now 
considered by experts to be the nearest per- 
fect mechanical device of the kind ever 
made. They manufacture many different 
styles and sizes adapted to various uses, 
from the pumping of water to the operating 
of heavy machinery, and no pains nor ex- 
pense have been spared to bring the mill to 
its present high state of efficiency. 

Additional to the Star Mill, the firm 
makes all kinds of water tanks, steel towers 
for mill and tank supports and at least one 
hundred kinds of pumps, all which are 
either their own invention or improvement 
upon other pumps used in the country dur- 
ing the last half century. The Walling 
pumps are of superior device and workman- 
ship, unique in construction and practically 
perfect in operation. They are sent to all 
parts of the United States, and since their 
introduction into foreign countries have rev- 
olutionized all mechanism for drawing- 

For the manufacture of their various 
machinery, implements and devices the firm 
has one of the largest and best-equipped 
plants in the United States, the various de- 
partments being as complete as the most 
advanced mechanical research can make 
them, while none but the most skillful work- 
men are employed. The machine shop, per- 
fectly arranged and equipped, having day- 
light on all sides, contains tools of the latest 
pattern, many of which are of the firm's own 
design and manufacture. The tool room is 
also perfectly equipped with the finest ma- 



chinery for the making- of special tools used 
in the various departments. The firm makes 
all of its tools for many forms of work 
peculiar to its plant alone, and nothing but 
the finest and most expensive material is 
used in their manufacture. An interesting- 
department is the foundry, where tons of 
iron are each day poured into numerous 
molds, making - the countless forms of cast- 
ings which go to make up the various lines 
of work turned out by the firm. Only the 
best grade of pig iron is used and no scrap, 
which accounts for the perfect quality of all 
castings, a feature of work to which special 
attention has long- been devoted. In addi- 
tion to the above there is also a large brass 
foundry, where hundreds of red brass ingots 
are transformed into a complete line of brass 
goods, tubular well valves and fixtures, the 
department being under the supervision of a 
mechanic skilled in every line of such 

The galvanizing department is an inter- 
esting feature and is of great importance in 
the manufacture of windmills, towers, etc. 
The Flint & Walling Manufacturing Com- 
pany were among the first to establish an 
independent galvanizing plant in connection 
with the manufacture of windmills and ap- 
purtenances. Everything is galvanized af- 
ter completion. 

Two large kettles, containing thirty 
tons of pure zinc and aluminum, are oper- 
ated the year round, and all goods, before 
leaving the factory, are thoroughly coated 
with this amalgam, so as to protect them 
from the effects of the weather for a genera- 
tion. In the manufacture of pumps only 
leather of the firm's own tanning is used, 
as the ordinary leather tanned with steam 

and acids was long ago found unsatisfactory 
to the trade. 

An electric generator, driven by a mass- 
ive Corliss engine, generates power and 
lights for the entire factory. The power is 
transmitted to the different departments, 
where electric motors drive the machinery 
therein, each department being supplied with 
its own independent power. Four hundred 
incandescent and fifteen arc lights are scat- 
tered about the factory, furnishing daylight 
in darkness and enabling the men to work 
twenty-four hours a day when necessary. 
To operate it to its ordinary capacity the 
Flint & Walling plant requires the services 
of four hundred skilled mechanics every 
working day in the year, and yet the demand 
for the various products is so great that 
more than that number are at times em- 
ployed. The success of the enterprise dur- 
ing the past twenty years has bordered up< m 
the phenomenal and continued rapid in- 
crease in volume of business evidently por- 
tends a still further enlargement of the ca- 
pacity at no distant day. 

The better to supply the great and con- 
stantly increasing demand, the firm has 
established branch houses and wholesale 
agencies in a number of the great commer- 
cial centers of the United States, among 
which are Philadelphia, Penn. ; Columbus. 
Ohio; Indianapolis, Ind. ; Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa ; Kansas City, Mo. ; Fort Worth, Tex. ; 
San Francisco, Cal. ; Portland, Ore. ; Minne- 
apolis, Minn.: San Antonio. Tex.; and Xew 
York City, besides local agencies in nearly 
every country in Europe and several in the 
Orient. The influence of the enterprise, in- 
dustrially and commercially, upon the city 
of Kendallville is inestimable, while its effect 


is plainly felt in all sections of northern In- 
diana, being, as already stated, one of the 
largest and most important manufactories 
west of the Alleghany mountains. 

As may be readily inferred from the 
foregoing brief account of the plant and its 
extensive operations, Mr. Walling is a man 
of remarkable ability and superior judg- 
ment, whose enterprising spirit no difficul- 
ties can discourage. With tenacity of pur- 
pose as rare as it is admirable, he seems 
to possess the peculiar faculty of molding- 
circumstances to suit his ends than being 
affected by them. He is a man of great 
sagacity, is rarely mistaken in his judg- 
ment of men and things, and foresees with 
remarkable clearness future possibilities 
relative to his business interests and de- 
termines with a high degree of accuracy 
their probable bearing. In all transactions 
he has ever manifested scrupulous integrity 
and gentlemanly demeanor, and by reason 
of large success, unblemished character and 
just and liberal life he has nobly earned the 
universal esteem which he to-day enjoys. 

Without invidious distinction, Mr. Wall- 
ing is pre-eminently one of Indiana's most 
enterprising men. In every walk of life his 
aim has been to do his duty, and his friends 
feel justly proud of him as a high-minded, 
intelligent citizen and useful member of so- 
ciety. While giving personal attention to his 
large business enterprises and discharging 
conscientiously all the duties of citizenship, 
he finds time amid all these claims to devote 
to the higher duties growing out of man's 
relations to- his Creator. He subscribes to 
the Presbyterian creed, and for thirteen con- 
secutive years has been an elder in the First 
Presbyterian church at Kendallville; his life 

has been consistent with the faith he pos- 
sesses and for the support of the gospel and 
the promotion of all charitable and benevo- 
lent enterprises his means have been liber- 
ally though quietly dispensed. Believing 
from the outset that a good name is more 
to be desired than riches, and with no am- 
bition for official station, he has been gov- 
erned since youth by those fixed principles 
of honor and rectitude which stamp him 
to-day as an honest man, an exemplary citi- 
zen, an obliging neighbor and a kind and 
loving husband and father. 

■Mr. Walling's marriage was solemnized 
in Norwalk, Ohio, May 4, 1865, with Miss 
Frances Peters, daughter of Israel Peters, 
an early resident of that city. Mrs. Wall- 
ing was born in Mansfield, Ohio, but grew 
to maturity in Norwalk, where she first met 
the gentleman who afterward became her 
husband. Eight children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Walling, of whom the follow- 
ing are living: Luella; George, an employe 
of the Flint & Walling Manufacturing Com- 
pany; Walter, who is also connected with 
the same enterprise; and Grace, wife of 
Allen Martin, of Kendallville. Three chil- 
dren died in infancy, and a son, James Ar- 
thur, was called to the other life when a 
promising young man of twenty-three years. 

From the foregoing brief outline of a 
busy career, furnished with commendable 
modesty, many useful lessons may be 
drawn. Commencing the battle of life in 
comparatively humble circumstances, Mr. 
Walling has not only succeeded in remov- 
ing from his pathway every obstacle calcu- 
lated to impede his progress to the goal of 
success, and gained an eminent position in 
the business and industrial world, but he has 


also lived to become a power for good i;i 
the community where he dwells. Interested 
in all that is calculated to benefit his fellow- 
men, materially, educationally, morally and 
religiously, his influence has always been 
exerted in the right direction, and from 
what he has accomplished in the various 
avenues in which his talents have been ex- 
erted, it is easy to see that the world has 
been blessed and made better by his pres- 

In politics Mr. Walling is a Republican, 
and for nine consecutive years was a mem- 
ber of the school board of Kendallville. 


Few of the younger agriculturists of 
Orange township, Noble county, Inch, are 
as well-to-do as George Strater, the subject 
of this sketch, who is still rising, both in 
the scale of citizenship and that of his vo- 

John F. Strater. the father of George 
Strater. was born in Nordhofen, Germany, 
in May, 1825, and about 1839 came to 
America with his parents, who settled in 
Richland county, Ohio, where George at- 
tained his majority and was married. In 
185 1 he came to Noble count}-, Indiana, with 
his family, then consisting of a wife and two 
children, having married, in Richland coun- 
ty, Ohio, in 1849. Miss Anna M. Toubey, 
who was born in Germany, but who, when 
probably nine years old. came to America 
with her parents. 

Mr. and Mrs. Strater had born to them 
a family of twelve children, eleven of whom 
grew to maturity, viz : Catherine, win 1 is 
the wife of Samuel Lindsay, of Corunna, 
Inch: Mary, who is married to Ephraim Ac- 

ton, of Wayne township; Augustus, who 
died when two years old; Nettie, who i^ the 
wile "l" Nelson Chamblin. of Orange town 
ship; Laura; George; Martin, a farmer in 
Orange township; Lewis, a fanner in La- 
grange count}-; Minda, the wife of Walter 
Rhea, of Orange township; Emma is mar- 
ried to John Rhea, also of ( )range township; 
Albert is in the lumber business in 'Wiscon- 

The parents of this large family died in 
Orange township, the mother December 2, 
1892, and the father December jo, [896, 
the latter in his seventy-second year. 

George Strater, the subject proper of 
this sketch, was born in Orange township, 
Noble county, Ind., April 15. [858, was 
reared 011 the home farm and educated in 
the common schools. He assisted on the 
homestead until he became of age. when he 
went to Howard count}-. Ind.. where he was 
employed on a farm by an uncle for one 
year, and then returned to Orange township, 
Noble county, which has since been his 

The marriage of George Strater took 
place in Orange township on the 15th oi 
October, 1885, to Miss Jennie Ross, a na- 
tive of Orange township, born September 
15, ,1859, and a daughter of the late Will- 
iam Ross. In the fall of 1890 Mr. Strater 
settled on the farm where he still continues 
to reside, and which comprises ninety acres, 
and which he has improved with all neces- 
sary buildings and has placed in a most ex- 
cellent state of tillage. Here have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Strater three children, of 
whom the first born. Lulu, died when nearly 
five years of age; the survivors are named 
Norman R. and Dorothy 1.. and are remark- 
ably bright little ones. 



Mr. Strater is in politics a Democrat, 
and takes especial interest in public affairs, 
being a broad-minded and liberal citizen and 
ever ready to lend his aid, morally and finan- 
cially, to the advancement of such projects 
as promise to prove beneficial to the com- 
munity at large. He and his wife are mem- 
bers of the Brimfield Methodist Episcopal 
church, to the support of which they contrib- 
ute most freely, and to the precepts of which 
they faithfully adhere. In the social circles 
of Orange township Mr. and Mrs. Strater 
are among the most respected members. 

Mr. Strater traces his ancestry directly 
to the High Germans, and the original spell- 
ing of Strater was Stroeder. 


Although America, or, at least, that part 
of it now known as the United States, was 
colonized in the early days by English people, 
the tide of immig-ration now flowing in from 
Albion's Isle is not now nearly as great, in 
proportion, as that which reaches us from 
many of the other countries of Europe, yet 
we have occasionally a sturdy and intelligent 
native of England who decides to make 
America his permanent home, as was the 
case with the father of the subject of this 

Henry W. Edmonds, one of the skilled 
and prosperous farmers of Orange township, 
Noble county, Ind., who was born in this 
township, March 28, 1863, and is a son of 
John and Millie (Warren) Edmonds, the 
former of whom was born in Armbyshire, 
England, March 4, 1822, and the latter 
in Lansing, Mich., in 1834. John Ed- 

monds came to Noble county, Ind., in 
1853, and was married in Orange township 
to Miss Warren, and here he made his home 
until his untimely death, March 4, 1897, by 
an untoward railroad accident at Brimfield, 
Ind.. but had lost his wife in Orange 
township in the latter part of February, 
1888. To the marriage of these parents had 
been born four children, who were named, in 
the order of birth, as follows: Mary, who 
is now the wife of Judson Hardendorf, of 
Jefferson township; Edward, who died in in- 
fancy: Henry W.. the subject of this biog- 
raphy, and Laura, who died August 4, 1888. 

Henry W. Edmonds was reared to farm- 
ing in Orange township and educated in the 
common schools of his district. He married 
here, February 19, 1889, Miss Katie 
Grossman, who was born in Lancaster 
county, Penn., February 19, 1868, and is a 
daughter of Henry M. and Mary Jane ( Pow- 
ell) Grossman, of whom further information 
may be had by referring to the biography of 
Mr. Grossman on another page. Mrs. Ed- 
monds was reared in Orange township, how- 
ever, from the time she was three years old, 
and may therefore be looked upon almost as 
native born. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Edmonds has been crowned by the birth of 
two children, who have been christened: 
Forrest H., now in the sixth grade, and 
Cleland J., in the first grade in school at 
Brimfield, and who still live to cheer the 
hearts and home of the parents. 

Mr. Edmonds is a Republican in politics 
and is one who takes a great interest in local 
public affairs both as a party man and a citi- 
zen, but has never manifested any great de- 
sire for holding public office. He is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity, Lodge No. 
457, and he and wife are both members of 


the Order of the Eastern Star as well as the 
U. B. church at Rome City. Air- Edmonds' 
two uncles, Horace and George, were sol- 
diers in the Civil war. George had his leg- 
shot off at the battle of Mill Springs, 
Ky. Mr. Edmonds' relatives on the 
mother's side are heirs to a large estate in 
England. His grandfather, German War- 
ren, was a soldier in the war of 1812. 

Mr. Edmonds owns a fine farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres which he has im- 
proved with a tasty dwelling and commodi- 
ous and conveniently arranged outbuildings, 
and as a tiller of the soil has but few equals 
in Orange township, his skill in procuring 
profitable and abundant crops being equalled 
only by his taste and good management in 
giving to' the place an air of coziness and 
comfort delightful to look upon. 


Was bum April 17, 1824, in Genesee county. 
N. Y., and is a son of Leander B. Eagles, 
a native of the city of New York, and 
Lucy Prentiss, a native of Montgomery 
county, N. Y., who were married in Gen- 
esee county, settled there for a few years, 
and in 1837 moved to Sparta township, 
Noble county, Ind., and settled on a farm, 
where they remained until the death of Le- 
ander B., September, 1859. Lucy Eagles, 
his widow, died in 1877. To this union eight 
children were born, four of whom are still 
living: L. B. Eagles, Nathaniel P. Eagles 
(our subject), T. M. Eagles and Mrs. Z. A. 

Our subject was educated in the public 
schools of New York and Noble county, 

until fourteen years of age. He remained 
with his father until twenty-one years old, 
and then engaged in teaching during the 
winter and clearing land in the summer. 
This he continued to do for five years. On 
the 18th day of October, 1847, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Harriet Frink, an accomplished 
daughter of Nathan brink, an intelligent 
gentleman and an old settler of Noble county. 
After his marriage the subject of this -ketch 
commenced farming in Sparta township. No- 
ble county, and continued thereat until 1874, 
when he was elected sheriff of Noble county, 
as a Democrat. He was re-elected in 1876. 
During both terms of said office he resided 
in Albion, Ind. At the expiration of 
said terms he went back to Sparta township 
and farmed until about 1890, when he re- 
moved to Albion and engaged in the lumber 
business, in which he is still engaged and has 
been remarkably successful. 

Mr. Eagles' wife died November 14, 
1886. To this union eight children were 
horn: Marion: Alice, wife of D. P. Miller; 
Emma, wife of Robert Wiley : Eva V. : Har- 
riet E. : Edward P.. in business with our sub- 
ject; Albert A., dentist in Chicago; and 
Chester N., a resident of Albion. 

Our subject has always affiliated with the 
Democratic party, has held several offices of 
trust, and in every case has discharged the 
duties thereof with a strict fidelity to the in- 
terests of the people and to the entire satis- 
faction of all reasonable persons, without 
distinction of party. 

Notwithstanding Mr. Eagles has reached 
the age when to most aged person- "the 
grasshopper become- a burden." he yet takes 
an active part in business and still retains 
much of his former mental and physical 
vigor. I lis residence is commodious and 



tasty, and is furnished with all necessary 
comforts and conveniences ; and there he will 
probably spend the few remaining years of 
his long and useful life. Since the death of 
his lamented wife three of his amiable, intel- 
ligent, accomplished daughters have presided 
over his household affairs, and no pains are 
spared by them to make it an ideal home — a 
home where their aged, indulgent and idol- 
ized father may spend the remainder of his 
days in peace, with the assurance, "blessed 
assurance." of having to the last the genuine 
sympathy and hearty appreciation of those 
whose support, moral and intellectual train- 
ing as well as general welfare, had long to 
him been the chief source of anxiety, parental 
pride and pleasure. 


Conspicuous. "among the distinguished, 
physicians and surgeons of northern Indi- 
ana is the well-known and popular gentle- 
man whose name forms the caption of this 
article. Belonging to the younger genera- 
tion of professional men. he has already won 
the respect and esteem of all who know him. 
not alone by reason of the eminent ability 
displayed in his chosen calling but also by 
his candid mien, generous heart and free- 
dom from duplicity and deceit. He comes 
of a family of medical men. both his grand- 
father and father having gained much mop 
than local repute in the noble profession to 
which their lives and energies were devoted. 

Dr. Nathan Williams, grandfather of 
Dr. Warren S., was a native of Fayette 
county, Penn., where he grew to maturity 
in the country, having been thrown upon his 

own resources at a comparatively early age. 
After the death of his father, an early pio- 
neer of the count} - of Fayette, he hired out 
for two dollars per month as a farm laborer, 
and was thus employed until sixteen years 
old, meantime attending the old-fashioned 
subscription schools as opportunity would 
admit and devoting all of his spare moments 
to increasing his scholastic knowledge. Sub- 
sequently he worked for some time at cab- 
inetmaking. and then turned his attention 
to the medical profession, fur which he early 
manifested a decided preference. At the ex- 
piration of four years of professional study 
under the direction of competent instruct- 
ors, he was graduated from a school of 
medicine at Connellsville, Penn.. and imme- 
diately thereafter, in 1828. began the prac- 
tice in the eastern part of Ohio. From the 
above year to 1845 Dr. Nathan Williams 
followed various vocations in the Buckeye 
state and then located at Columbia City, 
Ind., where two years later he again re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. In 
1847 he returned to Ohio, and for a period 
of twenty years thereafter was actively en- 
gaged in his chosen calling in the town of 
Defiance. In July. 1865. he moved to Ken- 
clallville, Ind., where he did a large and 
remunerative professional business until his 
death, which occurred at the advanced age 
of eighty-two. He became one of the lead- 
ing medical men of northern Indiana, and 
for over fifty vears was an earnest and pious 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He was married in 1831 to Miss Lydia 
Eicher, of Pennsylvania, and reared two 
children, one of whom. Dr. Salathiel T. 
Williams, was for many years one of the 
most distinguished physicians and surgeons 
of Noble county. 


CtL^cs&^T^isi . 



Salathiel T. Williams was born in Mt. 
Gilead, Morrow county, Ohio, October 4, 

1836. He enjoyed superior educational ad- 
vantages in 'his youth, attended for some 
years a select school in Defiance, Ohio, and 
later entered upon the study of medicine in 
the office of his father He also received 
valuable instruction from Drs. Calby and 
Moss, eminent physicians of eastern Ohio, 
and in [858 was graduated from an eclec- 
tic medical institute of that state with high 
Honors. From [858 to 1863 he was asso- 
ciated with his father at Defiance, and in the 
latter year entered the United States serv- 
ice as surgeon, continuing in that capacity 
till 1865, during which period he had 
charge of Hospital No. 14, at Nashville, 

Returning to Ohio at the expiration of 
his period of service, the Doctor resumed 
his practice at Defiance, but did not long re- 
main there, removing to what he considered 
a more inviting field in Noble count}'. End. 
Selecting Kendallville as a place of resi- 
dence, he again effected a co-partnership 
with his father, and the two soon built up a 
very extensive and eminently successful 
practice, which continued until the death of 
the senior member dissolved the firm. 

Dr. Williams was united in marriage in 
the year 1858 to Miss Alary E. Lehman, of 
Defiance. Ohio, who bore him four chil- 
dren: Effie: Dr. Warren S. ; Minnie, wife 
of Edward S. Thomas, of Chicago; and 
Allie, who married A. R. Otis, a prominent 
druggist of Kendallville. 

As a physician and surgeon S. T. Will- 
iams took high rank, and for many years 
was considered as standing at the head of 
the profession in the county of Noble. He 
took an active interest in the deliberations 

of the Northeastern Indiana Medical Asso- 
ciation, of which he was a leading member. 
and for a number of years was surgeon for 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Kail- 
road, discharging the duties of the position 
until the office was abolished in 1879. He 
was also surgeon of the Railway Hospital 
Association of Toledo, and at one time 
served as pension examining surgeon for the 
government, with headquarters at Kendall- 
ville from the time they were established un- 
til his death, except during Cleveland's ad- 

Dr. Williams was a prominent and en- 
thusiastic Mason, having held every office 
within the gift of the local lodge to which 
be belonged, besides being called at differ- 
ent times to high stations in the fraternity 
throughout the state, lie took a number of 
degrees, including that of Sir Knight, and 
in 1879 was honored by being elected grand 
commander for the state of Indiana. Al- 
ways interested in politics, he could never 
be induced to accept office at the hands of 
his fellow-citizens, although frequently im- 
portuned to permit his name to go before 
conventions for high and worth}- positions. 
Upon one occasion he was nominated by the 
Republican party for the Legislature, but 
politely declined the proffered honor, pre- 
ferring to devote his entire time and atten- 
tion to the claims of his profession. 

After a long and active career, devoted 
to the wants of suffering humanity, he died 
on the 30th day of April. [892. His widow 
survived him until [895, in June of which 
year, mi the 26th day. she. ton. was called 
to the other life. 

Mr. Warren S. Williams was born Janu- 
ary 1, 1802, in Defiance county, Ohio, and 
when old enough he entered the schools of 

1 86 


tne city of Kendallville and pursued his stud- 
ies until completing the prescribed course, 
graduating from the high school with the 
class of 1882. Determined to devote his life 
to the profession which his father had so 
successfully prosecuted before him, young 
Warren, as soon as he left school, began the 
study of medicine under the careful direc- 
tion of the elder Williams, and in due time 
entered the medical department of the West- 
ern Reserve University. Here he prosecuted 
his studies with commendable zeal, making 
a splendid record as a student of the stand- 
ard authors and also by reason of original 
investigation in various lines of the profes- 
sion. After his graduation from the above 
institution in 1884, the Doctor began the 
practice in Kendallville with his father, and 
continued the partnership until the latter's 
death, since which time he has maintained 
an office of his own. 

Bringing to his life work a mind thor- 
oughly disciplined by severe professional 
training. Dr. Williams was not long in 
building up a large and remunerative prac- 
tice, and by his skill in the treatment of dis- 
eases which had formerly baffled the knowl- 
edge of old and experienced medical men he 
soon won much more than a local reputa- 
tion. Although a young man, he is consid- 
ered not only one of the most thoroughly 
informed physicians in Noble county, but 
as a practitioner, familiar with the nature 
of prevalent diseases and the ability to apply 
successfully his wide and varied knowledge 
in their treatment, he easily ranks with the 
eminent men of his profession in the north- 
ern part of the state. He has an extensive 
office practice, besides visiting the majority 
of the best homes in a large farming Com- 
munity contiguous to the city, throughout 

which his abilities are recognized and duly 
appreciated. As a family physician he pos- 
sesses strong character, is warm-hearted and 
generous in his sympathies, and seldom, if 
ever, fails to win the confidence of his pa- 
tients — one of the first prerequisites to suc- 
cessful treatment. Always calm and self- 
possessed in the sick-room, he impresses 
anxious friends with his ability and con- 
scious fidelity, and the marked degree with 
which he arouses the love and gratitude of 
those under his charge mark him as thor- 
ough master of the situation, however grave, 
or critical. As a surgeon he has exhibited 
special ability, having been remarkably suc- 
cessful in this important branch of the pro- 
fession. Although a skillful operator, he 
never uses the knife unless convinced that it 
is the »nly means of prolonging life or pre- 
serving some important member of the 
body. His practice has been eminently sat- 
isfactory professionally and financially and 
ins standing as one of the leading men of 
his calling in a city known for a high order 
of medical talent has for some time been 
fully assured. 

Dr. Williams is a student and aims to 
keep himself coversant with the leading pro- 
fessional thought of the day. Familiar with 
the latest ideas of the worlds's great minds, 
he delights to exchange opinions with his 
professional brethren, in addition to which 
much of his leisure is devoted to research 
and scientific investigation. He has a well- 
equipped office and uses in his practice only 
the latest and most approved devices and ap- 
pliances. The Doctor is a member of the 
American Medical Association, the Indiana 
State Medical Society and the Medical So- 
ciety of Noble county, in all of which he- 
manifests a lively interest, not infrequently 


taking an active part in their discussions and 

Additional to the claims of his profes- 
sion, the Doctor is also a public-spirited 
man, keenly alive to everything- that bene- 
fits his city and county and foremost in all 
reforms for alleviating- the condition of the 
people. For eight years he served as mem- 
ber of the city council, (luring which time 
he stood boldly for all necessary improve- 
ments and proved a faithful and valuable 
public servant in many ways. Fraternallv 
lie is a Mason of high standing, belonging 
to the lodge meeting in Kendallville. also 
to Chapter No. 64, R. A. M. For some 
years he has been an active worker in the 
Order of Maccabees, and at the present time 
his name adorns the records of the local 
lodges of Ben Hur and the National Union, 
fraternal insurance organizations. 

Dr. Williams is a married man and has 
a beautiful home in Kendallville. where he 
dispenses a genuine and refined hospitali*v 
to his many friends and associates. His 
marriage was solemnized October 20, 1886, 
in Hickville. Ohio, with Miss Jennie Otis, 
sister of Amos Ray Otis and daughter of 
the late E. D. Otis, a prominent citizen of 
that town. Airs. W. S. Williams was born 
near the city of Worcester. Ohio, September 
ig, 1865, and has presented her husband 
with three children, namely: Harold O., Lu- 
cille and Anna. 

james e. Mcdonald, 

Editor of the Ligonier Banner and president 
of the Indiana state board of agriculture, 
is a native of Columbia Citv, Whitley coun- 

ty, Ind., was born September 9. 1855, 
and is the eldest son of Colonel I. 1!. McDon- 
ald, one of the best-known citizens of north- 
ern Indiana, whose gallantry as a soldier and 
whose love of country are proverbial and are 
as household words throughout the Hoosier 
state and even far beyond its boundaries. 

James E. McDonald was educated in the 
common schools of Whitley county, in which 
he qualified himself for the profession of 
teaching, a vocation in which he later met 
with much success in Whitley county and 
elsewhere, but which profession he relin- 
quished in 1 88 1. he being then principal of 
the Columbia City high school, to engage, in 
partnership with Hon. John B. Stoll, in the 
publication of the Ligonier Banner, then, as 
now, one of the leading Democratic organs 
of the state, and in the conduct of which he 
has manifested unusual ability and demon- 
strated the fact that he has made no mistake 
in his choice of a business pursuit. 

In 1886 Mr. McDonald was appointed 
postmaster of Ligonier by President Cleve- 
land, and so ably did he perform the duties 
of this office that he retained the position 
through the usual term of four years and 
continued to hold it two years longer under 
a Republican administration, thus earning 
for himself a reputation for administrative 
ability seldom achieved and never surpassed 
by a predecessor in the office. 

In 1892 Mr. McDonald was nominated 
for joint senator for the counties of Noble 
and Dekalb, and at the ensuing election tri- 
umphantly carried the polls. Two years 
later Mr. McDonald was elected a member 
of the Indiana state board of agriculture, and 
is now the president of that body. 

In October, 1899, at a meeting of the 
grand lodge of Indiana, Knights of Pythias, 
Mr. McDonald was elected grand chancellor,. 


which high office he has filled with honor to 
himself as well as to the credit of the order. 

Mr. McDonald is one of the best-known 
men in the state and his name has frequently 
been favorably mentioned in connection with 
some of the most important official position 
within the gift of his party, as his past serv- 
ice and faithful support of its principles cer- 
tainly deserve recognition at its hands. 

James E. McDonald was most happily 
united in marriage, in 1879, with Miss 
Laura A. Brand, of Columbia City, and this 
union has been crowned by the birth of three 
children — two girls and a boy — the latter 
being named James E. McDonald. Jr. So- 
cially the McDonald family stand among the 
foremost people of Ligonier. 


James M. Denny, lawyer of Albion, No- 
ble county. Ind.. was 'born October 29, 
1827, in Eaton, Preble county, Ohio. His 
parents, John and Alary ( McConnell) Den- 
ny, were natives respectively of Virginia and 
Pennsylvania. His father was of Scotch- 
Irish extraction, his ancestors emigrating 
from Scotland sometime prior to the war of 
1776 and settling in Pennsylvania. Walter 
Denny, grandfather of James, was a soldier 
in the Revolutionary war and fought for our 
national independence, serving in General 
Washington's army until the close of the 
conflict. His father was elected associate 
judge of the circuit court of Preble county, 
Ohio, serving for several years. When 
James M. was five years of age they removed 
from Ohio to Indiana, locating in Eden 
township, Lagrange count}-, on what is 

known as the Haw-patch, a tract of exceed- 
ing value and productiveness. He was kept 

j at work as a boy assisting in clearing and 
improving the farm. When out of school he 

1 was given by bis parents all the educational 
advantages so new a country afforded, and 
also given those of the better grades of 
schools elsewhere, including academies of 
good repute, so that at the age of eighteen be 
was the master of a thorough academic edu- 
cation. When he closed his days as a pupil 
and, Yankee like, saw greatness in being a 

j schoolmaster, he sought such a situation and 
continued teaching for four terms. Being a 
natural student he pursued his studies at all 
leisure times with diligence and energy. His 
industry and manifest interest in the ad- 
vancement of his pupils demonstrated adap- 
tation to the calling and secured the com- 
mendation of parents and the confidence and 
esteem of his pupils. In 1849 ne entered as 
a student of law the office of William M. 

j Clapp, of Albion, under whose instruction 
he read for about two years, when he entered 
the legal department of the State and Na- 
tional Law Sschool at Ballston Springs, N. 

1 Y., from which, at the end of the term, he 
graduated with honor, receiving his parch- 
ment August 11, 1852. 

Pie returned to Albion. Ind., and be- 
gan the practice of his profession, which he 
pursued with gratifying prospects of suc- 
cess; but close application produced failing 
health and compelled him to limit himself to 
the amount of business in his calling that a 
well directed prudence would justify. He 
has also given much time and study in the 
pursuit of science and literature, as well as 
much labor in the preparation and delivery 
of lectures, orations, essays and addresses on 
many subjects of interest to the people. As 


a speaker he is clear, forcible and convinc- 
ing. His popularity as such is more than 
local. He has for years been a liberal and 
frequent contributor to the papers and peri- 
odicals of the day. As a writer he is ready, 
terse, logical and comprehensive. His prop- 
ositions are always clearly defined and ener- 
getically and intelligently defended. Mr. 
Demi}- is a man of extensive reading, close 
and careful observation, and deep and 
thoughtful reflection, which give to his liter- 
ary productions both argument and beauty. 
Air. Denny is a Royal Arch Mason, and 
his pen is ready and fearless in the defense 
and support of the usages and principles of 
the order. We have been especially impressed 
by the perusal of the lecture entitled, 
"Charles Sumner as an Example to Young 
Men." Its truthfulness and elegance are es- 
pecially worthy of notice. His lecture on 
"Sabbath-school Workers," delivered at a 
Sabbath-school convention a,t Kendallville, 
Ind., and many others of bis efforts that 
have fallen under our notice, are full of 
merit. Mr. Denny is a man of strong brain 
power, and like all men of positive character 
reads, thinks and acts for himself and on his 
own convictions. Although of quick percep- 
tions he usually arrives at conclusions only 
after due reflection: but when once settled 
upon any belief his ideas are shaken only by 
the most convincing proofs. Any position 
he may have espoused, political, religious or 
otherwise, finds in him an able and fearless 
advocate and defender. In short, for him to 
believe is % to know. He was trained in the 
Democratic school of politics and has always 
been an active and influential adherent of 
that party. While he is zealous in the sup- 
port of its men and measures, and liberal in 
his contributions of both time and money in 

its necessities, he is not a politician nor an 
aspirant for office. He has held positions 
of honor and trust, but not from bis own 
seeking. He was elected by his party, in 
1S59. treasurer of Noble county, and re- 
elected to the same position in [86l; and 
each time by a vote largely exceeding the 
regular party strength. In the discbarge of 
the duties of his office he was courteous and 
conscientious, commanding the confidence 
and respect of his constituents. Mr. Denny 
is orthodox in his religious convictions and 
believes it is not only man's first duty but 
his greatest privilege to worship his ( 'rcat< t ; 
but, not having been able to accept all of the 
usages and dogmas of any church, has kept 
himself aloof from membership. He is a 
regular attendant of, and liberal contributor 
to, the Presbyterian church of Albion, of 
which his wife is a member. 

He was married, January 1, [856, to 
Hiss Frances J. Plumstead, eldest daughter 
of Rev. J. B. Plumstead, of Portage City, 
Wis., who died September 9, [866, leav- 
ing two sons. The elder, Watts P., born 
September 14. 1857, is now in his twenty- 
third year and is filling his second term at 
Rome City school; the younger. James Orr 
Denny, born August 20, 1862, is in his sev- 
enteenth year and is successfully conducting 
a district school. The sons have partaken 
largely of the parents' adaptability and love 
of school-teaching, which promises for them 
a brilliant future. Mr. Denny was again 
married, September 10, 1868. on that occa- 
sion leading to the altar Miss Julia A. Kib- 
linger. of Albion. In private life, Mr. Denny 
is a courteous and genial gentleman. His 
domestic habits are strong, and his purity of 
devotion to those obligations secures the love 
ami confidence of his family and friends. 



His honorable dealings with men commands < 
the respect and esteem of all who know him. 
His friendships are firm and enduring. His 
character is above reproach and his position 
is assured as a citizen and as a man. 

By consent of the subject — the above : 
sketch published in a work entitled, "Ameri- ' 
•can Biographical History of Eminent and 
Self-made Men of the State of Indiana," — 
the writer adopts said sketch, correcting one 
or two errors therein, and will content him- 
self by supplying a few omissions and add- 
ing a few observations which the lapse of 
twenty years seems to call for. 

Mr. Denny is still a resident of said town 
of Albion, Ind., and still employs much 
of his time in further familiarizing himself 
with choice literature, in making occasional 
public addresses, and furnishing a few arti- 
cles to the press. His second wife is still 
mistress of their happy home. The elder of 
the above named sons, Watts P. Denny, for 
the past twelve years has been engaged in 
the practice of law in the city of Fort Wayne, 
Ind. About four years ago he and Judge 
A. A. Chapin, a very able lawyer, be- 
came partners in the practice of law under 
the firm name of Chapin & Denny, and with 
the well-known sterling integrity, good busi- 
ness qualifications, thorough knowledge of 
the law, fine social qualities, and fine literary 
attainments of each, they have succeeded in 
acquiring a large and lucrative practice. 
The}- make a specialty of patent law. Watts 
P. Denny married Miss Anna Lake, of Rome 
City, Ind., an estimable lady, and to their 
union were born two children ; the elder, 
Watts Lake, a bright intellectual child, died 
at the age of two years ; and the younger, 
Helen, a bright promising little girl of ten 
years, still lives to bless the household. The 

second son, James Orr Denny, immediately 
after the death of his mother, went to live 
with his maternal grandparents at Portage 
City, Wisconsin, and remained with them 
eight years, and while there, and afterward, 
acquired a good academical education, and 
gratified his strong desire for knowledge by 
spending much time in the perusal of works, 
of biography, history and choice literature. 
Being blest with a retentive memory he suc- 
ceeded in acquiring a large fund of valuable 
information which he has since turned to 
good account. For the past eighteen years 
he has been connected with some of the ablest 
metropolitan newspapers of the west, a part 
of the time as reporter and sometimes as 
member of the editorial staffs thereof. For 
three years he wrote for the Pioneer Press, 
and for eighteen months for the Daily Globe, 
both of St. Paul, Minn. The climate 
proving too rigid he went to Oakland, 
Cal., ami immediately procured the respon- 
sible position of city editor of the Oakland 
Times. At the end of one year" he was in- 
duced to resign and accept the position of 
reporter of the San Francisco Daily Chron- 
icle, which he held for eight years ; and after- 
ward he spent some years writing for other 
papers whose names the writer cannot now 
give. For several years past he has been, 
and still is, writing for the San Francisco 
Daily Call. He has frequently had tempting- 
offers of the editorship of able journals in 
other cities, but preferred to remain at San 
Francisco. While the writer does not wish 
to deal in fulsome eulogy and. in "strained 
panegyric," still from said James Orr Den- 
ny's long connection with the very able jour- 
nals above named, and from a careful perusal 
of some of his contributions to their columns. 

as well as from information derived from 


other reliable sources, he feels warranted in 
pronouncing him a highly cultured gentle- 
man ; an able, brilliant writer, whose early 
display of courage, industry, perseverance. 
and literary taste has enabled him to equip 
himself for the high and honorable position 
he now occupies in the ranks of able writers, 
whose productions fill the columns of some 
of the ablest journals of the country. 


For a number of years classed with the 
able financiers of northern Indiana and at the 
present time the efficient cashier of the No- 
ble County Bank, the subject of this sketch is 
deserving of especial mention as one of the 
safe, reliable and progressive business men of 
the thriving city of Kendallville. Mr. Jacobs 
is a native of this city and dates his birth 
from the 8th clay of February, 1864, his 
father being Moses Jacobs, one of the sub- 
stantial pioneers of this section of Noble 
county. His boyhood days, to his eighth 
year, were spent amid the familiar scenes of 
his birth, after which time he was taken by 
his parents to Europe, where be remained 
until 1882. Previous to going abroad, he 
attended the primary department of the Ken- 
dallville public schools, and while in Ger- 
many took a course in the gymnasium at 
Darmstadt, where he received thorough in- 
struction in many branches, including a 
rigid physical training, by means of which 
his bodily powers were greatly developed 
and strengthened. Returning to the United 
States in 1882, Mr. Jacobs entered Bryant & 
Stratton's Business College of Chicago, 
where he completed a full commercial course, 

immediately following which he accepted the 
position of bookkeeper with the firm of J. 
Keller & C>., Kendallville, with whom he 
continued until the organization of the Noble 
County Bank, when he was induced to be- 
come a director of the bank ami its cashier. 
He is still connected with J. Keller & Co., 
but devotes the greater part of his time and 
attention to his duties in the bank, where his 
services are thoroughly performed and great- 
ly appreciated by the management of the in- 
stitution. Mr. Jacobs possesses clerical abil- 
ities of a high order and as a bookkeeper and 
skillful accountant, familiar with every de- 
tail of commercial business and banking, has 
few equals and no superiors in northern In- 
diana. With a knowledge of finance both 
general and profound, he has made a special 
study of monetary questions and his judg- 
ment seldom errs in matters of business com- 
ing within his sphere. His is a notable ex- 
ample of those sound and correct principles 
which invariably secure success, while his 
genial traits of character and superior intel- 
ligence are such as to retain public confidence 
and esteem. From his long experience in 
financial and commercial affairs his opinions 
received much consideration, while his ideas 
relative to all matters of business policy have 
alwavs had great weight in business and in- 
dustrial circles. 

Mr. Jacobs married. October 23, [889, 
Miss Nannette Keller, daughter of Jacob 
Keller, of Kendallville. a union blessed with 
two children, Rosalie M. and Milton K. 
Mrs. Jacobs was burn in Kendallville. July 
II, 1867, and is one of the intelligent women 
of the city and a favorite in its best social 
circles. She combines in a marked degree 
those faculties, mental and physical, which 
constitute excellence of character, and with 


a heart overflowing with the kindest feelings 
for humanity, she has become deservedly 
popular with a large number of friends in 
Kendallville and elsewhere. 

Mr. Jacobs was a member of the city 
council for several terms, and as such sup- 
ported whatever tended to improve the place 
and add to its beauty and attractiveness. A 
faithful and conscientious public servant, he 
discharged worthily every trust reposed in 
him by his fellow citizens and proved himself 
eminently fitted for the duties that have come 
to him as a custodian of the people's inter- 

Mr. Jacobs ranks among the most intelli- 
gent and level-headed men of the city of his 
residence and in every relation of life has 
made a reputation for probity and correct 
conduct that has become proverbial. His 
impulses, always earnest and generous, are 
invariably in the right direction and the en- 
couraging success with which he has met is 
mainly due to his industry and fidelity and 
to the high professional courtesy character- 
istic of the well-bred, broad-minded gentle- 
man. For a number of years he has been 
actively identified with the Masonic brother- 
hood, being at the present time one of the 
leading members of Lodge No. 276, of Ken- 
dallville, of which he is the treasurer. 

Mr. Jacobs possesses great force of char- 
acter and a pleasing personality, which, com- 
bined with fine social qualities and superior 
executive ability, make him not only a useful 
man in the community but popular with all 
classes and conditions of people. In private 
life he is quiet and unobtrusive in demeanor, 
but within the precincts of his pleasant home, 
surrounded by his loved ones, he is the soul 
of hospitality and genial good fellowship. 
Warm hearted and affable, pleasing in ad- 
dress, he numbers his friends by the score, 

and the high position which he has reached 
in the business and social world is indicative 
of the still greater and more influential career 
that awaits him in the future. 


Hon. James Roscoe, of York township, 
Noble county, Ind., a native of Essex coun- 
ty. N. Y., was born in Elizabethtown. Sep- 
tember 11, 1833. His father, Levi Roscoe, 
was born in the same county. June 10, 18 10, 
find his mother. Eliza ( Stockwell ) Roscoe, 
was born in Essex count}-, Mass., July 14, 
1 81 2. These parents removed from Essex 
county, N. Y., to Huron county, Ohio, in 
1833, an( l tw P years later to Erie county, 
in the same state, settling in Milan, where 
the father died when sixty-four years old 
and the mother at eighty-one. Simeon Ros- 
coe, father of Levi, was of English descent, 
and died in Essex count}-, N. Y., after he 
had attained bis eightieth year ; and Elisha 
Stockwell, father of Mrs. Eliza Roscoe, was 
a native of Massachusetts, of Scotch ex- 
traction, and died in Livingston county, 
Mich., when eighty-four years old. 

Levi and Eliza Roscoe had born to them 
; a family of seven sons and one daughter, of 
' whom Hon. James Roscoe was the eldest. 
\ James was but an infant when his parents 
: settled in Erie count}-, Ohio, and there at- 
tended school at Milan and was reared to 
the carpenter's and millwright' trade, as 
well as shipbuilding, and at these, as well as 
other mechanical trades of a similar char- 
acter, he worked until April, 1861, when, 
with his wife and child in an ox-team, he 
walked the entire distance from Erie county, 




Bb i OB 

^y^ 1 - Y^b^yyTjQJ , 



&^i e~&<-. 



Ohio, tu Greene township. Noble county, 
Jnd.. where he resided two years. He then 
came to York township and settled in sec- 
tion 36, where he now owns five hundred 
and fifty-five acres of good farm land. His 
Home farm of two hundred and eighty acres 
he cleared, stoned and tiled, and erected upon 
it a fine set of elegant and commodious 
buildings, and here he has since made his 

The marriage of the Hon. James Ros- 
coe took place in Milan. Ohio, March 25. 
1S57, to Miss Aley N. Barr, who was horn 
in Genesee county, N. Y., October 29, 1826. 
Her father. Rufus Barr. a native of New 
York City, was born March 12, 1783, and 
died in Noble county. Ind., December 19, 
1869; her mother, Esther (Stockwell) 
Barr. was born in Massachusetts, June 20. 
1803, and died in Niagara, N. Y., October 
14, 1835. Of their family of two sons and 
two daughters, Mrs. Roscoe was the second 
born. To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. 
Roscoe have been born three children, viz : 
Nelson, who was born July 2, 1858, and 
died in York township, Noble county. 
March 25, 1888. He was married Decem- 
ber 25, 1886, to Miss Celia Clark, a daugh- 
ter of Patrick Clark, of Noble township. 
and to them was horn one child — Nelson J. 
C. Roscoe, a bright young man. who grad- 
uated this year from the high school; he 
is the heir to our subject. Arvilla was called 
away when hut two years of age; and Ed- 
gar, who lived but nine months. 

In politics Mr. Roscoe is a solid Demo- 
crat. He has been very active in his work 
for the party, and has served it well, on 
and off the rostrum and in promoting its 
success at the polls. He is very popular 
with the rank and file of Democrats, and has 

served them in various official positions, in- 
cluding those of justice of the peace in York 
township for a term of four years, and in 
1890 was elected to the Indiana state legis- 
lature; in 1891 he was appointed a ditch 
commissioner. Fraternally he stands very 
high as a Mason, having been raised to the 
thirty-second degree. 

Mr. Roscoe has planted four hundred 
and fifty evergreens around his elegant resi- 
dence, and his estate is well known as the 
Evergreen Farm. He takes much interest 
in breeding live stock, especially Aberdeen 
Angus cattle, and has a herd of sixty head 
in excellent condition. He has expended 
much time and money in promoting the 

drainage of the land in his neighborh 1. 

thus rendering it susceptible of profitable cul- 
tivation, and in many ways has exhibited 
a public spirit and desire for the general 
weal that has marked him as a man of broad 
and enlightened ideas and won for him the 
lasting gratitude of his fellow-citizens. It 
is seldom, indeed, that a community is 
blessed with a member who at once pos- 
sesses an intellect so intuitively comprehen- 
sive and acute as almost instantly to grasp 
an idea that will conceive of the needs and 
find a fitting and speedy remedy for the ills 
that at times pervade the region in which he 
lives: but York township is an exception in 
this respect, as it holds in the person of Mr. 
Roscoe one who is ever prompt to grasp the 
true condition of affairs and to act accord- 
ingly. His presence is a stimulus to hi - 
neighbors ami acts as an excitant when work 
is to be done for the public good; and the 
full force of hisgenius and wisdom is never 
taxed to its utmost, as there is always left 
a latent < r reserve power that may be utilized 
when drastic measures become necessarv. 




This gentleman js a prominent merchant 
of Brimfield, Ind., and also the genial and 
accommodating postmaster of that village. 
He was born in Port Mitchell, Ind., March 
21, 1842, and is a son of John and Eliza 
(Becker) McMeans — the father a native of 
Pennsylvania and the mother of Ohio. 
They came to Noble county, Ind., from 
Montgomery county, Ohio, some time dur- 
ing the '30s and settled at Port Mitchell, 
where they lived for several years. They 
afterwards lived in Greene township for a 
time, but later returned to Port Mitchell, 
where John McMeans was appointed coun- 
ty treasurer to fill out an unexpired term. 
The success of his administration was such 
that he was elected to the office at the next 
tegular election and re-elected at the ex- 
piration of his term, serving over two terms 
in a highly satisfactory manner. They died 
in Albion at advanced ages, the father being 
eighty-four and the mother between seventy 
and eigthy. They were the parents of eight 
children, six sons and two daughters. 

Caleb W. McMeans was reared to man- 
hood in Noble county, Ind., and there 
learned the trade of a tinner. He entered 
this business at Albion during the winter 
of 1S59-60, and then went to Fort Wayne, 
where he finished the trade and followed it 
in different places. About this time, July 
10, 180 1, Mr. McMeans enlisted in Com- 
pany G, Nineteenth Indiana Volunteer Reg- 
iment, and served as a soldier in putting 
down the Rebellion for live months, when 
he was discharged on account of disability. 
Returning to his home, Mr. McMeans once 
more took up his trade and in 1867 located 
at Brimfield, opening a store, which has 

grown to quite respectable proportions and 
meets all the requirements of the public. He 
has built up a large patronage by his honest 
dealings and his patrons know that he tries 
to meet their wants with honest prices and 
honest goods. Accommodating and affable 
at all times, he is popular with all classes, 
and it was with unfeigned satisfaction that 
his many friends heard that he had been 
appointed to the position of postmaster on 
May 1, 1898. He assumed the duties of 
that office on the first of the following July 
and has continued to treat the patrons of 
the office with the best of service and con- 
scientious regard for their convenience. 

Mr. McMeans was joined in marriage 
October 15, 1867, to Miss Ann E. Seely, 
daughter of Hon. Ephraim Seely, who was 
formerly associate judge of Lagrange coun- 
ty, where she was born in 1837. She is the 
mother of one son, John E. Mr. McMeans 
is one of the public-spirited citizens of 
Brimfield and is never tired of advancing 
the best interests of the community. The 
enterprising, pushing business man is the 
one who keeps himself and his town promi- 
nently before the public, helping the munic- 
ipality while he is extending his own busi- 
ness by showing to others that he lives in 
a thriving and wide-awake settlement. Such 
a man brings large numbers of shoppers to 
our streets by his wise and upright methods 
in business. He is a member of Nelson Post, 
G. A. R., of Kendallville, and is also promi- 
nent in Masonic circles. He was made a 
Mason in Albion Lodge, No. 97, in 1867, 
and at present a member of F. & A. M. 
Lodge, No. 276. at Kendallville; also of 
Chapter No. 64, Council Apollo Com- 
mandery, No. 19, the Consistory at Indi- 
anapolis, and is a Shriner. 




Ever since the days of old Hippocrates, 
the Greek, and Galen, the Roman, the most 
ancient doctors of medicine of whom history 
gives any authentic record, physicians have 
felt the need of reliable assistants in the per- 
sons of competent apothecaries and drug- 
gists, and the more learned the physicians, 
the more skillful does he desire his vade me- 
cum to he in his especial art, and this is but 
a reasonable requirement, as it has often 
times been the case that a well-informed 
druggist or pharmaceutist has discovered in- 
gredients in compounding medicines that 
might prove fatal to the partaker thereof. 
said ingredients having been unwittingly in- 
troduced into a hastily written prescription, 
which the druggist has been called upon with 
'equal haste to compound. Therefore a phar- 
macist should be as well posted in his art as 
the physician in his science. 

Amos Ray Otis, the well-known drug- 
gist at Kendallville, Noble count v, Ind., 
was born at Dalton, Wayne county, Ohio, 
August 31, 1868, and passed the first ten 
y-ears of his life in his native town, when the 
family removed to Hicksville, Defiance coun- 
ty, in the same state, where he lived for 
eleven years. 

Mr. Otis received a common school edu- 
cation, and at the age of fifteen years was 
employed as a clerk in a drug store at Hicks- 
ville. in which employ he continued for five 
years, and was then engaged in a similar 
store at Defiance, Ohio, for one year. By 
this time he had become so well acquainted 
with the pharmaceutical art and was so well 
pleased with it that he decided to make it his 
life pursuit, and therefore entered the Phila- 

delphia College of Pharmacy, where he dili- 
gently studied for one year, adding mater- 
ially to his knowledge of the art, and then 
accepted a position in a large drug estab- 
lishment in the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
filled the situation one year, and then came 
to Kendallville, Ind., where for two years 
he was in the employ of G. H. Lohman. 

In 1894 Mr. Otis came to the conclusion 
that he had long enough given to others the 
advantages to be derived from his knowledge 
of and skill in pharmacy and determined to 
start in business on his own account. Ac- 
cordingly he fitted up one of the finest drug 
stores to be seen in northeastern Indiana, 
and Kendallville has good reason to boast of 
this elegant establishment, which is well 
stocked with pure drugs as a pre-requisite of 
the business, together with every proprietary 
medicine of tested value known to the trade. 
Beside these, he carries one of the best select- 
ed stocks of toilet and fancy articles of in- 
trinsic merit that can be found in any similar 
establishment in any part of the state, even 
in the most pretentious stores of the large 
cities. As Mr. Otis is personally very affable 
and accommodating and ever willing to 
oblige the most fastidious of those who pat- 
ronize him, his trade has grown to a volume 
that is a surprise to all competiti >rs, and is, 1 if 
course, a matter of gratification to himself 
as well as to his numerous friends. Outside 
of his unquestioned familiarity with his busi- 
ness proper, Mr. ( his is a business man in a 
general sense, and stands in the front rank of 
Kendallville's best merchants. 

Amos R. Otis was most congenially unit- 
ed in marriage at Kendallville, Ind., Feb- 
ruary 1, 1893, with Miss Allie Williams, a 
native of the city and a daughter of the late 

. 9 6 


Salathiel Williams, formerly one of Kendall- 
ville's most prominent citizens. This union 
has been blessed with one child — Warren W. 

Mr. Otis is a popular and prominent 
member of the Kendallville lodge, No. 276, 
F. & A. M., and of Chapter No. 64, and that 
he is a young- man of exceptionally good 
business qualifications is shown by the fact 
that he is secretary of the Noble County 
Loan & Savings Association. The fact is 
also proven by his successful career as a busi- 
ness man, as his capital on starting in trade 
on his own account was chiefly his accurate 
knowledge of his vocation. He and wife are 
members of the Presbyterian church, and he 
liberally contributes his share towards lubri- 
cating the machinery necessary to the easy 
running of church work. 

Although Air. Otis is a public-spirited 
citizen and ever ready to subscribe freely to 
all worthy projects calculated to promote the 
public good, he has taken no particularly 
active part in politics, yet his proclivities are 
with the Democratic party. 

Mr. and Mrs. Otis are great favorites in 
the social circles of Kendallville, owing 
chiefly to' their naturally genial dispositions 
and their various accomplishments, as well 
as their vivacity and pleasing personal graces 
and intrinsic intellectual merits. 


An enterprising agriculturist of Orange 
township. Noble county, Ind., was born 
in Brimfield. Mass.. January 31, 1846, 
is a son of William and Fanny M. 
(Vincent) Bliss, and a grandson of Timothy 
and Margaret (McDonald) Bliss and Dr. J. 
H. and Lucinda (Overton) Vincent. 

The paternal grandfather, Timothy 
Bliss, was born in Brimfield, Mass., 
November 4, 1783, and died in the same lo- 
cality, December 31, 1862. His wife, Mar- 
garet McDonald, was born in Herkimer 
county, X. Y., and died in Brimfield, 
June 6. 1838, in her thirty-sixth year. They 
were the parents of four children, Aaron, 
William. Timothy and Margaret. 

William Bliss was born in Brimfield, 
Mass., October 2y, 181 6. and there 
grew to manhood. He was a farmer by oc- 
cupation, but in 1837 went to Chagrin Falls, 
Ohio, and was employed by his brother, 
I Aaron, who was operating a woolen mill. 
William Bliss traveled extensively through 
Indiana for several years, buying wool for 
this factory, and so well was he impressed 
with the resources of the state that in 1857 
he moved his family to Lagrange county, 
Ind., and for two years operated a wool- 
en mill at Rome City. He then moved to 
Noble county, and located in Orange town- 
ship, on the plat of land which is the present 
site of Brimfield and which he named in 
honor of the town of that name in Massa- 
chusetts, from which he originally came. 
Brimfield. Ind., received its name Octo- 
ber 2^, i860. Mr. Bliss has been a promi- 
nent farmer during his active working days 
and set a worthy example of industry for the 
younger generations to follow. 

He was married in Chagrin Falls, Ohio, 
September 16, 1841, to Miss Fanny M. Vin- 
cent. She was born in Herkimer county, 
X. Y., July r8, 1824. ami is a daughter 
of Dr. J. H. Vincent, a native of Herkimer 
count}-. X. V.. and a prominent and popu- 
lar practitioner of Chagrin Falls, Ohio, 
for more than forty years. His last days 
were passed at the home of his son, Charles 


W., where lie died, November 16, 1861. 
ag"ed sixty-five years. His wife was .Miss 
Lucinda Overton, who died in Orange town- 
ship. May 5, 1880, aged eighty-three years. 
Four children have been born to William 
Bliss and his wife: Frank T., Charles W., 
Emily M. and Mary L., who is the wife of 
W. A. McCarty, of Brimfield. Mr. Bliss 
was formerly a member of the Congrega- 
tional church, but has been closely identified 
with the Methodist Episcopal church since 
locating in Orange township, and has been 
superintendent of the Sunday-school for 
years. Mrs. Bliss died February 28, 1889. 

Charles W. Bliss remained in Brimfield, 
Mass., in his infancy, and then went to 
Chagrin Falls till his eleventh year, and 
has been a citizen of Noble county, Ind., 
since his fourteenth year. He has followed 
the occupation of farming. He was married 
in Rome City, Ind.. November 29, 1871, 
to Miss H. Cornelia Clock, who was horn 
August 25. 1846, in Geauga county, Ohio. 
She lived there until her seventh year, when 
she came with her parents to Rome City, 
where she grew to womanhood and married. 
She is the mother of one child, Fannie, who 
finished the common school course and re- 
ceived her diploma in 1894. She passed one 
year at Kendallville and three years at Ober- 
lin College. Mr. and Mrs. Bliss take an 
active part in church work, his wife being a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
He is also a prominent figure in the caucuses 
of the Republican party as he takes an active 
and intelligent interest in the success of his 

Reverend Jacob Clock, the father of Mrs. 
Charles W. Bliss, was born in New York 
City, in October, 181 1, and was married to 
Miss Abigal Groves, who was born Decern 

ber, 1824, in Skaneateles, X. Y. In 1854 
they came to Rome City, Ind., where she 
died, February 10, 1863. He was a min- 
ister in the Methodist Episcopal church 
and was the means of accomplishing much 
good. He passed to his reward at St. Mary's, 
Kan.. April 3, 1886, leaving a blameless 
record and a memory of good deeds that 
will continue to bear fruit and reflect honor 
on his name. He was the father of four 

Rev. Jacob Wilkie Clock was horn in 
Xew York City, October 2. 181 1. and died at 
St. Mary's, Kan., April 2, [886. He was 
a minister of the Gospel, many years in New 
York, Ohio, Indiana, also in Kansas. He 
was a carpenter and joiner by trade, but 
after conversion was licensed to preach in 
the Oneida conference in Xew York, in 1N31. 
He was a useful and efficient pastor and 
worker in the church. He came to Noble 
county. Ind.. in 1853. He served almost 
one-half a century — forty-five years — as 
minister. Rev. Clock attended Gainesville 
Academy. Orleans count}', X. Y, and 
was a student in Garrett Biblical Institute 
six weeks. He studied Greek, Latin and 
Hebrew on horseback while a traveling 
preacher. His remains were interred in To- 
peka, Kansas. 

WILLIAM IMES (Deceased), 

Was for man_\' years an honored resident of 
Noble county , Ind.. and during the last half 
of the past century was actively engaged in 
developing the natural resources of that 
county as one of the leading agriculturists 
of Orange township. He was born in Bel- 


mont county, Ohio, July 19, 1829, but was 
reared in Morrow count}*, that state, where 
lie was joined in marriage with Miss Jane 
Halferty on March 1, 1849. She was born 
in Morrow county, Ohio, May 7, 1827, her 
father being William Halferty and her moth- 
er Elizabeth (Luther) Halferty, both of 
whom were natives of Pennsylvania. They 
died in Morrow county, he at the age of 
forty years and she aged almost eighty- 
nine, a ripe old age. Seven children have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Imes, and those 
living are all residents of Orange township, 
viz.: Thomas L., a prosperous farmer; 
John H., also extensively engaged in agri- 1 
cultural pursuits; James P., who died at the 
age of twenty-seven; William A.; Mary E., ' 
wife of William Hosier; Milton, who died 
at the age of thirty-nine; and Isabella, who 
is the wife of Enos Bricker. 

After his marriage Mr. Imes resided a 1 
short time in Morrow county, and then 
moved to Richland county, Ohio, where he 
remained until the fall of 1850, when he 
came to Noble county and settled in Orange 
township on the farm now occupied by his 
widow. He was highly successful in life 
and accumulated upward of three hundred 
acres of land, which he cleared and improved 
himself. He was a hard-working man and I 
put the best improvements on his land, tak- 
ing a lively satisfaction in the neat, orderly 
appearance of his farm. He was active in 
all affairs which affected the general com- 
munity and was the means of accomplishing 
much good in Orange township. He served 
two terms as commissioner of Noble county 
and was the efficient assessor for a number 
of years, discharging the duties of his office 
regradless of fear or favor. He was also 
prominent in church work, and was a devout 

member of the United Brethren church. For 
almost- half a century be lived and labored 
in Noble county, winning friends who^ were 
loyal and unswerving, and when he sank into 
the dreamless sleep on October 16, 1894, his 
taking off was mourned as a personal loss by 
the many who had come to know him and 
appreciate his worth. 


This reputable and highly esteemed agri- 
culturist of Noble county, Ind., was born in 
Richland county, Ohio, December 3, 1849, 
and is the eldest of seven children born to 
William and Jane (Halferty) Imes. Will- 
iam Imes, whose memoir appears elsewhere 
in this work, was born in Belmont county, 
Ohio, July 19, 1829, while his Avife was born 
in Morrow county, Ohio, May 7, 1827. They 
were married in Ohio and made their home 
in Richland county for a time, later moving 
to Noble county and settling in Orange 
township, where the father died and where 
the mother-still lives. The name, it may be 
mentioned here, was originally spelled limes 
— that is, with a double I. 

Thomas L. Imes was a child of about 
one year when his parents took up their resi- 
dence in Noble county. Ind., and it was here 
he received bis education and gave his at- 
tention to the tilling of the soil. He re- 
mained at home with his parents until March 
13, 1873, when he led to the altar of Hymen 
Miss Mary C. Hosier, who became his bride. 
She was born in Morrow county, Ohio, Jan- 
uary 21, 1848, and is one of five children 
born to Samuel R. and Barbara ( Keifer) 
Hosier, namelv : John Henry ; William W. ; 



Mary C. : Margaret M., who died in infancy ; 
and Ella B. Samuel R. Hosier was born in 
York county, Penn., November 10, 1820, 
and his wife was born in Lebanon county, 
that slate, August 15, 1823. After marriage 
they located in Morrow county, Ohio*, where 
they remained until the spring of 1850, when 
they moved to Noble county, Ind-, and set- 
tled near Albion. Later they resided in 
Rome City, and still later moved to the farm 
in Orvnge township where they still live. 
One child has blessed the home of Mr. and 
Mrs. Imes, namely: Mabel M., who was a 
lovable young lady and had reached her 
twenty-first year when, on March 26, [894, 
she answered the summons which called her 
to the home on high. 

Thomas L. Imes settled on bis present 
farm of eighty acres soon after his marriage, 
and has converted it into one of the must 
attractive and desirable homes in Noble 
county. Time and labor have not been 
spared in the work of beautifying and im- 
proving the property, and its neat, handsome 
apearance can not but attract the attention 
of even the casual observer. 

Mr. Imes is always busy, either with bis 
private affairs or those pertaining to the 
township. He was for years identified with 
the Democratic party, but later has -affiliated 
with the Republicans, though he was elected 
to the office of assessor of Orange township 
on the Democratic ticket in 1886. a position 
he has filled faithfully and well for a period 
of five years. Mr. Imes is prominent in fra- 
ternal circles, being a member of lodge No. 
451, F. & A. M., at Rome City, and the 
chapter at Kendallville; also of lodge No. 
587, I. O. O. F., at Brimfield, and encamp- 
ment No. 156, at Kendallville. and has sev- 
eral times been delegate to the state lodge. 


The ancestral history of many of the 
members of the Imes family, so long and so 
favorably known in Noble county, Indiana, 
will be found in the personal biographies of 
the late William Imes. the father of the sub- 
ject of this sketch, and of Thomas L. Imes, 
a brother of subject, and also of William W. 
Hosier, a brother-in-law, all of which are to 
be found in full on other pages of this vol- 
ume, and therefore render it unnecessary to 
repeat such information in the present 

William A. Imes. the fourth in the order 
of birth of his parents' seven children, had 
his nativity in Orange township. Noble coun- 
ty, Indiana, which is still his home, and was 
born May 3. 1854, and is therefore in the full 
bloom of manhood. He was reared on the 
home farm and educated in the district 
school and one term in the Normal school at 
Ligonier, and like many others of the robust 
youth of early days was an invaluable assist- 
ant to his father until he found it both proper 
and natural to seek a mate for himself and to 
become what his father was, a respected head 
of a family and a reputable citizen, as a par- 
taker in the management of local affairs. 

The marriage of William A. Imes ti « <k 
place in Kendallville, Indiana, October 2, 
1883, to Miss Barbara Ella Hosier, a daugh- 
ter of Samuel Hosier, of Orange township. 
This lady was born in this township, June 
j j, [861. After marriage. Mr. and Mrs. 
Imes settled on the old homestead, on which 
he has always lived, and has been engaged 
in farming, yet for six terms taught school 
in Orange and Wayne townships. 

To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Imes 
have been born two bright children, Roy A. 


and Orlo H-. who are not only the glory of 
the parental home, but the pets of the entire 
neighborhood. Mr. and Mrs. lines are con- 
scientious members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and for several years Mr. Imes 
has been superintendent of its Sunday-School 
at Brimfield. In politics Mr. Imes is a Dem- 
ocrat, but has never sought a public office. 

As a farmer Mr. Imes is unsurpassed in 
management, and his homestead of eighty 
acres is improved with one of the neatest 
dwellings in the township and with all the 
necessary i lutbuildings. 


The Albion Democrat (in June, 1897) 
contained the biography of the late Hon. 
Harrison Wood, of this city, written by bis 
old friend and life-long admirer, Hon. E. 
B. Gerber. It is so replete with incidents 
not only of Mr. Wood personally but also of 
pioneer life generally that it deserves a place 
in the history of the county. Mr. Gerber 
says : 

"Harrison Wood was born in Franklin 
county. X. Y.. August 3. 1813; worked for 
his father as a farm hand until 1834, inci- 
dental!}" trapping foxes and selling the skins. 
The proceeds of this incidental industry, 
carefully saved, was all he had when, at the 
age of twenty-one, he left home for the 
west, on foot to the St. Lawrence, thence by 
boat up the river and lakes to Detroit, where 
he landed with eighteen cents in his pocket; 
paid six cents for a breakfast and started at 
once for the country, with twelve cents, in 
search of work. He found a job. splitting 
raiK for a farmer, at three shillings a hun- 

dred. He spent three years near Detroit, 
making rails, chopping cord-wood, hewing 
timber and teaming, then, making a visit to 
his father's family in New York and re- 
turning, he resumed his teaming — hauling" 
salt and other merchandise to interior points. 

"In 1835 he moved a family of pioneers 
from Detroit to Chicago, with all their be- 
longings, in a two-horse wagon. He un- 
loaded near Ft. Dearborn. While there he 
visited the scene of the Indian massacre of 
1832. near Eighteenth street, and mowed 
grass for his team on or near the spot where 
the city hall now stands. 

"In 1838 Mr. Wood brought from 
Michigan to Perry's Prairie the first thresh- 
ing machine, and for several years did 
nearly all the threshing in that vicinity. At 
the age of twenty-five he was a leader in pio- 
neer enterprise and industry, and withal, of 
clear intellect, sound judgment and business 
integrity. In 1840 he was elected justice of 
the peace, and while serving in that capacity 
became familiar with legal procedure, forms 
of practice ami principles of law, as ex- 
pounded by eminent lawyers in important 
and interesting cases brought before him. 

"His service in the offices of sheriff and 
probate judge have already been mentioned, 
but there was error in stating that his first 
permanent home was in Augusta — for in 
that vear the county seat was moved from 
Augusta to Port Mitchell, which was, there- 
fore, the first 'permanent' home of Harri- 
son and Barbara Wood. There his first 
term as sheriff expired. His second term, 
and residence, must have been in Albion, 
where the county seat was established in 

"This biography enables the writer to 
S"ive some interesting incidents of Mr. 

1 ^^^^^^-< 

E\ ■ ' ■ JjL. 

Ml* B 

K, . fi 

1 mHfl 



N& ■**. ^ *^l 



JjyiA- Son YYit buuy- a^-*^- (V^ 


Wood's sheriff aJty : He took convicts to 
the Jeffersonville state prise in, first in a farm 
wagon to Fort Wayne, thence by stage and 
canal to Portsmouth, Ohio, thence by steam- 
boat down the Ohio river to Jeffersonville. 
Returning, his route was up the river to 
Madison, thence by rail to Columbus, I n< 1 . . 
and by stage to Indianapolis, where he drew 
his pay, thence by stage and canal to Fort 
Wayne and home probably on foot. 

"In 1846 he was sub-contractor for the 
building of Albion's first court house. In 
1849 he erected, on Lewis's Branch, one 
mile south of Albion, a sawmill, adding 
wool-carding machinery, which he operated 
until 1853. In the latter year. 1853. he 
founded the town of Cromwell, in Sparta 
township — laying out an ample plat, which 
he lived to see occupied by a thriving town. 
He named it for the great English protec- 
tor, Oliver Cromwell. 

"During his later residence in Perry he 
laid out, in 1859. Wood's Addition to Ligo- 
nier. He was at one time the owner of city 
property in Kansas City, Mo., which he sold 
for fifty thousand dollars. 1 le had five hun- 
dred acres of good land in Noble county, and 
before the great decline in real estate his 
wealth must have been considerably over 
two hundred thousand dollars. But it would 
be doing injustice to his memory to assume 
that he was vainly proud of his mere wealth 
in dollars, or that he loved it for itself. 
Throughout his life he kept and cherished 
the rough old fox-trap with which in" the 
wilds of northern Xew York he made the 
little money that enabled him to start on 
foot for the West — to reach the spot where 
he could exchange the toil of making a hun- 
dred rails for three shillings. That homely 

old trap is a cherished heirloom in the fam- 
ily to-day. 

"Barbara Engle, the first wife of Hon. 
Harrison Wood, died in 1859, leaving two 
children, Frank P. and Alice, graduates re- 
spectively of Ann Arbor, Mich., and Rock- 
ford, 111., colleges. In i860 he married El- 
mira L. Drake, who died in 1894. leaving 
a son, Wilbur, who graduated from the col- 
lege at Jacksonville, 111., and is now living in 

"About five years ago Mr. Wood had a 
severe stroke of paralysis, from which he 
never recovered. His death occurred Sep- 
tember 17, 1896. at the age of eighty-three 
years, one month and fourteen days. 

"It will lie seen that Harrison Wood's 
career is exceptionally representative of 
every phase of pioneer life. In giving it un- 
usual space, the biographer feels that he is 
to a great extent outlining the life of every 
pioneer of Noble county who settled here at 
lull age, prior to 1840 — the actual and effi- 
cient participators in the work of laying the 
foundations for the super-structure of civili- 
zation; of clearing the way for the majestic 
march of progress. That pioneer work 
necessarily consisted of physical, mental, 
moral and spiritual activities; all essential 
— all requiring power, purpose, moral cour- 
age, self-sacrifice — aspiring heroism, of dif- 
ferent degrees and shades combined by the 
hand of Destiny into a prevailing tone of 
accomplishment, of good to humanity, of 
glory to God. 

"Harrison Wood's pioneer life, like use- 
ful pioneer life in general, irradiated gleams, 
more or less broad and bright, of all the 
physical and intellectual powers, and moral 
and spiritual endowments, that are essential 


factors in the founding and upbuilding- of 
beneficent human institutions. Let them be 
engraven deeply upon the enduring tables 
of memory." 

In 1844 Mr. Wood was elected sheriff 
of Noble county and was re-elected in 1846. 
It was from 1848 till 1851 that he served as 
probate judge of Noble county, or till the 
office was abolished. He was later in life 
elected as trustee of Perry township. He 
was a liberal donor of sufficient land, in 
1873, to erect the beautiful high school 
building at Ligonier. He was a man who 
took high ground on the subject of educa- 
tion in a general sense, and should here be 
immortalized in the history of Perry town- 

Judge Wood was a man of more than 
ordinary practical and business acumen, and 
his judgment was sought for by all people. 
He was a man who ignored neutrality and 
aimed to do what was just and compre- 
hensive to the weaker side of humanity. He 
was an advocate of strict integrity and 
scorned the idea of dishonesty. 

The following, which will be of great 
interest to the reader, is taken from The 
National Banner, published in Ligonier, 
Ind., June 16, 1869, relative to "Interesting 
relics of ye olden times :" 

"We were recently shown some interest- 
ing papers, written in the good, quaint old 
style of the last century. These relics, four 
in number, were left by Silas Wood to his 
son, Niah Wood, and by him to his son. 
Judge Wood, of Ligonier. The oldest of 
these papers is a warranty deed from J. 
Willard to Silas Wood for a certain hundred 
acres of land. In closing the instrument, 
the following language is read : 'In witness 
whereof I have hereunto set my band and 

j seal this fifth day of May, in the fourteenth 
year of his Majesty's reign, Annoque Do- 
mini 1784.' It will be noticed that this doc- 
ument dates back previous to the Revolu- 
tionary war. Three remaining ones are 
military commissions to Mr. Silas Wood, 
gentleman ; the first one is a commission as 
second lieutenant in the Third Company of 
the First Regiment, New Hampshire Mi- 
litia, dated at Exeter the 10 day of May, 
Anno Domini 1787, and signed by M. W. 
Weare, Esq., president of the state, and E. 
Thompson, secretary. The next is a com- 
mission as second lieutenant of the same 
company, dated at Dunham the 7th day of 
September, Anno Domini 1789, and signed 
by John Sullivan, Esq., president of the 
state, and John Pearson, secretary. The 
last one is a commission as captain of the 
same company, dated at Exeter the 23A day 
of August, Anno Domini 1793, signed by 
one of the immortal signers of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, Josiah Bartlett, Esq., 

j governor, and Nathan Parker, secretary of 
state. Doubtless many of our readers are 
not aware that prior to* the war of the Revo- 
lution, and for several years subsequently, 
the chief magistrate of many of the states 
was called president. 

"Judge Wood has also a lock of hair of 
this old Revolutionary hero, soldier and 
patriot, which, together with other papers, 
will be sacredly kept and handed clown to 
his posterity as proud reminders that their 

I ancestor was an actor in the great sanguin- 

| ary struggle that established our inde- 

The children of Judge Wood have in 
their possession a list of the original sig- 
natures of the citizens of Noble county who 
emphasized the fact that McDougal should' 



be hanged without due process of law. This 
was the sentiment of the best element and 
most prominent citizens of Noble county. 


Although one of the younger members of the 
farming community of Noble county, I ml., 
has far outstripped many of the older 
ones by putting into operation his practical 
ideas which have proved both feasible and 
profitable. He is a son of the late Jeremiah 
Gault, an old and esteemed resident of this 
community, who passed to his reward Octo- 
ber 22, 1897. Jeremiah Gault was born Oc- 
tober 15, 1832. in Ohio, and was a son of 
William and Lydia (Fleck) Gault, with 
whom he came to Noble county, Ind., in 
1844. Here he met and married Miss Mary 
E. Myers, who was born in Summit county, 
Ohio, February 6. 1838, to John and Polly 
( Sapp ) Myers, who came to Noble coun- 
ty. Ind., in 1S40. Their marriage was 
solemnized January 1, 1856, and they at 
once set up housekeeping in Orange town- 
ship, which has since been their home. 

John E. Gault was born on his father's 
farm, near Brimfield, September 28, 1862, 
and is the only child. He was educated in 
the ci immon schools of Orange township, 
taking a supplementary course in the Meth- 
odist Episcopal College at Fort Wayne and 
finishing with a complete business course in 
the same institution. He always has had a 
preference for agricultural -pursuits, and 
upon leaving college he at once became a 
tiller of the soil, bringing to the work practi- 
cal as well as theoretical views and applying 
them with a vigor that has insured their suc- 

cess and has placed him among the foremost 
farmers of the count)'. Since the death of 
his father, the management of the two-hun- 
dred-acre farm has devolved upon him and 
it has also been his privilege to care for his 
mother, who keeps house for him and looks 
after his comfort. 

He has been prominent in Republican 
caucuses for years and has been justice of 
the peace for six years, adding the functions 
of notary public about four years past. In 
1900 he was elected to the office of trustee 
of Orange township, and has made a record 
excelled by none of his predecessors. Mr. 
Gault is a prominent Mason, belonging to 
the Royal Arch Chapter of Kendall ville. and 
lie is also a member of the Knights of Py- 
thias at Rome City. 


Among the noble sons and truly deserv- 
ing men of the Buckeye state who have 
found a congenial home and equally con- 
genial friends in the state of Indiana should 
be mentioned the Hon. Orlando Kimmell, 
who was born in Stark county, near the city 
of Canton, Ohio, March 2-,, 1830. Joseph 
Kimmell, father of Hon. Orlando, was born 
in Union county, Penn., and died at the home 
of his son when over eighty-four vears of 
age; his wife, Catherine (Emmich) Kim- 
mell. was born in Pennsylvania, and died 
when fifty-four years old. The family of 
Mr. and Airs. Joseph Kimmell comprised 
three sons and four daughters, of whom Or- 
lando was the fourth in order of birth. 

Hon. Orlando Kimmell was but eight 
years of age when his parents removed from 


Stark county to Carroll county, Ohio, and 
there he was reared on the home farm and 
aided his father in its cultivation until the 
fall of 1 85 1, his education being acquired in 
the common schools of the latter county. 
The father decided, about the year men- 
tioned, that Indiana afforded a more availa- 
ble field for the profitable pursuit of agri- 
culture, and the family came to Noble coun- 
ty, where the father purchased the farm on 
which Orlando still lives. 

In January, 1857, Orlando Kimmell was 
most felicitously joined in matrimony with 
Miss Jane White, who was born in 1834, a 
•daughter of John and Maria White, of Ma- 
rion count} - , Ohio, the former of whom end- 
ed his days in Marion county, Ohio; the lat- 
ter in York township. Noble county. Ind. 

After his marriage Mr. Kimmell. who 
had rented his father's farm in 185 1 for a 
term of twelve years, continued to occupy 
it until eventually it became his own prop- 
erty. He has improved it with first-class 
buildings of every needful description, in- 
cluding an elegant residence, and has in- 
creased its dimensions to one thousand and 
ninety-eight acres, and this estate he per- 
sonally manages. 

To the marriage of Hon. Orlando Kim- 
mell and wife have been born a family of 
ten children: Jessie died in infancy; May 
is the wife of Willis Kinnison, of Garden 
City, Kan.; Lillie; Jennie, wife of Dr. W. 
A. Shobe, of Ligonier, Ind. ; Maud, who is 
married to E. P. Eagles, of Albion ; Tbella 
is the wife of M. C. Beck, of Albion; Oliver 
P. M. ; Thaddeus and Claudius. 

Mr. Kimmell is a prominent member of 
the Republican party and a leader of its 
forces. He is not a mere politician in the 
sense in which the word is ordinarily used. 

but is a statesman of transcendant abilities. 
In 1872 he was elected county commissioner 
of Noble county, and served two and one- 
half years. He served in the state legisla- 
ture of Indiana in the session of 1877, and 
was renominated for the same responsible 
position two years later, but declined to make 
the race. He had previously served as a 
member of the Republican county committee 
for two and a half years, but resigned the 
position to 1 enter upon the canvass for legis- 
lative honors, and for four years and a half 
served as township trustee, having been first 
appointed to that office, and afterward being 
elected. In 1892 Mr. Kimmell was nomi- 
nated as representative in congress from the 
twelfth district; and in this case, also, he 
declined to make the race. While he has 
been an active worker in the cause and for 
the success of the Republican party, Mr. 
Kimmell much prefers that the honors of 
office be conferred upon others than himself; 
but is still of the opinion that it is the duty 
of every good American citizen to serve his 
fellows when the needs of such service are 

In the improvement and progress of local 
projects Mr. Kimmell has always manifested 
a commendable spirit, and in recognition of 
this fact the town of Kimmell. Noble county, 
was named in his honor. Among his other 
munificent contributions to public undertak- 
ings was the sum of $2,500 toward the com- 
pletion of the Methodist Episcopal church 
edifice of Kimmell. Sparta township. The 
vast importance to any people of having as 
a fellow citizen such a man as the Hon. 
Orlando Kimmell can be realized by those 
only who have enjoyed the experience of the 
residents of York township, as men of his 
caliher are very rare, even in the most ad- 



vanced and civilized of nations, and York 
township is therefore entitled to more than 
ordinary congratulations. Mr. Kimmell has 
been president of the Noble County Agricul- 
tural Fair Association for twelve years. He 
has now retired from active business and 
turned his farm over to the management of 
his sons. 


A substantial and highly successful farmer 
of Noble county, Ind., was born on a farm 
in Ashland county, Ohio, April i, 1834. 
When he was about four years of age his 
parents moved to Noble count}-. Ind., and 
settled in Jefferson township, where he grew 
to manhood. He lived with his parents 
until he attained his majority and became 
well versed in agricultural lore, rinding a 
satisfaction in the work that caused him to 
continue in it, and he is recognized as a man 
who thoroughly understands his calling - . 

Mr. Bailey was married, in Albion, Ind., 
April 30, 1865, to Mrs. Rebecca (Gibson) 
Collett, widow of Abraham Collett and 
daughter of John and Margaret ( Givens ) 
Gibson. She was born in Pocahontas coun- 
ty, W. \'a.. April 15, 1826, and at the age of 
eight years came from her native state with 
her parents and located in Elkhart county. 
Ind.. where they died. They had a family of 
ten children. Mrs. Bailey became the moth- 
er of two children after her union with Mr. 
Bailey, William and Ulila, both of whom 
died in childhood and entered into the light 
of the eternal morning, where they were 
joined by the devoted mother, October 8, 
1900. Besides her husband, one child. Sa- 
rah E. (Mrs. John lines), the fruit of her 

first union, survives her. Mrs. Bailey was a 
motherly, home-loving body whose chief 
concern was the comfort and happiness of 
her family, but she also found time to do 
much work outside the home circle. She 
had united with the Methodist Episcopal 
church in her girlhood, and her entire life 
was true to its precepts. The highest tribute 
that can he paid her is this: She was a wo- 
manly woman, whose sweet nature laid deep 
hold on those about her and was a silent in- 
fluence for g 1 in their lives. She was the 

inspiration of her husband's life, always 
ready with words of cheer and counsel, and 
watever of success he has met he feels to be 
due to her assistance. Mr. Bailey has been- 
a devout member of the Methodist church 
for more than a quarter of a century, and 
enjoys the love and esteem of all. 


The states of Ohio and Indiana being- 
contiguous and the citizens of one being so- 
intimately intermingled with those of the 
other, through constant intercourse and the 
frequent removals from the former and older 
state to the latter, a record of the life of a 
pioneer of Ohio is almost equivalent in many 
instances to that of a biography of a resi- 
dent of the Hoosier state, as is exemplified 
in the case of the McEwen family, of which 
the subject of this sketch is a respected rep- 

The late William McEwen. father of 
William Andrew McEwen. was one of 
Ohio's early pioneers, although he was but a 
youth when he first found a home in the 
Buckeve state. William McEwen was horn 


in Pennsylvania April 15, 1814, about eleven 
vears after Ohio had been admitted to the 
sisterhood of states, and about two years 
before Indiana was admitted to the Union. 
He was about fifteen years old when taken 
from Pennsylvania to Richland county, Ohio, 
and in that state his father, John McEwen, 
died in Crawford county. William was 
reared on a farm, and on February 19, 1839, 
was united in marriage, in Richland county, 
with Miss Hannah Dickson, who was born 
in Washington county, N. Y., May 18, 1818, 
a daughter of William and Ruth (Davis) 
Dickson, with whom she moved to Richland 
county, Ohio, when she was about twelve 
years of age, and there grew to womanhood. 
To William and Hannah (Dickson) Mc- 
Ewen were born five children, viz. : Alford, 
Hannibal. William A. Mary ( who is the 
wife of A. J. Niswander) and Josiah, all of 
whom attained mature years and became re- 
spected and useful members of society. 

In October, 1854, William McEwen, 
with his wife and four of the children, came 
to Noble county, Ind., and settled on a farm 
in Orange township, near Brimfield, on 
which he passed the remainder of his days, 
dying November 11, 1891, in his seventy- 
■eighth year, honored with the acquaintance 
of a large number of warm and sincere 
friends, by whom he was deeply mourned, 
as well as by the surviving members of his 
sorrowing family, to whom he was dear as 
a loving husband and a kind and indulgent 

William Andrew McEwen (usually 
called Andrew ) was born in Richland coun- 
tv. ( )hio, July jo, 1845, an< l came to Noble 
county, Ind., in 1854 with his parents, who 
settled in Orange township, and here Will- 
iam A. was reared to farmins: on the home- 

stead, and here finished his attendance at the 
common schools. April 30. 1872, he was 
united in matrimony in York township, No- 
ble county, Ind., with Mrs. Charlotte (Bow- 
man ) Chilcote, who was born in Columbiana 
county, Ohio, May 24, 1845, a daughter of 
Philip and Lydia (Harlan) Bowman, also 
natives of Columbiana county, Ohio, but 
who came to Noble count}-, Ind., in Septem- 
ber, 1844, an( l located in York township, 
where Mrs. Lydia Bowman died in May, 
1857. A few years previous to his own 
death Philip Bowman sold his farm and 
moved to Albion, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his life in ease and comfort, 
dying January 14, 1890, in the seventy-third 
year of his age. 

The first marriage of Mrs. William A. 
McEwen was with 1 Samuel Chilcote, who 
died in York township, leaving her with two 
children, viz. : Anna M., who is the wife of 
Noah Barcus; and James M., a mechanic, 
and married. 

Mr. and Mrs. McEwen are members of 
no church, but are active in assisting in any 
good work, and they are very liberal in con- 
tributing financially to all beneficences. In 
politics Mr. McEwen is a stanch Democrat. 
A farmer, and the son of a farmer, he has 
borne his share in enriching the township 
and in making it what it is to-day. His 
farm comprises ninety and one-half acres, 
and is improved with a cozy dwelling and 
substantial barn and other outbuildings; it 
is carefully cultivated and produces paying 
crops, which, as a rule, are the chief aim of 
the farmer. Although Mr. McEwen is great- 
ly respected throughout his township and is 
very popular with his part}-, he has never 
sought public office, yet he is quite public 
spirited and is ready at all times to give 


moral and pecuniary aid to any project that 
may offer an appearance of usefulness or 
benefit to his fellow-citizens. 


Practical industry, wisely and vigorously 
applied, never fails of success. It carries a 
man onward ami upward, brings out his in- 
dividual characteristics and acts as a power- 
ful stimulus to the efforts of others. The 
greatest results in life are often obtained by- 
simple means and the exercise of the ordi- 
nary quality of common sense. The subject 
of this sketch deserves a fitting recognition 
among the men whose abilities have achieved 
results that are most enviable and commend- 

William Knepper, the immediate subject 
of this sketch, was born August 18, 1851, in 
Sparta township, Noble county, Ind., and is 
a son of Anthony and Catherine (Sullenber- 
ger) Knepper, both natives of Franklin 
county. Penn. This worthy couple were uni- 
ted in marriage in their native state, came to 
Washington township. Noble county, Intl., 
in 1848, and soon afterward moved onto the 
farm in Sparta township, where Anthony 
Knepper passed away July 22, 1899, while 
she had passed away about six years pre- 
viously. To the union of this worthy couple 
were born five children: Phares, deceased; 
Sarah C, who became the wife of William 
Stocker : Susan ; Margaret, married to 
Charles M. Prentiss; and William, subject 
of this sketch. 

William Knepper attended the public 
schools of Sparta township until be was 
about twenty years "of as:e. After leaving 

school he worked one year for his father 
and others until 1873, and then located as 
a renter on the tract of land known as the 
old Galloway place, on which he lived about 
a year. His next change of location was to 
the farm owned by his father, which he re- 
sided on and operated about ten years. At 
the end of this period he obtained posses- 
sion of the place on which he now lives. 
Besides his own place, consisting of one 
hundred and eighty-seven acres, he has also 
continued to operate his father's farm. 

On the 30th day of October, 1873. the 
marriage of William Knepper and Miss 
Temperance E. Stocker took place. She 
is a daughter of Joseph and Esther 
E. (Houghtling) Stocker, and a na- 
tive of Tuscarawas county, Ohio, but later 
a resident of Sparta township, this county. 
This union has been blessed with the birth 
of four children, namely: Frances E., born 
March 30, 1874, became the wife of C. A. 
Mock, and has two children, Fay Bernice 
and Ralph K. ; Walter was born October -'3. 
1888; Rosa C was born September 19, 
1890; one who died in infancy. 

Politically Mr. Knepper has always faith- 
fully upheld the principles of the Republican 
party, while religiously the family are all 
connected with the United Brethren church. 

Without much outside assistance, the 
success Mr. Knepper has achieved is large- 
ly due to his own efforts. Strong determi- 
nation, perseverance in the pursuit of an 
honorable purpose, unflagging energy and 
can ful management — these are the salient 
features of his career, and his life stands an 
unmistakable evidence that success is not al- 
together a matter of genius, but is the out- 
come of earnest and well-directed effort. 
Mr. Knepper and family have long occupied 



a place high in the esteem of their friends, 
and they are legion. 

Father Stocker was born in Pennsylva- 
nia August 25, 181 1. and died in September, 
1888. He was a farmer, and died in Ligo- 
nier, a Republican in his sentiments. Re- 
ligiously he was a member of the United 
Brethren church. While a resident of Ohio 
he was assessor. Mother Stocker was a na- 
tive of New York, born in January, 1831, 
and died August 12, 1888. She was a kind 
Christian worker of the United Brethren 

Mrs. Knepper was but thirteen years old 
when she came to Indiana, and here she has 
been reared. She is a lady of pleasing ad- 
dress and her home is her paradise. 

Mrs. Knepper's grandmother, Henrietta 
E. Houghtling, is a resident of Sparta town- 
ship, a lady who is now a century old and 
retains her mental faculties fairly well. She 
is possibly the oldest person in Noble coun- 
ty, Ind. 


By universal consent biography is the 
most fascinating form of literature. The 
gentleman whose review here appears is one 
of the leading factors in the development 
and progress in west Noble c< unity, Ind. 

Mr. Wood is a native of Noble county, 
and was born near Albion, April 22, 1852. 
He traces his lineage to the old colonial New 
England states, as is seen farther on in this 
sketch. He is a son of Judge Harrison and 
Barbara (Engie) Wood, who are remem- 
bered and revered as early settlers of Noble 
county. He is a grandson of Niah and 
Polly (Hovt) Wood, the former of whom 

was born April 2j, 1782, and died in 1869, 
and the latter was born February 17, 1783, 
and died July 5, 1851. 

Niah Wood was celebrated in his vicin- 
ity as a joker and wit, and many were the 
laughable anecdotes did he tell in the good 
old days. The birthplace of Niah Wood and 
his estimable wife were in the states of New 
Hampshire and Vermont respectively. It 
was in the year 1836 that he emigrated to 
Detroit, Mich., and in 1837 he came to 
Perry township. Noble county, Ind. 

For an extended review of Judge Har- 
rison Wood, the father of Frank P., see else- 
wliere in this work. The Wood family 
trace their lineage to the Scottish race, the 
great-grandfather of F. P. Wood holding 
a commission in the Revolutionary war. 
Judge Wood was twice married, his first 
union having" been with Miss Barbara Engie 
in 1844. She was born December 25, 1823, 
in the Buckeye state, and was a daughter of 
Adam and Eve (Huffman) Engie. She 
died in 1859. Adam Engie was born in 
Lancaster county, Perm., December 19, 
1776, and died July 26, 1847; Eve, his wife, 
was born in the "Old Dominion," December 
2-j, 1784, and died August 1, 1862. They 
were wedded when the nineteenth century 
was in its second year. The following" 
named children were born to Harrison and 
Barbara Wood : Susan A., born May 29, 
1845, died the following October nth; Wal- 
lace P., born March 12, 1847, died Novem- 
ber 29, 1856; Sylvester E., born October 
25, 1849, died September 19, 1852; Frank 
P., the subject of this review; Alice, born 
September 22, 1854, is the wife of W. H. 
Bender, of Ligonier, Mrs. Bender being a 
graduate from the college at Rockford, 111., 
and prominenent in social and literary 

/*. ??*-z^ 

yiou jjn^^ y^e-eof 



circles: and Emma, born December 6, [857, 
died August 6, 1859. In the fall of i860. 
Judge Wood wedded Miss Elmira L. Drake. 
of Goshen, Ind. She was a native of New 
Jersey, and died January 9. 1894. Four 
children were the result of this marriage, of 
win an one is yet living — Wilbur, horn Au- 
gust 25, 1805, and a resilient of Boston, 
Mass. He took the commercial course at 
Eastman's celebrated Business College at 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and also attended 
school at Jacksonville, 111. 

Franklin P. Wood was born and reared 
to manhood within a stone's throw of the 
home he now occupies, though several years 
of his life were spent as a student in the 
best schools of the nation. Leaving the dis- 
trict schools of Noble county with a fair 
knowledge of the branches taught, he en- 
tered Notre Dame, where he was enrolled 
one year. The succeeding two years he 
.spent in the excellent educational institution 
known as "The Raisin Valley Seminary." 
near Adrian, Mich., and then entered the 
State University at Ann Arbor, Mich., grad- 
uating four years later from the scientific 
course. Mr. Wood wedded, June 4, [878, 
Miss Nora Yonker, a most worthy and es- 
timable lady, whose natural grace and 
charming manner have made her a social 
leader and a general favorite with those 
who have associated with her. Her par- 
ents were Abner and Mary (Ling) Yonker, 
of German ancestry, but natives of Cam- 
bria county. Pa., whence they came to Mil- 
ford, Ind.. and engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits in i860. 

Mr. Yonker was a defender of his coun- 
try's flag and honor during the Civil war. 
having enlisted in October. [863, in Com- 
pany K, Fifty-seventh I. V. I., and Captain 

Billings was his superior officer. He re- 
ceived his honorable discharge at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., in the fall of 1864 on account: 
of typhoid fever. 

Mr. Wood is a gentleman of means and 
believes in making his money subservient 
to the comforts and happiness of his family 
and many friends, lie is. like his father, 
a great reader and his library has some of 
the choicest literature from the best authors. 
lie lo\es knowledge and wisdom and those 
whose sympathy runs in the same channel, 
and says he would rather have the experi- 
ence of his college days and the knowledge 
gained therefrom than ten times the cost 
thereof, not only on account of the beaefits 
accruing in practical life, but equally on ac- 
count of what innate satisfaction it brings 
during every moment of his existence. 

While eminently devoted to the cares of 
his business in every detail, yet he believes 
in enjoying the fruit of bis labor as he goes 
along, not only in the comforts of life, but 
some of its luxuries, and he and his estima- 
ble wife are never so happy as when sharing 
them with their many friends and acquaint- 
ances in their elegant home. Frank is pro- 
nounced in his views, when a question is at 
stake, though his judgment holds him 
aloof from forming an opinion till a ques- 
tion has been discussed in all its bearings. 

lie is broad-minded, liberal and tolerant 
towards others, but has little charity, how- 
ever, for those carried away by every 
chance wave that comes their way. 

Mr. Wood's father was a man who 
dearly loved beautiful homes and improve- 
ments, and this taste seems to have been in- 
herited by Frank P., as will appear later 
on in this sketch. He erected a palatial resi- 
dence in Ligonier in 1874, and this was his 


home till his death. Judge Woods, like his 
father Niah. was a great joker, and nothing 
was more pleasing to him than to gather with 
some of his dearest friends, whose heads 
the frost of many winters had silvered, and 
be hoys again, which would make the list- 
ener think of the beautiful poem, "The 
Boys." written by Oliver Wendell Holmes. 
In his judicial career he was a painstaking 
and careful official and conservative in all 
his official duties. The Wood family have 
in their possession the list of the original 
signatures of those best citizens of Xoble 
county who voted to hang the outlaw and 
horse-thief, McDougal. 

Judge Woods left as an heirloom to his 
son Frank a family Bible which was pub- 
lished in 1814, the oldest yet found in the 
county. Before his death, which occurred 
in 1896, he disposed of valuable property 
in Kansas City, Mo., at a handsome profit, 
and left to his heirs five hundred acres of 
valuable land adjoining the corporate limits 
of /Ligonier, hesicles property in Ligonier, 
and much personal wealth. 

Franklin Wood, of this sketch, owns 
one hundred and twenty acres of line farm 
land in Perry township within a mile of 
Ligonier, on which he has erected an ele- 
gant residence costing over ten thousand 
'dollars, and equipped with every modern 
convenience. The furnishings of this ele- 
gant home are rich and costly, inviting re- 
pose of mind and body and contributing ',0 
the comfort and ease of the inmates. This 
beautiful home will be known as "Winde- 
mere Villa." and is perhaps the most costly 
and modern in its beauty and rich adorn- 
ments «.f any in Noble county, and none 
excel it as a country or suburban residence 
in northern Indiana. The luxurious par- 

lors, reception and drawing rooms, library 
and dining hall are beautifully finished in 
different natural hard woods, and the ceil- 
i ings are adorned with the most exemisite 
; designs in fresco. The windows are mar- 
vels of design, and the rich furniture calls 
to mind a minature palace. What completes 
the beauty of this home is the easy grace 
and hospitality which are extended by the 
host and hostess to the fortunate friends 
win 1 enter its portals. 

The style of architecture is of the colon- 
ial Xew England design. Besides the estate 
mentioned he has one-third interest in four 
hundred acres of valuable land and other 
extensive undivided property belonging to 
his father's estate. 

Politically Mr. Wood is an ardent Re- 
publican, but has never been induced to en- 
ter the ranks of office-seekers. Socially he 
is an honored member of the K. of P. Lodge, 
Xo. 123, at Ligonier, and Mrs. Wood is the 
Mistress of Finance of the Rathbone Sis- 
ters' Lodge, Xo. 129. Mr. Wood is also 
one of the charter members of Elks' Lodge 
Xo. 451, at Ligonier. He represented the 
K. of P. lodge of Ligonier at the Grand 
! Lodge in 1898. 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank P. Wood are citi- 
zens who rank high in social circles and that 
is a happy community which can claim such 
as they as being among its membership. 


This popular proprietor of the sawmill 
n Elkhart township, Xoble county, Ind., is 
uitive here and was born August 26. 1865. 
lis father, Tohn Frick, was born in Swit- 



zerland, and his mother, Delilah (Boyd) 
Frick, is a native of Somerset county, Perm., 
where they were married. The birth of 
Mrs. Frick took place December 28, 1832, 
and after marriage blue couple came to Elk- 
hart township. Noble county, Ind., and here 
the father engaged in farming until his 
death, which occurred February 21, 1870. 
These parents had a family of eleven chil- 
dren, viz. : Susan, who was married to Cor- 
nelius Restler and died April 2g. 1892 ; Mag- 
dalena, the wife of William Weaver; Will- 
iam A., a farmer in Elkhart township; Bar- 
bara, wife of Wesley Weaver; Christian, 
who died when about twenty-four years old; 
Joseph, the subject of this sketch: Edward; 
Amanda, who died when about seventeen 
years of age ; Katie ; and two others who died 
in childhood. 

Joseph Frick was reared in Elkhart 
township, and here received a common- 
school education. He was also here married, 
January 17, 1891, to Hiss Lillie M. Brill, 
who was born February 28, [872, and is 
a daughter of the late George W. Brill and 
his wife. Charlotte ( Trittpo ) Brill. George 
W. Brill was born in Muskingum county, 
Ohio, April 27, 1834. and died in Elkhart 
township, Noble county. Ind., November 
14, 1894, and his wife is a native of Mary- 
land, born in October, 1836, and still lives. 
Their children numbered eight and were 
born in the following order: Lorella, Wal- 
ter. Franklin, Ida, Ira. Lillie H., Melvin and 

T11 Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Frick have been 
burn three children: Florence E. ; Lois E., 
who died in her second year: and Grace I. 

About the year 1887 Mr. Frick erected a 
sawmill on his mother's farm of one hun- 
dred and twentv acres, and this mill he con- 

tinues tn operate in connection with his 
farming, and in both industries he has met 
with well-deserved success. Mr. Frick in 
politics is a Democrat, and socially he and 
his wife mingle with the best people of Elk- 
hart township. Their family relationship 
also extends to some of the oldest and most 
prominent citizens 1 if the township and coun- 
ty, and they are classed among the most 
substantial and progressive of the population, 
reedy at all times tn lend aid to the mural 
and material advancement of those who sur- 
round them. 


Harry Bell, sheriff of Noble county. Ind., 
was born in Licking count}'. Ohio, October 
25, 1854, and is a son of Robert and Eliza- 
beth 1 Francis) Bell, the former of whom 
was a native of Scotland, and the latter of 
Virginia. These parents had horn to them 
four children, two of whom are deceased, 
the survivors being John, a farmer in Okla- 
homa territory: and Harry, the subject of 
this sketch, they being the first and third in 
order of birth. Joseph, the second child, 
was a member of Company B. One Hundred 
and Thirty-second Ohio Volunteers, was ta- 
ken prisoner and confined at Andersonville 
eleven months, and was there tortured and 
starved to death: the youngest child, Frank, 
died at the age of sixteen years of that fell 
disease, consumption. Ids father having per- 
ished from the same disorder in 1861. The 
mother survived until [893. 

Harry Bell was educated in the public 
schools of Brownsville. Ohio, although his 
attendance was somewhat limited, as he had 


been left fatherless at the early age of eleven 
years, and his mother had great need, tem- 
porarily, of his services at home. The father 
was an invalid for many years prior to his 
death, although, with the hope of recover- 
ing his health, he had traveled around the 
world and had included California and other 
salubrious parts of this country. For some 
time after reaching the proper age yi iung 
Harry Bell taught school, but his principal 
occupation through life has been that of 
farmer. Mr. Bell first came to Noble coun- 
ty alone, when he was but nine years of age, 
and here grew to manhood. He located on 
a farm in Elkhart township, which he rent- 
ed until he was able to purchase a farm on 
his own account in the same township, and 
this farm he continued to reside upon and to 
cultivate until his election to the office of 
sheriff of Noble county, in 1898, and re- 
elected in 1 goo. 

His marriage took place in 1878 to Miss 
Delia Dodge, daughter of Rev. M. M. and 
Delissa Dodge, natives of Ohio, who came 
t<> Wawaka, Ind., and are now located at 
Somerset, Ky., where the father is engaged 
in the lumber business. Mrs, Bell was edu- 
cated at St. Mary's Catholic School at Mish- 
awaka, and is an accomplished as well as one 
of the most amiable ladies of Albion. To 
this felicitous marriage have been born four 
children, in the following order: Kate M., 
Nora F. and Lena and Leona, twins. Of 
these Kate M. is a teacher in the public 
schools of Noble county, and the others are 
still pursuing their courses of study. 

Mr. Bell was made a Mason when he 
attained his majority, and is now a member 
of the Bine Lodge, the Council and the Chap- 
ter; he is also a member of the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks, Knights of 

Pythias and Knights of the Maccabees. He- 
has held the principal offices in all of these 
orders and has represented each in the grand 
lodges of Indiana. His daughters are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal church, and 
the Bell family may well be considered as 
among the most honored of Albion's resi- 


Martin L. Hussey, the prosperous drug- 
gist and man of business affairs of Crom- 
well, Noble county, Ind., was born February 
3, 1855, to George and Elizabeth (Gillam) 
Hussey, and was educated in the public 
schools of Ligonier. 'His father, George 
Hussey, was born in New Baltimore, Md., 
November 19, 1820, and remained in that 
state until he had reached his majority, when 
he emigrated to Fort Wayne and there se- 
cured work at his trade, which was that of a 
plasterer. After working in that place for 
three years, he came to Ligonier, and again 
found employment at plastering, the first 
frame house erected in that village being 
plastered by him. He was a skillful work- 
man and found plenty of work to keep him 

About five years after coming to Ligo- 
nier, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Gil- 
lam, a native of Stark county, Ohio, who 
later moved to Zionville, Boone county, Ind. 
Eight children were born to them, namely: 
Two that died in infancy; George W., a 
plasterer: Martin L., the subject; Howard, a 
cooper, who is married and resides in Ligo- 
nier: Josie, wife of Harry Keasey, a black- 
smith of Ligonier; and two more died in in- 
fancy. Mr. Hussey died in October, 1899,. 

nmr & 




^ ' 1 



|r~3H j 3 

^^ £^k fl^^ 


honoTed and respected by all who knew him. 
The death of Mrs. Elizabeth Hussey is re- 
corded as follows in a Ligonier newspaper : 

"Hussey — Died, in Ligonier. Ind., De- 
cember 3, 1891, Airs. Elizabethl Hussey, 
aged sixty-four years, one month and twen- 
ty-seven days. The funeral took place at the 
M. E. church on Saturday afternoon at two 
o'clock, Rev. T. M. Guild officiating. 

"Elizabeth Gillman was born in Stark 
county, Ohio, October 6. 1827, and died at 
her home in Ligonier, December 3, 1891. 
She was married to George Hussey, Febru- 
ary 17. 1852. To them were born eight chil- 
dren, four of whom are here to mourn her 
loss. The mother, with four children, have 
gone beyond, the father and four remaining; 
thus is the family divided. Mrs. 1 lussey has 
been a resident of Ligonier since 1852, hence 
no stranger amongst the people. No word 
could add any luster to her fair life or char- 
acter, as she was well known as a tender and 
loving mother, whose blessings will ever lie 
held sacred by her children." 

Martin L. Hussey was a student until 
his seventeenth year, when he obtained a po- 
sition as clerk in the store of Fisher & Lan- 
don, of Ligonier, where he remained one 
year. His next work was as a clerk in a 
drug store in Kendallville, which was soon 
abandoned to accept a better position with 
Jones & Fry, of Ligonier. When Dr. Jones 
located in Cromwell, young Hussey came 
with him and was in his employ from 1873 
to 1876, at which time he was offered a posi- 
tion with Vanderford Brothers, by whom he- 
was employed for two years. At the expira- 
tion of this time he opened a drug store for 
himself and has built up a large and lucrative 
patronage from a small beginning. Some 
fifteen vears ago he added to the drug busi- 

ness, and has since handled grain, wool, and 
buggies as well, making a marked success. 
He has wisely invested his capital in real es- 
tate and owns two business blocks and three 
dwellings in Cromwell ami a dwelling house 
in Gas City. 

Air. Hussey was married, February 4, 
1877, to Miss Ella, daughter of Solomon and 
, Barbara (Maggeif) Riker. Two sons are 
the fruit of this union, viz: Harry, who 
was born March 12, [878, and married Miss 
Ella Long on March 28. 1898; and Charles, 
who was born February 5, [870, and be- 
came the husband of Miss Pearl E. Rorick, 
who has borne him one child, Luther New- 

Air. Hussey comes from a long line of 
Republicans, cast his first presidential vote 
for Hayes, and is as strong in the faith as 
any of his name. He was elected by his 
party to the office of township trustee, in 
1890, and was again complimented with the 
office in 1900, and has shown his ability to 
care for the interests of the people in a man- 
ner that is seldom excelled. He is a genial, 
affable gentleman who numbers his friends 
by the hundred and is popular with every 
one. He is an honored member of Lodge 
No. 62, Knights of the Alaccabees. at Crom- 

Both! sons of Air. Hussey received 
diplomas from the public schools, Harry in 
the class of 1892. and Charles in 1894; the 
latter also took two years of high school, and 
three terms at the Valparaiso Normal school. 
Mr. Hussey is one of the aggressive business 
men of Noble county ; the volume of business 
he does will average each year $75,000. 

Air. and Airs. Hussey' s pretty home is 
adorned by her beautiful paintings in oil, 
pastel and water colors. She is a lady of 


more than ordinary talent, and her produc- 
tions show skill of more than is usually 
found outside of a professional's studio. Few 
homes in Noble county show such skill as 
her home. The oil paintings are large in 
size, and lifelike in expressions. Some of 
the most striking pieces, "The Old Oaken 
Bucket," "Saw Falls," a scene in Pennsyl- 
vania, "Only for a Moment," — a love scene, 
"The Rescue." which is a superb piece of 
work, "The Sheep on the Hillside," "Deer 
at the Riverside," "The Hunting Scene." 
The pastel paintings have been taken up 
when at her most leisure moments. She is 
also a student in water colors. Her spe- 
cialty is in oil. "Sirs. Hussey is a lady whose 
taste for the beautiful is so marked that she 
is often called upon in decoration and adorn- 
ment. She is an adept in silk embroidery 
and a worker in the Battenburg laces. 


The sturdy German element in our na- 
tional commonwealth has long been one of 
the most important factors in furthering the 
normal and substantial advancement of the 
country, for this is an element signally ap- 
preciative of practical values, and also of 
the higher intellectuality which transcends 
provincial .confines and readily adapts itself 
to new and changed conditions. The Fa- 
therland has contributed much of the moral 
and intellectual bone and sinew for which 
the great American republic is noted, while 
from the standpoint of the physical no peo- 
ple that go to make up our composite na- 
tionality have done as much to develop our 
natural and industrial resources as the stur- 

dy, strong-armed, clear-brained Teutons, 
whose love for and loyalty to their adopted 
country will admit of no question. Well 
may one take pride in tracing his family 
history to such a source, and this the well- 
known subject whose name appears above is 
enabled to do. 

Julius Lang, at one time the popular and 
efficient treasurer of Noble county, and for 
many years a representative business man 
of Kendallville, first saw the light of day in 
Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, on the ist day 
of February, 1828. Until fourteen years old 
he attended the public schools of his native 
village, and then entered upon an apprentice- 
1 ship to learn shoemaking, at which he served 
three years. He became a very proficient 
workman, and followed the trade at various 
places in his native land until 1849, mean- 
while carefully husbanding his earnings with 
the object in view of some time emigrating 
to the new world across the great waters. 
In July 1 >f the above year he was enabled to 
earn- out his long-cherished plan of becom- 
ing a resident of the L nited States, taking 
passage in that month on the Victoria, an 
English sailing vessel, which made stated 
voyages between the cities of London and 
New York. 

After a long and somewhat tedious voy- 
age, extending into the following Septem- 
ber, Mr. Lang finally reached his destination, 
and within a short time after landing in Xew 
York he secured employment at his trade in 
the city of Brooklyn, where he worked as 
journeyman until 1851. when he engaged in 
the manufacturing of boots and shoes upon 
his own responsibility. He continued in 
Brooklyn until 1866, in Jul}- of which year 
he disposed of his business there and with a 
part of his stock came to Kendallville, Ind., 


where lie soon established a lucrative trade 
in boots and shoes in connection with manu- 
facturing and general repairing-. From iIk 
beginning the business steadily increased in 
volume and importance, and in due time he 
took in as partners his two sons, Henry P. 
and Julius P. Lang, with both of whom he 
is still associated under the firm name of J. 
Lang & Sons. 

By adopting correct business methods 
and attending strictly to the demands of the 
trade, Mr. Lang soon won the confidence of 
the public, the result of which is a very ex- 
tensive business and a handsome fortune, 
which places him in a condition of independ- 
ence. Possessing remarkable foresight and 
clear judgment, he takes advantage of every 
opportunity to enhance the interest of his 
house, and by honorable dealing his name 
has become synonymous with fair and up- 
right conduct in the business world. Not 
only has he won an enviable reputation in 
commercial circles, but as an aggressive, 
public-spirited man, fully alive to everything 
calculated to benefit his adopted city and 
county, his influence has always been exerted 
in the right direction. During his four terms 
in the city council he was instrumental in 
bringing about much important municipal 
legislation, and while a member of that body 
he inaugurated a number of reforms and was 
always untiring in behalf of the public wel- 
fare. While conservative in all matters of 
expenditures he never stood in the way of 
any needed improvement, and to him is 
largely due the credit of many of the im- 
provements for which Kendallville is noted. 
As a member of the city school board, for 
which he served as treasurer for a period 
of three years, be did much to advance the 
educational interests of the community and 

he spared neither pains nor expense in se- 
curing teachers of superior professional qual- 
ifications and supplying them with the latest 
and most approved appliances. For a num- 
ber of years Mr. Lang has been one of the 
Republican leaders in Noble county, and his 
interest in the party long ago brought his 
name prominently to the notice of the peo- 
ple. A valuable counselor as well as an act- 
ive worker, he contributed much to the suc- 
cess of his ticket in a number of campaigns, 
and it was in recognition of services well 
rendered that he was nominated in 1880 for 
the office of county treasurer. At the ensu- 
ing election he defeated a popular competi- 
tor, and with such ability and fidelity did 
he discharge his duties as custodian of the 
people's funds that at the next election he 
was chosen his own successor, filling the 
office to the satisfaction of the public, irre- 
spective of party, for two terms. As an 
official Mr. Lang was always obliging, and 
by uniformly courteous treatment of all who 
had business to transact in the office he won 
and still retains the warm persona] friend- 
ship of the people of the count) - . He retired 
from the treasury with the best wishes of 
the public, and it is universally conceded that 
Noble county has never been served by a 
more capable and popular public servant. 

In addition to the office of treasurer Mr. 
Lang also served as a member of the city- 
board of commissioners, and as such dis- 
played abilities of a high order. He was 
elected to the latter position by an over- 
whelming majority, and during his incum- 
bency proved faithful to .every trust and 
spared no reasonable exertion to promote the 
interests of Kendallville and advertise to the 
world its advantages as a desirable place for 
the investment of capital. 



As already stated, Mr. Lang was mar- 
ried in the year 1850, his wife being for- 
merly Miss Katherine Dietrich, whose birth' 
occurred in Nassau, Germany, February 15, 
1828. Eight children were born of this mar- 
union, namely: Emily, wife of Rev. Joseph 
Bohn, a well-known clergyman of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran church; Henry P. and Ju- 
lius P.. their father's partners in the mercan- 
tile business; Louisa M., wife of Frank L. 
Bluhm; Hermann, a merchant of South 
Bend; George, mercant tailor of Kendall- 
ville; Minnie L.,now Mrs. Felix Goetthoff, of 
Three Rivers, Mich.; and John H., a cigar 
manufacturer doing business in the city of 
Kendallville. The mother of these children, 
a most excellent woman and for many years 
a faithful and zealous member of the German 
Lutheran church, departed this life on the 
7th day of February, 1895. 

Although a close observer of public af- 
fairs, taking an active interest in the wel- 
fare of the city and county of his choice, 
and being rewarded for party service with 
important trusts, Mr. Lang, with becoming 
modesty, has never obtruded himself, pre- 
ferring- the quiet and the claims of business 
to the distraction of a public career. Vigi- 
lant in his care for the interest of his firm, 
prudent and conservative in all he under- 
takes, his leadership in many of the enter- 
prises that tend to the improvement of the 
trade or influence of the city is readily ac- 
knowledged by his fellow citizens, and few 
have taken as lively a part in the develop- 
ment of the community, industrially, intel- 
lectually or morally. The worthy poor of 
Kendallville have found in him a kind and 
unselfish friend, and many of the younger 
business men of the city are indebted to him 
fi n" enci mragement and counsel. By long 

residence and honorable career he has won a 
name which his descendants will prize as a 
priceless heritage, while the people of Ken- 
dallville and Noble county will always re- 
member him as one of the high-minded and 
trustworthy men of his day and generation. 
At present he is serving as a member of the 
city council by appointment. 


Will H. McEwen, editor and proprietor 
of the Albion Democrat, is a native of Noble 
county, Ind., born on a farm in the township 
of Jefferson, December 26, 1865. His par- 
ents, Hannibal F. and Minerva ( Bowman) 
McEwen, were brought to Noble county in 
their childhood, the former dying when the 
subject of this sketch was a lad ten years of 
age. Deprived of a father's counsel and care, 
young McEwen was reared by his mother 
who instilled into his youthful mind many 
valuable lessons, which have had a decided 
influence in moulding and directing the sub- 
sequent course of his life. After completing 
the common school course he entered the 
Northern Indiana Normal School at Val- 
paraiso, from the penmanship department of 
which he was graduated in 1884, and the fol- 
lowing winter was employed as instructor 
in all kinds of writing and fine pen work. 
Animated by a desire to increase his schol- 
astic knowledge with the object in view of 
preparing himself for the teacher's profes- 
sion, he spent the next year in the above in- 
stitution, and the following autumn began 
his pedagogical labors in Noble count}'. Mr. 
McEwen alternated teaching with attending 
i the Valparaiso school and the State Normal 


at Terre Haute, and while a student made 
rapid and substantial progress, becoming- one 
of the most thorough and competent teachers 
in the count)- of Noble. Not caring to devote 
his life to educational work, he discontinued 
teaching in 1888 and turned his attention to 
merchandising, purchasing a stock of grocer- 
ies in Albion and continuing in that line of 
trade for a limited period only. Disposing 
of his business he next opened an insurance 
office at the county seat, and to this he devot- 
ed his time and attention until 1894, when 
he was appointed postmaster at Albion by 
President Cleveland. 

Mr. McEwen entered upon the discharge 
of his duties in the spring of that year and 
served until May 1, 1898, proving a most 
faithful, efficient and popular official. In 
January, 1897, he entered into partnership 
with Henry C. Pressler and purchased of O. 
II. Downey the Noble County Democrat, of 
which he assumed editorial management, his 
associate looking after the business interests 
of the plant. Under the joint control of 
Pressler and McEwen, the Democrat contin- 
ued to make periodical visits until May 1, 
1898. at which time the latter purchased his 
partner's interest and became sole proprietor. 
He soon changed the name to the Albion 
Democrat, and, supplying the office with new 
material, greatly improved the paper in its 
mechanical make-up and the quality of its 
literary matter, making it not only the recog- 
nized official organ of the local Democracy, 
but also one of the brightest and most newsy 
sheets published in the northern part of the 
state. Since taking charge of the Demc >crat 
Mr. McEwen has demonstrated decided abil- 
ity as a newspaper man. both as a clear, keen, 
incisive writer and business manager. The 
circulation has continually increased. liberal 

advertising patronage has been secured, and 
with many new and improved appliances the 
paper visits its numerous patrons, a model of 
typographic art and an exponent of orthodox 
Democracy of the Jeffersonian school. Ed- 
itorially it loses nothing when compared 
with the majority of local papers published 
in the state, and in the hands of its present 
efficient proprietor it certainly will continue 
what it has been in the past — a clean, digni- 
fied, model family newspaper, filled with the 
latest general news and all the interesting 
local happenings of Noble county. 

Mr. McEwen has a laudable ambition to 
make the Democrat worth}- of popular fa- 
vor, and to this end he spares no reasonable 
efforts to procure for its columns the best 
reading matter obtainable. While decidedly 
Democratic in its political aspect, it is also 
designed to vibrate with the public pulse and 
to he a reflex of the current thought of the 
age. With a large and increasing- circula- 
tion and a lucrative advertising patronage, 
the Democrat, under the editorship of Mr. 
McEwen. is destined to play an important 
part in the political affairs of Noble county. 

Mr. McEwen is a married man. his wife 
being formerly Miss Florence B. Franks, for 
some years one of Noble county*s most pop- 
ular and efficient teachers. She is the daugh- 
ter of Abram and Maria Franks, and the 
ceremony whereby her name was changed to 
McEwen took place on the 25th day of De- 
cember, 1889, at her parents' residence in 
Elkhart township. For two years Mr. Mc- 
Ewen served as town clerk of Albion, and 
discharged the duties of the position in an 
able and praiseworthy manner. He belongs 
to the Pythian and Odd Fellows fraternities, 
and in religion subscribes to the United 
Brethren creed. With the exception of a 


few months in Chicago he lias spent his life 
within the geographic limits of Noble coun- 
ty, and for the past fourteen years has been 
an honored citizen of Albion. To the best 
of his ability he has aided the progress and 
advancement of the city, faithfully perform- 
ing his duties of citizenship and discharging 
with commendable fidelity every trust re- 
posed in him by his fellow men. His posi- 
tion in the esteem and friendship of the com- 
munity has long been assured, and he does 
honor to the county, which is proud to claim 
him as a native son and in which his life 
work thus far has been accomplished. 


Among the distinguished native-born 
physicians and surgeons of Noble count}-, 
Ind.. is the gentleman whose name opens 
this sketch, and who has his home in Wa- 
waka, Elkhart township, although his prac- 
tice extends through a territory much greater 
than that comprised within the limits of both 
the townhsip and the village in which he has 
his residence. 

Mclntyre Seymoure, the father of Cabin 
A., was born in New York state in 1802, and 
his mother, who bore the maiden name of 
Alta A. Alexander, was born in one of the 
New England states in 1814, and she was in 
all probability of Scotch-Irish origin. Mr. 
Mclntyre Seymoure in the fall of 1834 came 
to Noble county, Ind., and had in his pos- 
session an old-fashioned English sixpenny 
piece, his only wealth, hut was strong muscu- 
larly and mentally. He first began work 
here for Joe Bristol at Rowdy Hill — a place 
now known as Christian Chapel — and there- 

after worked for different individuals at 
farm work until he had accumulated suffi- 
cient capital to purchase a tract of forty 
acres of land, but at this time he was at- 
tacked with ague, and it required all his 
means to pay for physicians' fees and medi- 
cines. After recovering health and strength 
he borrowed money from a Air. Stone, who 
lived south of Ligonier, with which money 
he entered forty acres of land southeast of 
Wolf Lake, which tract is still known as the 
old Seymoure home. On this farm he first 
erected a round-log cabin, which in due time 
gavfe! way to a hewed-log structure of a 
more pretentious character, but this house 
was shortly afterward struck by lightning, 
by which calamity he lost his wife, on the 
1 2th day of August, 1853. 

Air. Seymoure erected, in 1867, a hand- 
some frame dwelling, this being the third 
that he put up on his farm, and this dwelling 
is quite an ornament to the neighborhood. 

After the loss of his first wife Mr. Sey- 
moure married, Airs. Sophia ( Boerger) 
Treer. who still survives him. To his first 
marriage were born seven children, all boys, 
viz. : Jonathan, who is a fanner in Jefferson 
township; Amos, who served in the Civil 
war and died at Bowling Green, Ky. : James, 
who was a teacher and farmer and died in 
Thurston, Neb. ; Whiting, who was called 
away in infancy; Calvin A., who is the sub- 
ject of this sketch: George C, who is the 
proprietor of a hotel at Cromwell. Ind.; and 
Homer A., who is a farmer in Reno county, 
Kans. To the second marriage were born 
four children, as follows: Alta. who is the 
wife of Thomas M. Ott. of Noble township ; 
Rudolph J., a farmer in Florida; Florence 
C. a farmer in Noble township; and Anna, 
who is the wife of F. Hire. 


Mr. Seymoure always took an active part 
in public affairs, and in 1838 he served his 
fellow citizens as constable. He was patri- 
otic and public spirited in the extreme, and 
died a greatly respected citizen in his sev- 
enty-first year. 

Calvin A. Seymoure, the subject proper 
of this biographical sketch, was born on his 
father's farm in Noble township, Noble 
county, Ind., March II, 1847, received a 
sound English education, and at the age of 
eighteen years began teaching school, which 
vocation he followed for several winters in 
Noble county, and lived on the home farm 
until twenty-one years old. 

In the meantime Mr. Seymoure began 
the study of medicine under the tutelage of 
Dr. C. W. De Pew. of Wolf Lake, and after 
due preparation by him attended lectures at 
the Indiana Medical College, at Indianapolis, 
from which institution he was graduated 
with the class of 1876. Before securing his 
medical diploma, however, he had practiced 
medicine at Sheldon, Allen county, Ind.. 
from the spring of 1872, and later, at the 
same place, until the fall of 1881. and there 
his medical skill met with unequivocal ap- 
preciation and was well remunerated. 

About the year last mentioned Dr. Sey- 
moure, settled in W'awaka, where he is rec- 
ognized as the leading physician and sur- 
geon of the township and has a wide and 
paying field of practice and but little compe- 
tition. The Doctor is a member of the No- 
ble County Medical Society, and also of the 
Indiana State Medical Society and of the 
American Medical Association — all standard 
professional associations, to which he has 
contributed many essays and other docu- 
ments 1 if rare technical value and importance. 

For two years he rilled the responsible 
position of president of the Noble County 

Medical Society, and in 10,01 was selected 
as delegate from the local association to the 
American Medical Association — a decided 
mark of confidence and respect on the part 
of his confreres. For eight consecutive 
years Dr. Seymoure has filled the office of 
coroner of Noble county, having been elect- 
ed by the Democratic party, of which he is 
a stanch and active member. 

Dr. Seymoure has been twice married; 
first in Noble township, November 5. [869, 
to Miss Callie V. Keller, a native of Vir- 
ginia, born July 5, 1849, and a daughter of 
the late Samuel Keller, of Noble township, 
who died in 1893. when upward of seventy 
years of age. Mrs. Dr. Seymoure was called 
away March jo. 1887. the mother of four 
children, viz: Horace A., who is an archi- 
tect, designer and manufacturer, residing in 
Chicago: Charles L.. who died when nine- 
teen months old: Bert B., who was called 
away when fifteen years old: and C. Orvas, 
who is a mechanic. 

The second marriage of Dr. Seymoure 
took place in Lagrange, Ind.. November 
27, 1889, to Miss Addie M. Brant, a native 
of Iowa, but reared in Lagrange, Ind.. in 
which city her father. Charles A. Brant, is 
a well-known druggist. This happy union 
has been blessed with two children. Brant 
and Mildred. 

Dr. Seymoure is a member of Brimfield 

i Lodge, No. 485. I. O. 0. F. ; also of Albion 
Lodge, Xo. [29, K. <X T. M.. and of W'a- 
waka Lodge, No. 432, K. of P., and the 

! Doctor and family attend the W'awaka Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. Socially they hold 
a very high position, and professional!} none 


stands higher in the township and county 
than the Doctor himself. The Doctor is like- 
wise president of the Zigzag Telephone Com- 
pany, of Elkhart township. 


America is renowned for her public-spir- 
ited men. "Like father like son," is an old 
adage, as old as this country of ours and one 
that has proven to be true in a vast number 
of cases. 

Donelson K. Hitchcock is an excellent 
example of the proverb above quoted. His 
father, the late Henry H. Hitchcock, was for 
many years engaged in various enterprises 
in Noble county, I'nd. He was born in De- 
catur, X. Y., July 25, 1 81 6. His wife was 
Mary P. Kedzie, who was born at Delhi, 
N. Y.. April 26, 1S25. He moved to Noble 
county, Ind., in the early 'forties, and she 
came about five years later. Mr. Hitchcock 
was first engaged in mercantile pursuits at 
Augusta, just to the west of Albion. Later 
he moved to Albion and was elected county 
recorder, an office that he held part of two 
terms. From Albion he moved to Wolcott- 
ville, and for a time was engaged in the mill- 
ing business with John McMeana. From 
AVolcottville he moved to Kendallville, where 
he was engaged in banking with William 
Mitchell for several years. He then moved 
to Goshen. Ind., where he again engaged in 
the banking business. He died August 26, 
1890, while spending his summer vacation 
at Petoskey, Mich. Mrs. Hitchcock died in 
Goshen. Ind., April 2$, 1872. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock had two chil- 
dren win 1 lived to grow to maturity: Ella. 

who married Ira W. Nash, and died at 
Union City. Mich., February 11, 1872; and 
Donelson K., who was born in Kendallville, 
Ind., February 15, 1862. 

Donelson K., our subject, spent his early 
life chiefly in Noble county. He was brought 
up at home and early acquired his father's 
ability to accommodate himself to circum- 
stances and to be successful in whatever line 
of work he might engage. After graduating 
from the public schools he completed his 
studies at the Michigan Agricultural College, 
which for many years has borne the reputa- 
tion of being second to no agricultural col- 
lege in the country. 

Soon after graduating from college our 
subject married Miss May L. Cosper, March 
8, 1884. Miss Cosper was the talented 
daughter of George W. and Emeline Kim- 
mell Cosper. Mr. Cosper was born in Tioga 
county, Penn., July 18, 1827. Mrs. Cosper 
was born in Canton, Stark county, Ohio, 
July 22, 1833. The}- were married in Al- 
bion, Ind., where they settled and lived for 
several years and then moved to Brimfield, 
Ind., where he died December 24, 1893. 
They had four children, of whom one died in 
infancy. The others were: May L., Charles 
J. and Schuyler C. May was born in Al- 
bion. February 28. 1861. 

After the marriage of our subject, he 
settled near Brimfield, in January, 1885, on 
the farm that he still continues to live on. 
His knowledge, gained by his years of study 
at Lansing, has been of inestimable value to 
him. The one hundred and eighty-four acres 
that he owns are in an excellent state of cul- 
tivation. The buildings erected on his farm 
are models that other farmers would do well 
to follow, and show not only the value of a 
course of study in farming, but that an edu- 


<T7^ /f, /i£csfcS>- 

a^< i-c^t>~<-~ 

7^/^y G /^^/f^ f 


cated fanner is of greater value to the com- 
munity than one who is without an educa- 

Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock have had but 
one child, Mary J., who died September 13, 
1899, when but two years of age. Mr. 
Hitchcock does not believe that any one 
should hide his light under a bushel, much 
less one who has had so thorough an educa- 
tion as he has had. He is public-spirited, en- 
joys society and is a member of several or- 
ganizations designed to forward the interest 
of mankind. His knowledge of agriculture 
lias made him a man much sought after by 
the agricultural interests. He has served as 
president of the Eastern Indiana Agricul- 
tural Society, a fact which in itself ought tu- 
be of sufficient evidence of his worth. Fur- 
thermore, he has studied Free Masonry. In 
this, as in other matters that he has studied, 
he has gone to the bottom; he was not con- 
tent to obtain a mere smattering of the sub- 
ject. So assiduously did he set himself at 
work that he has already risen to the thirty- 
second degree, and enjoys a distinction ob- 
tained by verv few men of his age. 


Holding worthy prestige among the 
public men of Noble county, enjoying a pop- 
ularity and maintaining a representative po- 
sition as editor and proprietor of one of the 
leading papers of northern Indiana, it is be- 
fitting that in this connection be given a 
resume of the life history of the well-known 
gentleman whose name introduces this arti- 
cle — a young man of marked ability and 
wide influence. J. Edgar Buchanan, editor 
and proprietor of the New Era. was born 

near the town of Corunna, Dekalb county. 
Ind., on the 25th day of March, [868. His 
father, Albert Buchanan, a native of Ohio, 
came to Indiana in 1854 and located on the 
farm where he now resides, eight miles east 
of Kendall ville. Previous to that time, 
about [848, a Mr. Potts purchased the ad- 
joining farm, and between his daughter, 
Hannah Potts, and Albert Buchanan, soon 
sprang up a mutual friendship, which, ripen- 
ing into love, finally terminated in their mar- 
riage in the mouth of September, i860. To 
this marriage two children were born, the 
subject of this sketch and Elmer Buchanan, 
the latter no longer living. 

After attending the district schools of 

his neighborh 1 until his fifteenth year. 

Edgar Buchanan entered Hillsdale College, 
Mich., where he pursued his studies for a 
period of four years. By reason of failing 
eyesight he was obliged to leave college a 
short time before completing the prescribed 
course, otherwise he would have been the 
youngest student ever graduated from the 
above institution. With a mind well forti- 
fied by severe discipline young Buchanan en- 
gaged in educational work, and for three 
years taught very successfully in the country 
schools of Dekalb county. His abilities as 
an instructor becoming recognized, he was 
tendered and accepted the position of high 
school principal of the schools of Wa- 
terloo, where he made a most cred- 
itable record as an instructor and dis- 
ciplinarian. He came to Albion in Sep- 
tember, 1895. and purchased of J. P. Prick- 
ett the New Era, and at once entered upon 
his duties as editor. The New Era was 
established in 1872 by Samuel Alvord, who 
disposed of the plant in 1876 to Mr. Prickett. 
Since coming into possession of Mr. Bu- 


chanan the office has heen refitted and sup- 
plied with many of the latest and most ap- 
proved appliances, and the paper, greatly 
improved in mechanical make-up and in the 
quality of its reading matter has continued 
to grow in public favor until it now has one 
of the largest circulations as well as one of 
the most liberal advertising patronages of 
any paper in the county. Politically it is an 
exponent of Republican principles, and 
through its columns the productions of local 
writers are given publicity. Mr. Buchanan 
wields a graceful as well as trenchant pen, 
and as an editorial writer discusses the lead- 
ing questions of the day in a masterly man- 
ner, proving a formidable but courteous an- 
tagonist when taking issue with brother edi- 
tors. His ability as a journalist is well es- 
tablished, and the New Era, growing in pop- 
ularity with each issue, compares favorably 
in every respect with the majority of local 
sheets published in the state. It is clean and 
dignified in tone, filled with bright, newsy- 
articles, and is greatly appreciated by its 
many subscribers as a family paper. Finan- 
cial! v it has more than met the expectations 
of the proprietor, and being on a sound, re- 
liable basis, its friends are' optimistic enough 
to predict for it a much larger patronage and 
a career of still greater prosperity and use- 
fulness. Many of Mr. Buchanan's editorials 
have been extensively quoted, and his high 
standing among the successful newspaper 
men of Indiana has for a number of years 
been recognized and assured. 

As a politician Mr. Buchanan is a potent 
force in the party councils of Noble county, 
and has held and still holds the position of 
secretary of the Republican county central 
committee. He has contributed much to the 
success of the ticket in a number of hotlv 

contested campaigns, and his services by 
means of his paper and as a shrewd adviser 
have heen greatly appreciated, not only in his 
own city and county, but elsewhere. Mr. 
Buchanan owns a beautiful residence prop- 
erty in Albion, and his home is presided over 
by a lady of culture and refinement, to whom 
he was united in marriage on the 21st day 
of June. 1890. The maiden name of Mrs. 
Buchanan was Nellie D. Brecbill, a native of 
Dekalb county and daughter of Christian 
Brecbill, a prominent citizen of that part of 
the state. Mrs. Buchanan has borne her 
husband one child, Verne, a bright and prom- 
ising lad, who first saw the light of day Jan- 
uary 31, 1892. Mr. Buchanan is a member 
of the Pythian lodge at Corunna and active 
in all the work of die order. He takes pride 
in the material prosperity of Albion and is 
public spirited in the most liberal sense of 
the term. He is a most affable gentleman, 
easily approachable, and possesses a pleas- 
ing personality, which, with other amiable 
qualities and characteristics, has won him the 
confidence and respect of the community. 

Mrs. Buchanan is an active worker in the 
society known as the Rathbone Sisters, and 
as such has earned a state reputation. She 
served two years as deputy grand chief of 
the second district, composed of the counties 
of Noble, Dekalb. Steuben, Lagrange 
Allen and Whitley, and is discharging the 
duties of the position at the present time. 
She is also one of the grand trustees of the 
order for the entire state, and in many other 
capacities labors to disseminate the principles 
of the society. While active in the discharge 
of her official functions she is a lady of do- 
mestic tastes and spares no pains to make 
home what it should be — the ideal spot on 
earth for love, happiness and content. 



Among the most respected foreign-born 
residents of Kendallville, Noble county, Ind., 

may he found the family of the late Ernest 
I'ln'im. the father of the subject proper of 
this sketch, and that of Frederick L. him- 
self, who is cashier of Campbell & Fetter's 

Frederick L. Bluhm was horn in Lupen- 
dorf. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, 
March jo. 1856. The family continued to 
reside in the Fatherland until the fall of 
1871. when they came to America and set- 
tled in Kendallville, although the father had 
been a farmer in his native land. 

Ernest Bluhm, also a native of Lupen- 
dorf, was born December 16. 1823, and 
there married Miss Louisa Droege. who was 
born at Levensdorf. Mecklenburg, Germany, 
August 9, 1 83 1. To the marriage of Ernest 
and Louisa ( Droege) Bluhm there were 
born twelve children, of whom ten lived to 
reach mature years and were named in order 
of birth as follows: Lena, now the widow 
of O. L. Woodruff; Frederick I... the sub- 
ject of this sketch; Ida. who is the wife of 
A. ranker, of Kendallville; Henry F. ; 
-Charles J. ; Louisa ; Anna ; Herman ; Minnie; 
and Lydia. Mrs. Louisa ( Droege) Bluhm 
died in Kendallville April 27, 1900, and 
was soon followed to the grave by her de- 
voted husband, who died June 21. 1901. In 
speaking of the latter event, a local journal 
bad this to say : 

"Ernest Bluhm was born December 16, 
1823, at Lupendorf, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 
Germany. His parents were Christopher and 
Dorothea Bluhm. In 1853 Ernest Bluhm 
was united in holy wedlock to Louisa Droege 
— an exceedingly happy union of forty-seven 

years' duration. Emigrating to the United 
States in 1871, these parents and their chil- 
dren at once took up their abode in this lo- 
cality and continually resided here- Great 
was the sorrow of the family and of the aged 
husband in special, when, on April 27, 1900, 
the death of Airs. Bluhm parted those whom 
God had put together. Now their souls have 
met again before the throne of the Savior, 
and their bodies are slumbering aside of each 
other in the grave until the glorious day of 

'Aye, both within that lovely paradise 

At last do safely dwell; 
From out their souls the songs of bliss do rise. 

Of joys their lips shall tell, 
While holy saints are singing 

Hosannas o'er and o'er — 
Pure hallelujahs ringing 

Around them evermore!' 

"The age attained by Ernest Bluhm was 
seventy-seven years, six months and five 
days. His death is mourned by two brothers, 
four sons, six daughters and six grandchil- 

Frederick L. Bluhm was educated in the 
excellent public schools of bis native land 
until about fourteen years of age. when he 
came with his parents to Noble county, Ind. 
Here he found .employment on the farm of 
John Mitchell, for whom he worked from 
1 87 1 until 18S2, when he entered the First 
National Bank of Kendallville and filled the 
position of bookkeeper, with great satisfac- 
tion to all concerned, until January 1, 1894. 
when the old bank relinquished business and 
the new bank' was organized, when he was 
promoted to the responsible ofhee of cashier, 
the duties of which he has performed with 
equal satisfaction to the officers and stock- 
holders and credit to himself until the pres- 
ent time. 


Frederick L. Bluhm was joined in matri- 
mony at Albion, Ind., May 29, 1888, with 
Miss Louisa M. Lang, who was born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., March 24, 1859. a daugh- 
ter of Julius and Katherina Lang, the latter 
of whom died in 1896. To the marriage of 
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick L. Bluhm two 
bright children have been born — Maurice L. 
and Ida W. — who are the delight and pride 
of the Bluhm household, and give promise of 
affording additional pleasure to the paraits 
as years grow apace. 

In politics Mr. Bluhm is a Republican, 
and in 1891 was elected city clerk of Ken- 
dallville. an office he ably filled for three 
years, and in the spring of 1898 he was 
elected a member of the city council, of 
which dignified body he is still one of the 
most active members. Mr. and Mrs. Bluhm 
are devoted members of the German Luther- 
an church, in which Mr. Bluhm served for 
two years as treasurer and then resigned, 
lint both live faithfully up to its teachings 
and liberally contribute financially to its 
support. Mr. Bluhm holds a high rank as a 
business man. and socially he and wife are 
welcomed in the best circles of the city. 


This veteran shoer and wagonmaker of 
Albion, Noble county, Ind., was born in this 
city February 2, 1S58, a son of Pearce and 
Mary ( Horn ) Haney. The father was a 
native of Berks county, Penn., born March 
1, 1 816, and died in Albion, March n, 1882. 
The mother was also a native of the Key- 
stone state, born in Heidelberg, Lehigh 
county, November 17, 1821, and still lives in 
her own beautiful home, surrounded by all 

her children, and looked after chiefly by her 
son, Allen E. They were married at Perry- 
ville, Carbon count}-, July 12, 1839, an d be- 
came the parents of twelve children, namely: 
Samuel, born April 20, 1840, at Mauch 
Chunk, died September 12, 1841 ; Amanda 
E., born August 28, 1841, at Mauch Chunk, 
married George E. Worden, December 13, 

\ 1860, who enlisted in Company B, Twelfth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, on December 
31. 1863. and died at Scottsboro, Ala., 
March 20, 1864. His remains were brought 
home in October. 1865. and were placed in 
the cemetery at Albion. Aby L. was born 
November 14, 1842. and was married in 
February", 1865, to Simon Weimer, a resi- 
dent farmer of Jefferson township; he was 
also a veteran of the Civil war. Hannah A. 
was born November 15, 1844, and in Febru- 
ary. 1866, married Lewis Price, a carpenter 
and contractor of Albion. Mr. Price was a 
soldier during the Civil war, served three 
years, and was a prisoner for nine months 
in Libby prison. John C. was born August 
31, 1846, and in July, 1875, was married to 
Miss Alice Glynn. Charles F., born Novem- 
ber 20, 1848, was married in January. 1S74, 
to Miss Lida Johnson, and after her death 

: married Miss Fannie Russell. Ella J., who 
was born May 1, 1851, became the wife of 
William S. Riser, an expert accountant and 
now a resident of Albion. He was auditor 
for Noble county four years, and held the 
position of third auditor in the treasury de- 
partment under the administration of Mr. 
Cleveland. Mary A., born March 9. 1854, 
became the wife of Joseph B. Franks, a gro- 
cer of Albion, and died May 20, 1897. Vada 
E, born October 26, i860, died November 
22, 1901, was married on September 6, 1889, 
to fobn W. Edwards, a merchant of South 


CUsW yKnCisu^Y/ 


Whitley. Elmer E. was born April 16, 
1862, in Albion, and married in 1886 Miss 
Rose Miller; and Lilly M.. born December 
15, [864, became the wife of Perry D. Cree- 

ger, a lawyer of Chicago; she died Septem- 
ber 26, 1889. 

Pearce Haney, father of Allen E. Haney, 
learned the trade of a blacksmith, and be- 
came the superintendent of that department 
in the works of the Lehigh Coal Company, 
of Pennsylvania. On his removal to Albion, 
Ind.. he engaged in the business for a short 
time and then retired from active life. He 
assisted in putting together the first locomo- 
tive that was brought to this country from 
England, and was on board of it when the 
first run was made. In his fraternal rela- 
tions Mr. Haney became a member of 
Mauch Chunk Lodge, No. 76. I. O. O. F., 
in 1 84 J, passing all the chairs. 

The mother of Allen E. Haney, now in 
her eightieth year, has lived a life of re- 
markable usefulness. During her husband's 
life her wise counsel and excellent judgment 
in matters of business was of great service 
to him, and on his death her successful man- 
agement of the estate could not have been 
surpassed. She is one of that rare and beau- 
tiful type of womanhood who, while main- 
taining the greatest reverence for all those 
grand principles which governed in the past, 
has not allowed herself to live only upon the 
lines of thought and progress then laid 
down, hut keeps in close touch with the ever 
present and recognizes the necessity of con- 
forming to its various phases and conditions. 
To see her now. one scarcely believes her to 
be much beyond middle age. and it is the 
hope and belief of her children and mam- 
friends that many years of happiness are yet 
in store for her. 

Allen E. Haney acquired his education in 
the public schools of Albion. On laying 
aside his text-books to engage in the ardu- 
ous duties of life, he determined to follow 
the trade of his father, and in a few years 
became well and favorably known as a skill- 
ful blacksmith and horseshoer. He worked 
for a time in his native home, and in 1891 
went tn Goshen. Believing that man's no- 
blest helper — the horse — deserved better 
treatment than is usually given by the aver- 
age horseshoer, he went to Chicago and took 
a special course in veterinary surgery and 
horseshoeing, which has ever been regarded 
by him as one of his wisest moves. Return- 
ing to Goshen, Ind., being passionately fond 
of music, he attended the musical college of 
that city, being two years a pupil of Prof. 
Rogers, and was afterward under Prof. Den- 
nis, at Warren, Ohio, becoming a fine cor- 
netist. With this experience he returned to 
his old home in Albion and assumed the 
management of his shop, which he had pre- 
viously purchased and has conducted suc- 
. cessfully ever since. That he enjoys the es- 
teem of numerous friends is not surprising 
to those who have known him from early 
youth, and the success which has rewarded 
his efforts has been well deserved and hon- 
orably earned. 

Mr. Haney has in his employ his brother 
Charles and his brother-in-law Roy Sheffer, 
both engaged in the smithing department; 
the wagon department is under the super- 
vision of I l.dsev Mach. 

On ( Ictober [8, [898, Air. Haney led £0 
the altar Bertha A. Sheffer, of Kendallville, 
who there received her early education, 
which was supplemented by a course in a 
Michigan seminar)- and rounded out by a 
thorough course in elocution under Mrs. 


Wadsworth, of Chicago, at South Bend. 
Mrs. Haney is an accomplished musician — 
a fine performer on the cornet, and their 
pleasant home is made doubly attractive to 
numerous friends through their musical tal- 
ent. One child has blessed their union, Ban- 
ner Pearce, a bright boy of twenty months. 
Fraternally Mr. Haney is a member of 
Albion Lodge, No. 380, I. O. O. F., and of 
the encampment and uniform rank at Ken- 
dallville. Mrs. Haney is also a member of 
Rebekah Lodge, I. O. O. F. 


This prominent and public-spirited citi- 
zen of Elkhart township was born on his 
father's farm in Orange township. Noble 
county, Ind., September 4, 1855. He was 
reared on the home farm and secured an 
education in the district school. After lay- 
ing aside his books to take up the duties of 
the farm he remained with his parents until. 
reaching manhood's estate. Marrying soon 
afterward, he remained one year longer on 
the home place, when he settled on a farm 
in Elkhart township, which has since been 
the principal scene of his labors. His mar- 
riage took place December 25, 1879, to Miss 
Magdalena brick, daughter of John and 
Delilah (Boyd) Frick. Her father was a 
native of Switzerland; her mother was a na- 
tive of Pennsylvania, and was born Decem- 
ber 28. 1833. They were married Septem- 
ber J J, [854, and settled in Elkhart town- 
ship. Here the father died February 21, 
[870. They were the parents of eleven chil- 
dren, namely : Susan, who became the wife 
of Cornelius Resler, died in Noble count}' 

April 29, 1885; Magdalena, who is the wife 
of the subject, was born May 10, 1857; 
William is a farmer residing in Elkhart 
township; Barbara is the wife of Wesley 
Weaver, of Orange township ; Christian died 
when about twenty-four years of age; Jo- 
seph ; Edward ; Amanda, a prominent young 
girl, died at the age of seventeen; Katie 
died in childhood; and two others who 
passed away in infancy. 

Mr. and Mrs. Weaver are the parents of 
two. children, Cora and Ruth. Mr. Weaver 
has devoted his years to the vocation of 
farming, and the strict application of his 
energies and intelligent thought has brought 
to him ample return. He has a fine farm 
located in the eastern part of the township 
of Elkhart, consisting of two hundred acres 
of fine land. The well-tilled fields, handsome 
residence and commodious barns and out- 
buildings bespeak the truly thrifty husband- 
man. Representative as he is among a class 
of citizens noted for those measures of public 
policy which bear directly on material inter- 
ests, he enjoys a high reputation for sagacity 
and integrity, and his opinions and views are 
recognized as worthy the highest considera- 

In matters of religion Mr. and Mrs. 
Weaver are earnest and active members of 
the German Baptist church, and by their ex- 
ample and precept are influential among the 
congregation with whom they worship. Mrs. 
Weaver is especially devoted in the numer- 
ous kindly acts which spring from a high 
appreciation of the duties of the church in 
promoting the cause of Christianity and that 
advancement of civilization which results 
therefrom, and well deserves the esteem in 
which she is held by her numerous friends 
throughout the township and county. 



Christian Weaver, father of William 
Weaver, was born in Columbiana count}-, 
Ohio, January 1. [826; Christian's wife was 
Susanna Towns, a native of Stark county, 
Ohio, horn February ri, 1828. They were 
married in Steuben county, Ind., and settled 
in Orange township, Noble county, Ind., 
where she passed away January 10, 1900 — 
the father still living-. They were the par- 
ents of five children, namely: John, who 
died in childhood ; William, the subject ; Syl- 
vanus is a farmer residing in Orange town- 
ship; Wesley is also a farmer of Orange 
township; and Cornelius, who died in child- 

The life work of this worthy couple is 
well worth}- the emulation of those who seek 
to so live that their future years may lie re- 
warded by a competence when the weight of 
years shall come, and their memory will long 
remain among those with whom their lot was 
fortunatelv cast. 


The subject of this sketch has richly 
earned and commanded the respect and con- 
fidence of those with whom he has been 
brought in contact. He has been for vears 
more or less prominently identified with the 
varied interests of his community and has 
contributed largely to its advancement, mor- 
ally, educationally and materially. 

Noah Winstead is a native son of the 
Buckeye state, his birth having taken place 
in Fairfield county, May 8, 1859. He is a son 
of Fayette and Ellen (Greeno) Winstead. 
The father was a native of Pickaway county, 
Ohio, but came to Indiana in 1859 anc ' set ~ 

tied on the old Hittler farm, near Cromwell, 
Sparta township. About 1870 he bought 
the farm whereon his son Noah now resides 
and lived there until his death, February 2-,, 
1900. Ellen (Greeno) Winstead was a 
daughter of Jacob Greeno, an old and hon- 
ored resident of Fairfield, Ohio. 

Noah Winstead until he attained the age 
of eighteen years attended the public schools 
of Fairfield, and was a faithful, persevering 
student. Upon leaving school he began 
working by the month, continuing at that 
employment for six years. Then for several 
years he worked by the day at farm work. 
Finding employment in a tile yard, he re- 
mained there until 1897, when he moved 
with his father and cared for him until the 
latter's death. He is now the owner of one 
hundred and sixty acres of fertile and pro- 
ductive farm land, and its well-kept appear- 
ance abundantly testifies to the care which its 
owner bestows upon it. 

The marriage of Noah Winstead was 
solemnized on the 2d of April, 18S7. when 
lie took for a helpmeet Miss Alice Donelson, 
daughter of William Donelson, a native of 
Ohio. This union has been blessed with the 
birth of four children, viz. : Grover, born 
December 14, 1887: Cletis. born April 7, 
1891; Nellie, born August 30, 1893; Arti- 
mesia. born June 21, 1896. These children 
compose a bright and interesting group, in 
which their parents take a just pride. 

Politically Mr. Winstead is a Democrat, 
firmly believing that the principles enunci- 
ated in the platform of that party are those 
most in harmony with the spirit of our po- 
litical institutions and most calculated to en- 
hance the welfare of the people. 

Religiously Mr. Winstead and his family 
are members of the Christian church at 


Pleasant Hill. They have always been active 
and consistent in their support of the church 
and its interests. Mr. Winstead has been 
a public-spirited and progressive citizen, and 
is deqaly interested in the welfare of his 
community. His business efforts have been 
crowned with a degree of success richly mer- 
ited, and now he is enjoying the results of 
his early attention to details in the manage- 
ment of his farm. 


John W. Morr, M. D., a well-read and 
popular young physician of Albion, Noble 
county. Ind.. is a native of Dekalb county, 
and was born November 2, 1870, a son of 
George S. and Rebecca (Walter) Morr, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania, who settled in De- 
kalb count}-. Ind., in 1845, where the father 
died in 1877. The latter was a successful 
farmer and later a merchant at Moores- 
ville. a village which was laid out by himself 
and of which he was the postmaster for sev- 
eral years. Both the Morr and the Walter 
families were of German origin. In Amer- 
ica, however, the Morr family has in many 
instances risen to distinction, politically and 
financially, some of its members having been 
members of congress, and a number being 
now residents of Ashland county, Ohio. The 
immediate parental family of Dr. John W. 
Morr comprises six sons and one daughter, 
born in the following order: Dr. Joseph, 
practicing- in Orland, Steuben county. Ind.: 
Samuel, salesman for the D. M. Osborn 
Company, of New York; Elmer, deceased; 
Dr. John W., the subject of this biography ; 
George S., a farmer on the parental home- 

stead; Peter W., a salesman of musical in- 
struments, and of agricultural implements : 
Sarah, now the wife of William Snurr, a 
contractor and builder and a resident of De- 
kalb county. 

Dr. John W. Morr received his element- 
ary education in the country schools of De- 
kalb county, from which he graduated in 
1886, took a three-years' course in the Au- 
burn (Ind.) high school, and then a one- 
year course in the Angola Normal School, 
after which, for one year, he engaged in the 
voi\iti in of school teaching. He began the 
study of medicine in 1889 under the tutor- 
ship of his uncle, Dr. Hull, of Hicksville, 
Ohio. In 1 89 1 he matriculated at Fort 
Wayne Medical College, from which he 
graduated with first honors in surgery in 
1894, taking a special course of one year in 
the latter branch of the profession. He first 
located for practice at Spencerville, Ind., re- 
mained one year, and in 1895 came to Al- 
bion, where his abilities met with flattering 
recognition and where he has established a 
remunerative practice. Dr. Morr has also 
met with political favor and honor in Albion 
with the Democratic party. He is superin- 
tendent of the Albion Electric Light plant, 
city treasurer and chairman of the Noble- 
county Democratic central committee, serv- 
ing- in the last named capacity in 1900, dur- 
ing the campaign, with marked executive 
ability and recovering from the opposing 
party many important and responsible posi- 
tions. He enjoys the distinction of being 
the youngest man that ever filled this chair- 
manship, as well as of being the youngest 
physician and surgeon in the count}-. 

January 1. 1890, Dr. Morr was united in 
marriage to Miss Amanda Koch, also a na- 
tive of Dekalb county, and a daughter 

/v^ . ty > JM-^-^ /T?^ 


of Joseph Koch, who was born in Germany. 
To this union have heen born three children : 
Mary Blanche and Justin Wheeler, the form- 
er on September 26, 1893. and the latter 
May 12, 189c;: the eldest child. Grace, burn 
March 7, 1891, died June 25, 1892. Mrs. 
Morr was highly educated at Auburn. Ind., 
and was employed as a teacher at the date of 
her marriage. Dr. Morr is a member of the 
Indiana State Medical Society, the Noble 
County Medical Society and the Dekalb 
County Society; he is also a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Knights 
of Pythias, Benevolent and Protective Or- 
der of Elks, and the Modern Woodmen of 
America, and also of the ladies' departments 
of each — the Rebekahs. Rathbone Sisters, 
etc. The Doctor and his wife are members 
of the Evangelical Lutheran church, of 
which the Doctor is a member of the board 
of trustees. He has been very successful 
professionally and financially, and now owns 
several fine pieces of property in Albion, 
while the Koch family is equally fortunate 
at St. Joe, Ind. 


For the past eight years Noble county 
has largely profited through the efficient ser- 
vices of the gentleman whose name is above 
given, John W. Miller, county recorder, and 
his numerous friends predict his remaining 
in that position for some years to come if he 
so desires. Mr. Miller is a native of Ohio, 
having been born in Seneca county. Novem- 
ber 20, 1840, the son of John W. and Hul- 
•dah (Jones) Miller. 

form W. Miller, senior, was born in Fair- 

held county, Ohio, in 1816, and was widely 
and favqrably known throughout that sec- 
tion and Allen county, Ind., whither he 
moved in 1848, as an able and earnest minis- 
ter of the E\'angelical Lutheran church. He 
also followed farming, working hard during 
the week in cultivating and improving his 
property and occupying the pulpit on Sun- 
days. He died at Goshen, Ind., December 
16, 1892. Some years prior to his death he 
devoted his entire time to the ministry, and 
his demise was a serious and sad blow to the 
congregation over which he presided. His 
ancestors were Irish and German. 

The mother of John \\\, Jr., born in Vir- 
ginia in 1 81 7, was of Scotch- Welsh lineage, 
and a representative of the well-known Jones 
family of the Old Dominion. They were 
among the early colonists, and some mem- 
bers of the family became victims of the hos- 
tile Indians. Gen. J. J. Jones, of the Confed- 
erate army, was the youngest brother of the 
subject's maternal grandfather. He. with 
four sons, served in the army and held high 
positions in the Confederate service. Gen- 
eral Jones was in command of a division, his 
four sons commanding brigades under him, 
and, at the terrible battle of the Wilderness, 
was killed. 

Our subject's father was twice married. 
By his first wife eleven children were born, 
and four by the second. Of the first family 
eight are known to be living; of one nothing 
is known as to his place of residence. 

Mr. Miller's early days were passed on a 
farm in Ohio; and when his parents moved 
to Indiana grew to young manhood under 
the same wholesome influences, obtaining 
his education through the common schools 
of the district, and persistent study and ap- 
plication during the vacation season. Like 



thousands of young men of i 861-2, his mind 
was somewhat distracted by the great events 
of that period, and the fever and excitement 
incident to the perilous condition of the coun- 
try awakened his love for the Union and, 
August 12, 1862, found him in the ranks of 
that grand army of patriots, the record of 
whose lives can never be blotted from the 
pages of history, and whose deeds will be 
transmitted through grateful memory to 
generations yet unborn. He enlisted in Com- 
pany C, One Hundredth Indiana Volunteer 
Infantry, which was assigned to the Army of 
the Tennessee, and as most of the service of 
the regiment was under the immediate com- 
mand of Gen. John A. Logan, Mr. Miller 
had ample experience in (tie field. He was a 
participant in the battles around Vicksburg, 
was at Jackson, Trenton, Missionary Ridge, 
Knoxville, Gray's Mills, Rocky Face Ridge, 
Daltdn, Buzzard's Roost, Snake Creek Gap, 
Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Church, Big 
Sliantv, Kenesaw Mountain, Nickajack 
Creek, Chattahoochie River, Decatur, Atlan- 
ta, Cedar Bluffs, Jonesboro, Lovejoy's Sta- 
tion, Griswoldville, Bentonville, Wise Forks, 
and numerous skirmishes. The history of 
the adjutant general's office shows that this 
regiment was in line of battle and on the 
skirmish line more than one-third of its en- 
tire term of enlistment — three years — and 
marched over four thousand miles. On the 
termination of hostilities and when the com- 
bined armies under Grant and Sherman re- 
turned to the national capital, the One Hun- 
dredth Indiana Infantry had the post of 
honor and was the first regiment to pass the 
stand in that grand review of battle-scarred 
veterans, the like of which has never been 

Mr. Miller was discharged from the serv- 

ice as sergeant of his company. Returning 
to his home in Noble county he took up the 
pursuits of civil life, learned the trade of a 
carpenter and followed the business until 
1872, when he accepted a position as fore- 
man of the wood department of the Flint 
Walling Manufacturing Company, at Ken- 
dallville. This position he occupied for 
twenty-two years. 

Mr. Miller was married, December 24, 
1865, to Miss Sarah Aldrich, a native of the 
state of New. York. Five children were 
born to them, as follows: Maude, Rodell, 
Carl A., J. Ralph, and Fred D. Rodell is a 
talented musician in St. Louis ; Carl is a clerk 
in the Illinois Steel Works, Chicago; the 
others are at home. 

Politically Mr. Miller is a Democrat, and 
is stanch in his allegiance to the party. In 
1893 he was elected county recorder, and in 
1896, in compliment for his excellent admin- 
istration of the official duties, he was re- 
elected for another term. He has served 
the city of Kendallville for nine years as an 
active and efficient member of her city coun- 
cil, giving his attention and care to its duties 
with the same earnestness and thought evi- 
denced in whatever he undertakes. In 1898-9' 
he was chairman of the Democratic county 
central committee. 

Among the fraternal associations Mr. 
Miller occupies a high place in the estimation 
of the brethren, and is earnest in his efforts 
to advance the interests of each organization 
along the lines of benevolence for which they 
are noted. He is a charter member of Nel- 
son Post, G. A. R., of Kendallville, and 
served as commander the first two years," 
also served two years as commander of Wor- 
den Post, of Albion. He is a Mason, hold- 
ing membership in the Blue Lodge, Chapter 



and the Eastern Star, his wife being" a mem- 
ber of the latter. The Knights of Pythias 
also recognize in him a most worthy mem- 
ber. All the members of the family are de- 
vout worshipers and members of the church 
of the Disciples, and Mr. Miller is one of its 
trustees. There are few families in the com- 
munity more widely known and none held in 
higher estimation. 


Of the well-known family of this name, 
the gentleman whose name heads this sketch 
is a son of the late Philip Reidenbach, of 
whom and his wife more detailed mention 
is made in the life history of Jacob Reiden- 
bach. an elder brother of the subject, to be 
found on another page. Of a family of nine 
children bom to Philip and his wife Cather- 
ine, John is the seventh in the order of birth, 
and had his nativity in Elkhart township. 
Noble county, Ind.. June 3. 1857, anf l this 
township has always been his home. He 
was reared on his father's farm and was 
educated in the common schools of his na- 
tive township, and aided in the cultivation of 
the homestead until his first marriage, which 
took place March 20, 1882, to Miss Emma 
Munk, who was born in Germany, but was 
a mere infant when brought to America. 
She was reared in Orange township, Noble 
county, Ind. She was called away in March, 
1883, dying in Elkhart township, and Au- 
gust 20, 1884, Mr. Reidenbach led to the 
altar in Wayne count}-. Mich., his second 
bride, Miss Louise Smith, who was born in 
the county mentioned, April 14. 1864. Her 
parents, Charles and Sophia (Wendt) 

Smith, were born in German)-, but were resi- 
dents of Wayne county, Mich., at the time 
of their daughter's marriage. Louisa was 
the eldest of the thr,ee children born to her 
parents, the younger two being Alvina and 
Charles. To the second marriage of Mr. 
Reidenbach have been born six children, in 
the following order: George F., Ella M., 
Cora L., Brady. Roy H. and Florence L. 
Mr. Reidenbach and his wife, the latter of 
whom is a decidedly accomplished and amia- 
ble lady, are members of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church, and are very liberal in their 
contributions toward its support. 

Mr. Reidenbach is the owner of one hun- 
dred and forty-two acres of as fine a farm 
as is to be found in Elkhart township, which 
farm ihle has improved with every modern 
convenience and cultivates on the most ap- 
proved methods. He is diligent and skill- 
ful, and his crops are invariably plenteous 
and consequently profitable. Personally he 
and wife are universally esteemed for their 
individual merits, and their home is the 
abode of a generous hospitality that is shared 
with a large number of sincerely warm- 
hearted friends. 

In politics Mr. Reidenbach is a Demo- 
crat, but although very popular he has never 
been an office-seektr. 


County counselor of Noble county. Ind.. is a 
prominent and popular man in agricultural, 
political and social circles, takes an active 
part in town and county affairs, and also 
looks closely after his private interests. He 
was born in Washington township. Noble 


count}-, Intl., July 20, 185 J, and is a son of 
Aaron and Elizabeth (Paugh) Bause. both 
of whom came to Indiana in their young 
days before marriage. The father hailed 
from Union county. Penn., and the mother 
from the grand old state of Virginia. They 
were married in Washington township and 
made that their home, rearing a family of 
eight sons and two daughters to perpetuate 
their name and memory. The father finished 
his life's work May 8. 1885, at the age of 
sixty-eight years, seven months and twenty- 
six days. 

James M. Bause remained at home until 
1S77. when he rented a farm in Noble town- 
ship, cultivating it for three years, at which 
time he purchased one hundred and thirty 
acres of land. This, with forty acres added 
since, comprises his present home and is one 
of the most productive and fertile farms in 
this section. The improvements which Mr. 
Bause has placed on his land are of the useful 
and substantial order, the comfort and con- 
venience of the different members of the 
family being considered, as well as the gen- 
eral appearance of each added improvement, 
with the result that it will be impossible to 
find a more desirable property in the county 
than that which has emanated from the hand 
and brain of Mr. Bause. 

On January 7. 1878, Mr. Bause led to the 
altar Miss Susan Cramer, whose parents, 
John and Susanna Cramer, now deceased, 
were prominent citizens of Washington 
township, this county, where the nuptials 
were solemnized. One child. Miss Treadie 
E. Bause. has blessed their union, and she is 
an accomplished young lady who is a source 
of comfort to her parents and is the center of 
all social gatherings. Mr. and Mrs. Bause 
and their daughter are members of the Bap- 

tist church, in which the)" are untiring work- 
ers. Mr. Bause is an honored member of the 
Knights of Pythias lodge of Wolflake and is 
a popular member of the community in 
which he lives. He is a strong Republican 
and has taken a keen interest in the success 
of his party, being especially active in coun- 
ty work, and in the fall of 1900 he was elect- 
ed by a flattering majority to the office of 
ci amty c< mnselor, a position he has filled with 
honor and credit. 

SAMUEL L HAYS (Deceased). 

The gentleman whose name heads this 
review was a young man who was held in the 
highest respect for his integrity of character 
in Perry township, and came from a family 
who is well known in the whole county of 
Noble. He traced his lineage to noble an- 
cestry, and it is with no small degree of 
pleasure as well as sadness that the biogra- 
pher presents the following text. 

He was born in P'erry township. Noble 
county, Ind.. March 8, 1875. and was the 
youngest of a family of six children born to 
William D. and Harriet E. (Smith) Hays. 
An unfortunate circumstance has existed in 
the home of Mr. and Mrs. Hays, as they 
have had to mourn the death of each son 
which has been born to them. He was reared 
on his fatheCs estate contiguous to Ligonier, 
where he received his practical education 
both in the district schools and at Ligonier 
high school. He was a student also at the 
business college at Manchester. Ind.. and 
later turned his time and attention to agri- 
cultural pursuits. He was a young man 
who revered his father and mother, and his 


aim in life was to live in such a manner as 
would reflect honor upon his dear parents 
as well as upon his own name. His home he 
looked upon as the dearest spot, and his 
wife and sweet little daughter were his pride. 
Mr. Hays' life for over a quarter of a 
century was as an open volume, and was 
spent wholly in his native township. He 
chose for his dear companion in life Miss 
Bessie J. Cook; they were wedded April 27, 
1898, and one little daughter, Harriet Lu- 
cille, was given them to bless and cheer their 
■ hearts and home. She is a winsome little 
rosebud, and will be a solace and comfort to 
her widowed mother. 

Mrs. Hays was born in Noble county 
February 15, 1877, is a daughter of William 
and Sarah (Welty) Cook, and was reared 
and educated in Perry township. She was a 
student in Ligonier high school. Her father 
was a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1823, 
and died in 1897. He was an agriculturist. 
Mother Cook was a native of Ohio, born in 
1833, ancl cuecl m l %79- ^ Irs - Hays is a 
lady who duly appreciated her dear husband, 
and her home was her paradise- 
Samuel L. Hays was a Republican in his 
political sentiment, and his maiden vote was 
cast for the lamented MeKinley. He fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of his father in his 
political affiliations. His choice in the relig- 
ious field was the United Brethren church 
located in Ligonier. He was one of the 
most prominent workers of the young men 
in the church, and especially in the Sunday- 
school. In the latter he was identified in an 
official sense as librarian, secretary and treas- 
urer for the last four years. Any measure 
he could advocate for the advancement and 
progress of the Master's work in the Sun- 
day-school he was ever ready to perform, 

and was deeply interested in the moral, so- 
cial, religious and intellectual welfare of his 

He was not strictly a rugged man in 
constitution, but at the same time was not an 
invalid. About 1900 his health began to fail 
him, and continued till the grim reaper, 
Death, sought him out on Wednesday, De- 
cember 11, 1901 : he passed away peacefully 
and quietly, his couch being surrounded by 
his loving wife and baby girl, his sorrowing 
parents and his two sisters, when the spark 
of life went out in this world to be again 
reignited in the world beyond. The sympa- 
thetic tear has been shed, the last sad rites 
have been administered by loved ones, and 
he sleeps in the beautiful Ligonier cemetery. 
There was a large concourse of friends and 
relatives present at the obsequies, which 
were held at the old homestead. His former 
pastor, Rev. G. F.Byrer, who wedded him 
and his wife, and is now resident pastor at 
Warsaw, Ind., pronounced the funeral ora- 
tion, and was assisted by the Rev. J. A. 
Groves, of Ligonier. 

The family circle has lost another link 
in the magic chain, and the bereaved par- 
ents, who have interred their last son, have 
the universal sympathy of all who know 
them. For the gratification of the bereaved 
wife and little daughter the above lines are 
willingly presented in this record of Noble 
county's best citizens, to be perused and held 
sacred in the vears to come. 


This gentleman, to a review of whose life 
the following lines are devoted, has been a 
well-know and popular resident of Al- 



bion for over a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and at the present time is con- 
nected with niie of the city's largest and 
most prosperous mercantile establishments. 
John H. Cockley is a native of Lebanon 
county, Pennsylvania, where his birth oc- 
curred on the 31st day of March. 1855. His 
parents, both born in the Keystone state, 
were Peter and Susan ( Rheinhold ) Cock- 
lew who were married in the county of Lan- 
caster, and there lived until 1885. In that 
year they moved to Kansas City. Mo., where 
the father was for some time engaged in 
buying and shipping live stock. He followed 
that business quite extensively for a number 
of years, and while thus engaged traveled 
over a large part of the middle and western 
states, meeting with financial success in 
many of his operations. While looking after 
some of his cattle he was attacked by an in- 
furiated bull, and before he could be rescued 
received injuries which resulted in his death. 
This was in the year 1888. His widow, who 
is still living, is making her home at this 
time in the city of Olathe, Kan. Peter and 
Susan Cockley were the parents of ten chil- 
dren, of whom the following are! living: 
Leah. Lizzie, Kate, Sadie, Lottie, Martha, 
Charles and John H. The first three reside 
in Pennsylvania; Lottie lives in Olathe, 
Kan. ; Charles in St. Louis ; while the sub- 
ject of this sketch is the only member of the 
family with residence in Noble county. 

John II. Cockley attended the schools of 
Fayetteville and Mechanicsburg, Penn.. until 
his fifteenth year, and then entered Palatine 
College, where he finished the English 
course. For some time after graduating 
from the above institution he remained under 
the parental roof, and about the year 1875 
came to Albion, Ind. He remained in the 

city and county, and on the 1st day of March, 
1877, his marriage was solemnized with 
Miss Delila Pepple, daughter of James Pep- 
ple, one of the pioneer settlers of Noble coun- 
ty. Immediately following his marriage Mr. 
Cockle}- accepted the position of salesman 
with one of the large dry-goods firms of Al- 
bion, and continued in that capacity until be- 
coming identified, in the month of March, 
1883, with the business house of J. D. Black. 
He has remained with that gentleman until 
the present time, meantime becoming thor- 
oughly familiar with every detail of the busi- 
ness and taking charge of the clerical depart- 
ment. Mr. Cockley is essentially a business 
man, possessing excellent judgment on all 
matters coming within his line of trade, and 
a knowledge which enables him to make ju- 
dicious purchases. He is a skilled accountant, 
and his general oversight of the business is 
such that mistakes rarely if ever occur, and 
his popularity with the public has been the 
means of winning a large number of patrons. 
By studying carefully the wants of the trade 
and catering to the tastes of customers he 
has gradually enlarged the area of the trade 
of the house until to-day it occupies a com- 
manding position in the mercantile interests 
of Noble count)-. He believes in doing well 
what is to be done, and by diligent attention 
to the most minute detail as well as the man- 
agement of greater ' concerns he has saved 
hundreds of dollars to his employer, estab- 
lishing for himself a reputation as one of the 
most careful, painstaking and successful 
salesmen that ever stood behind a counter in 

Mr. and Mrs. Cockley have an interest- 
ing family of eight children, whose names 
are as follows : Lelia, Mamie, Hattie, John 
H., Charles, Walter, Vesta and Anna. The- 



oldest daughter is a teacher in the public 
schools of York township. She is a well 
educated young- lady, cultured ami refined, 
and has made a most creditahle record in the 
work of teaching, to which she proposes to 
devote her life- The second daughter, also 
well educated, is holding a clerical position 
in the Albion postoffice, where her services 
are greatly appreciated. Mr. Cockley has 
always taken great interest in the cause of 
education, and as a member of the Albion 
school board has been instrumental in ad- 
vancing the schools of the city to the present 
high standard they enjoy. He served as 
treasurer of the board for a period of six 
years, during which time he was untiring in 
his efforts to secure teachers of superior pro- 
fessional qualifications, and to procure for 
the schools the latest and most approved edu- 
cational appliances. By reason of his own 
thorough mental discipline he is well quali- 
fied for a school official, and few men 
of the city are as familiar as he with 
the educational methods of the present 
time. In politics Mr. Cockley gives his 
allegiance to the Republican party, but 
he has never entertained any ambition 
in the direction of office. He is well 
informed on the leading questions of the day 
and discusses them intelligently, but the 
schemes and methods of the modern politi- 
cian have always been repugnant to his na- 
ture. Fraternally he belongs to the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, of Albion, 
and his religious belief is embodied in the 
Lutheran creed. In every position to which 
Mr. Cockley has been called his duties have 
been faithfully and uncomplainingly per- 
formed. He is progressive in spirit, takes 
pride in the prosperity of the city of his 
choice, and to the best of his ability does the 

right as he sees and understands the right. 
In a quiet way he has done much to advance 
the standard of citizenship, and Albion is 
proud to number him among her most wor- 
thy and highly respected men. Of domestic 
taste, he finds his greatest enjoyment in the 
bosom of his family, and his home is a favor- 
ite resort for the best social circles of the 
town. His life has been fruitful of much 
good to his fellow-man and it is with pleas- 
! ure that his name is accorded mention in this 
volume with other representative citizens of 
Noble county. 


Henry L. Busz was born February i, 
1838, on the farm upon which he now re- 
sides in Noble township, Noble county, In- 
diana, his parents being Jacob and Cath- 
erine (Reddinger) Busz. Jacob Busz was 
born in Switzerland, on October 24, 1796, 
and his wife was born in Lancaster county, 
Penn., April 25, 18 10. About 1833 in the 
month of August they came to Indiana, set- 
tling in Noble county, in section 12. Noble 
township, where they lived for man)- years 
and reared a family of six children, who are 
among the most prominent residents of No- 
ble county at this time. They are John N., 
Simon \Y.. Henry L.. Elizabeth, Jesse, and 
Mary Anil. The father passed away March 
7, 1855, and the mother on April 15, 

Henry L. Busz spent his boyhood and 
youth on his father's farm, obtained his 
education in the schools of that locality, and 
receiving lessons of thrift and industry 
which have remained with him throughout 



life and enabled ih'im to lay up a compe- 
tency against the time when the declining 
years of life shall overtake him. He has al- 
ways been a farmer and there are none in 
the community who are more deserving" 
praise for their careful and methodical 
methods, or the success of their undertak- 
ings, than Henry L. Busz. He remained at 
home until the death of his parents, and 
upon his marriage he took his bride to the old 
homestead, which has since been his home. 
The land comprises eighty-six acres of land 
upon which he has placed many improve- 
ments in the way of good buildings, etc., 
making it in every way a much-to-be de- 
sired property. 

At the breaking out of the great politi- 
cal conflict which shook our country from 
center to circumference, Air. Busz was 
among the first to shoulder arms in defense 
of the flag, enlisting in Company G, Nine- 
teenth Indiana Volunteer Regiment, in 
July, [861, and going to the seat of con- 
flict. He served faithfully and well fur six 
months, experiencing some startling adven- 
tures and was then discharged on account 
of disability, when he returned home and 
again took up the occupation of quiet life. 

On September 20, 1866, the marriage of 
Henry L. Busz and Miss Maria Pressler 
took place in this township. The bride was 
born in Fairfield county. Ohio. December 
14, 1X43, and is one of those genial women 
whom it is a pleasure to number among 
friends, and the very embodiment of cordial 
hospitality. Her father, John Pressler, was 
born in Lancaster county, Penn.. January 
-'I). [807, while her mother, Maria (Eglof) 
Pressler, was born in Montgomery county, 
the same state. They settled in Ohio and 
"later moved to W'hitlev county, Inch, where 

they died, the mother at the age of forty- 
five years and the father at the advanced 
age of eighty. Fifteen children were born 
to them, ten of whom grew to adult years. 
Mr. and Mrs. Busz are members and earn- 
est workers in the Freewill Baptist church 
and richly deserve the confidence and good 
will they enjoy among the many who have 
known and appreciated them for so many 


This gentleman is one of the best and 
most favorably known agriculturists of No- 
ble county, Ind., who has been identified 
with the dairy interests of the state for al- 
most a quarter of a century and is one of 
the largest land owners in this section. His 
parents were Samuel and Jemima ( Ritten- 
house) Hays, who settled in Perry township 
in 1S46. Samuel Hays was born in Freder- 
ick, Md., in 1787, moved to Pickaway coun- 
ty. Ohio, in 1802, was in the war of 1812, 
and in 1821 was married in Ross county, 
that state, to Miss Jemima Rittenhouse, who 
was born in the state of Virginia in 1802. 
Five children were born to them, namely: 
Mary E., who was born January 15, 1823, 
and became the wife of William Hancock, 
of Pickaway county, Ohio; Rachel J., who 
died in infancy; Moses P., who also died in 
infancy; William D., subject of these me- 
moirs, who was born April 21, 1830, in Pick- 
away county, Ohio; and Hester Ann, born 
March 31. 1833. married Hamilton Baker, 
a farmer of this count}', and passed to her 
reward in 1865. 

Levi Hays, grandfather of William D., 
was born in Maryland October 1, 1752, in 

^®J ikgi 

cti?M 46 r$ -i€ 



December. 1778. wedded Eleanor Harris, 
and in 1805 emigrated to Ohio and settled on 
Brush creek, in Fairfield county, where they 
remained one year, and in 1806 moved to 
Perry township. Mr. Hays made a purchase 
of thirteen hundred acres of land of the Fitz- 
gerald survey — one of the first surveys of 
Ohio — and five suns and four daughters 
were horn to them. 

'William D. Hays received no advantage 
in the way of education other than was de- 
rived from the public schools, but he im- 
proved the opportunities he had and ob- 
tained a practical knowledge that has been 
of inestimable benefit to him. He has de- 
voted his life to farming and stock-raising, 
and is one of the leading agriculturists of 
Noble county, whose energy and enterprise 
have made him prosperous and therefore 
prominent. His unfailing insight into the 
affairs of life led him to invest his money 
where he was certain of favorable returns, 
and his accumulations have increased until 
he now owns six hundred acres of the rich, 
productive farming land for which Noble 
county is famous, four hundred acres in 
other states, and houses and lots in Ligonier. 
Seeing a chance to add dairying to his other 
business with profit, he engaged in that in - 
dustry about twenty-four years ago, and has 
continued it since as one of the principal lines 
of his farming. So successful has he been 
in the work he has undertaken that he is re- 
garded by his neighbors as an oracle on the 
subjects of agriculture, dairying, stock-rais- 
ing, etc., and his opinions are eagerly 

Mr. Hays was married to Miss Harriet 
E. Smith, who was born in Fayette county. 
< >hio, August 10. 1834. and is a daughter of 
Jacob and Abigail (Bloomer) Smith. She 

is the eldest of six children, the remaining 
members of the family being as follows: 
Sarah A., deceased, who married Henry 
Baker, a farmer of this county ; Benjamin 
E., who married Miss Charity Lane, and is 
the father of the following children — Emma 
Ellis, Frank. Howard. Hattie. William, 
Ethel, Lizzie and Clara; Matthias M.. a 
farmer in Missouri, who married Miss Anna 
Gallatoii, now deceased. Four children, 
Lewis, William. Abigail and Daniel, com- 
posed their family. Nancy J., who died as 
she was entering young womanhood ; and 
Phcebe, wlhjo married John L. Shoup, a farm- 
er of Noble count)'. 

Jacob Smith, father of Mrs. William D. 
Hays, was born in Virgina March 29, 1810, 
was a farmer by vocation, in religion a 
Methodist, and in politics a Whig. His wife 
was also a native of Virginia, was born July 
1. 1815, and reared in Ohio, and died May 
19, 1880, in the faith of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. Mrs. Hays was in tact reared 
in Ohio, having been brought to the state 
when but a babe, and only twelve years of 
age when brought to Indiana. Mr. Hays 
well remembers the first school he attended, 
the house being but sixteen feet square and 
of the rudest possible construction, with text- 
books about as primitive as the school-house 

The union of Mr. and Mrs. Hays has 
been blessed by the birth of six sons and 
daughters, viz: Jacob, born February"""i9, 
1854, and died when in his twenty-second 
year; Rheu Ann, born December 2. 1855, 
and was taken home when a sweet little 
blossom of seven years; Luella, born August 
17. [858, became the wife of W. A. Coch- 
ran, of Perry township, and the mother of 
three children, Edith ( Mrs. Charles Stage,. 


mother of Glen T. Stage, an infant). Dean 
and Jessie: William Schuyler, born July 15, 
1868, was a student in old Purdue, and 
passed to the better land in 1885 ; Hattie B., 
born February 14. 1865, is the wife of Fred- 
erick Greene, a leading stock dealer and 
butcher of Ligonier. Their children are 
William H., Hays J. ( who died in infancy), 
George W. and Magdelana; Samuel L., who 
was born March 8, 1875, and is the young- 
est of the family. He lives on the home- 
stead with his parents and assists in the man- 
agement of the work. He married Miss 
Bessie Cook, and has one child, Harriet Lu- 
cille, a bright little girl. At the death of 
William Schuyler Hays the following obitu- 
ary appeared in a local paper: "On Tues- 
day morning, March 2, 1886, at the resi- 
dence of his father, W. D. Hays, in Perry 
township, W. S. Hays, aged seventeen years, 
seven months and fifteen days. In the 
death of Schuyler society in this place and 
surrounding country lost one of its bright 
lights. The entire community sympathize 
with the family of the deceased in this their 
sad bereavement. The funeral at the United 
Brethren church yesterday was largely at- 
tended, and the funeral oration was deliv- 
ered by Rev. Knotts ; burial at the Ligonier 
cemetery. A gloom has been cast over the 
college by the death of one of the students. 
Rarely does the angel of death darken the 
portals of Wabash College, and on that ac- 
count are such visitations felt the more keen- 
ly. Word was received announcing the 
death of Schuyler Haws at his home 
in Ligonier. Two short weeks ago he' 
went home to attend the wedding of 
a sister, lie was in the junior pre- 
paratory class, just beginning his college 
course, and was a member of the Sigma Chi 

fraternity, both of which bodies will pass 
suitable resolutions. He was a pleasant com- 
panion, a good student, and gave ever prom- 
ise of being an honorable and respected citi- 
zen." — Crawfordsville Argus. 

Mr. Hays has supported the Republican 
ticket ever since they placed their first presi- 
dential candidate, General John C. Fremont, 
in the field, and while he has never aspired 
for political honors, his ability as a financier 
caused his friends to place him in the office 
of trustee of Perry township, and so effi- 
ciently did he perform the duties devolving 
upon him that he was retained in that posi- 
tion for eight years, a glowing tribute to his 
worth and the high esteem in which he was 
held. The family are prominent in religious 
circles and are members of the United Breth- 
ren church, in which they are zealous work- 
ers, and to which Mr. Hays has liberally 
contributed to' the rebuilding of the church, 
which will cost in the aggregate $8,000. 


The art of architecture, although defined 
in technological works as that of planning 
and erecting edifices, has many collateral and 
auxiliary branches on which its perfectness 
and beauty depend, and chief among these 
is the art of plastering. From the rudest 
habitation to the sublimest palaces or cathed- 
dral, the art in all ages, from the earliest 
dawn of time until the present hour, has 
varied in different parts of the world, and 
from the bare and chinked seams in the walls 
of the primitive log cabin of the early Amer- 
ican forest to the magnificent capitol build- 
ings of the teeming cities of civilized life, 


the adjunct of plaster lias wrought a change 
magical in its effect upon the eye and upon 
the comfort of those whose fate leads them 
to the occupation of the rooms so desirably 
finished. The interior decoration of edifices 
of all kinds has been transformed into a fine 
art, and in this the subject of this sketch is 
an acknowledged expert. 

Joseph \Y. Marshall was born near 
Farmer, in Defiance county, Ohio, July 25, 
1842, and lived in his native place until over 
twenty-one years old, in the meantime serv- 
ing some months at the trade of plasterer. 
In August, 1863, he came to Noble county, 
Ind., and finished learning the plasterer's 
trade in Ligonier, after which he followed 
the trade with varying success for several 
years in Rome City, Wawaka and Ligonier. 

In the meantime, however, Mr. Marshall 
had so prospered that he thought it but prop- 
er that he should share his fortunes with a 
mate, and he married, in Elkhart township, 
Noble county, November 20, 1864, Miss 
Elizabeth C. Lower, a daughter of the late 
Daniel and Abigail. (DeLong) Lower, a 
sketch of whom is given in full on another 
page. This lady was born in Noble county, 
Ind., July 21, 1830. and made her home 
under the parental roof until her marriage. 

After he had been joined in wedlock, 
Mr. Marshall and his young wife located in 
Rome City, and for some few years followed 
his vocation, and then removed to a farm in 
Elkhart township and began the occupation 
of agriculture, and this has ever since been 
his calling, at which he has been even more 
satisfactorily and profitably employed than 
he had been at his original trade. From 
Elkhart township. Noble county, Mr. Mar- 
shall changed his residence in 'May, 1898, to 
the line between Noble and Lagrange coun- 

ties, and settled just north of the boundary 
in Clear Springs township, Lagrange county. 
Here he purchased an excellent farm of one 
hundred acres, on which he has a handsome 
dwelling and farm buildings of the most sub- 
stantial construction, and since then has add- 
ed one hundred and sixty-two acres. His 
crops comprise all the various grains un- 
usually cultivated in this latitude, together 
with the usual grasses, vegetables, etc., and 
the odor from disintegrating oxide of cal- 
cium has been exchanged for pure oxygen 
and exhilarating ozone. 

To the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Mar- 
shall have been born nine children, the elder 
two of whom, however. Ida J. and John D., 
died in infancy. The survivors were named, 
in order of birth, as follows : Ervin A. ; 
Cora E., who is the wife of William C. 
Shultz ; Orson O. ; Murray E., teaching 
school ; Greeley J. ; William W., and Clyde J. 

Mr. Marshall is a Democrat in politics 
and takes a great interest in public affairs, 
and especially in the success of his party at 
the polls and the election of good and com- 
petent public officers who can be trusted to 
carry out the principles upon which they are 
elected. In religion lie and wife are Free 
Will Baptists, and are among the most lib- 
eral contributors in the township to the Jones 
Chapel congregation, to which they belong, 
and also work with a good will in promoting 
the interests of the church in general. 

The father of Joseph W. Marshall was 
John Marshall, who was born in Guernsey 
county. Ohio. March 10, 1S14, and who, Oc- 
tober 2^,, 1840, married in Logan county, 
Ohio, Miss Eliza Jane McGee, who was born 
in Ireland but came to this country when she 
was nine years old. Soon after marriage, 
John Marshall and wife settled in Defiance 


county, Ohio, near Farmer City, and there 
Airs. Eliza Jane Marshall passed away, May 
23, 1 85 1. the mother of four children, viz.: 
Joseph Wi, Robert McGee, Thomas R. and 
Martha J. The death of John Marshall took 
place at Rome City, Ind., March 5, 1884. 

Joseph W. Marshall and wife are classed 
with the old settlers of Noble county, and 
accordingly share in the respect paid to such 
citizens by the rising' generation, while they 
also number hosts of warm friends among 
the elders, who, like themselves, can call to 
mind many of the great changes in the 
growth of the country within the past thirty- 
five years, and in which they have been im- 
portant factors. They are passing their de- 
clining years in peace and comfort, with no 
sorrowing recollections of the past. 


The gentleman whose name opens this 
article has long occupied an eminent and 
enviable standing in the county where he has 
so long made his home. He has filled with 
marked credit public affairs of trust, and 
now possesses to an unusually lage degree 
the confidence and respect of the people with 
whom he has so long been associated. This 
standing has not been acquired by him lie- 
cause of the influence of wealth or original 
social position or the aid of influential 
friends, hut has .been honestly earned and 
richly merited by his own inherent worth, 
by the possession of those traits of character 
which have always formed expression in a 
life devoted to tin- welfare of his own home 
circle, and to the progress and advancement 
of the community with which he has been 
so closelv connected. 

George W. Piper is a native of the Buck- 
eye state, having been born on the 19th of 
December. 1828, in Clark county, Ohio. His 
parents were John R. and Jane (Prickett) 
Piper, the former a native of Virginia, and 
the latter of Ohio. John R. Piper, when yet a 
child, was taken by his parents to Ohio, and 
by his marriage with Jane Prickett became 
the father of six children, as follows: Ra- 
chael K. and William, both deceased; 
George, the subject; John J. is now a resi- 
dent of Washington; and David and Cath-. 
erine are both deceased. 

George \Y. Piper's early educational ad- 
vantages were somewhat limited. He at- 
tended the public schools of his native state 
until about the age of twelve years, at which 
time he accompanied his mother upon her 
removed to Indiana, settling in Washington 
township. Noble county. From that time 
until he was thirty years old he remained 
with his mother, faithfully looking after her 
interests. About this time he hired out for a 
time, but in 1851, because of the death of his 
brother, he returned home and again took up 
the operation of the old farm. He continued 
at this occupation here until about 1868, 
when he moved onto the place of his present 
residence. He became the owner of five 
hundred and fifty acres of fine agricultural 
property, but sold a good deal of this to his 
children, his present real estate consisting of 
three hundred and eighteen acres. This 
was all accumulated by his own unremitting 
toil and indefatigable efforts, and he took a 
just pride in the results of his earlier labors. 

On the 24th of October, 1858. the mar- 
riage of George W. Piper took place, Miss 
Samantha Shelpman being the lady of his 
choice. She was born July 21, 1839, near 
Marysville, Ohio, a daughter of William 

^JXrtsfrj 2bl-JS^Lso^ 

c/iCvd Q/^rtyzt ffl uy^i. 



Shelpman, later of York township. Noble 
county, I ml. The latter was the father of 
four children — Saniantha, Emily J., Ada- 
line and Hannah. ( leorge W. and Saniantha 
(Shelpman) Piper became the parents of 
eight children, brief mention of whom is as 
follows : John J. was horn January 29, i860, 
married Mary Buffenbarger, and they have 
three children, Goldie M., Marie and.Zelta; 
Charles E., horn October 3, 1862, married 
Viola A. Brenniuger, and to this union were 
also born three children. Rap, Chester ( de- 
ceased ) and Jennie; William H., horn Janu- 
ary 21, 1865, married Cora Falil, and they 
became the parents of five children. Bennie 
C, Esther, Carroll. Laura and Clarence; 
Elma J., horn July 22, 1807, died September 
i, 1889: Addie. horn July 22, 1870, became 
the wife of H. I). Miller, and they have one 
child. George A., and she is a professional 
dressmaker and he is principal of the high 
school at Topeka. Kans. ; Phineas, born Jan- 
uary 26. 1873, married Ocia O. Smith, and 
the}- have one child. Smith; Dora was horn 
April 15, 1876; and Xettie D. was horn 
October 28. 1882. 

Miss Dora completed the common-schi » >1 
course in the class of 1893 anc ' received her 
diploma. She is her mother's main stay in 
the home circle. Miss Xettie has musical 
attainments, both vocal and instrumental. 
She is now learning the profession of mo- 

Here is appended the obituary of the 
daughter, Elma, who died September 1, 
1890: "On Sunday, September 1, at the 
home of her parents, George and Saniantha 
Piper, occurred the death of- their daughter, 
Elma J.; her age was twenty-two years, one 
month and eleven days. She had experi- 
enced a protracted illness of seven months. 

during which time she suffered extremely, 
though amidst it all she manifested a courage 
and though of character which continued to 
the last and contributed a beauty even to the, 
dying hour. When she perceived that she 
must die she called to her bedside the mem- 
bers of the family and disposed of the few 
articles of worldly effects, consisting of little 
gifts, upon this one and that as tokens of 
remembrance; and. at her request, being ten- 
derly adjusted upon the pillows, she bade an 
adieu and triumphantly died in the hope of 
life beyond. A beautiful life was followed by 
a beautiful death. For a number of years she 
had been a Sunday-school teacher and or- 
ganist at Ormas, and was one who could be 
relied upon as a helper in every good cause, 
everywhere displaying the same grand forti- 
tude and nobleness of character. The fu- 
neral, which was held at the residence, was 
largely attended by the friends her life had 
won for her. the number of people in attend- 
ance being estimated at six hundred. The 
sermon was preached by Rev. H. Xicker- 
son, pastor of the Methodist church at Wolf 
Lake. Though dead, she yet lives in the 
hearts of all who knew her. She had se- 
cured her teacher's certificate to teach in No- 
ble county, but her illness deprived her of 
entering upon the profession as teacher." 
William Shelpman was a native of Ohio, 
and was an agriculturist. He was a devout 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
and was a benevolent man, and died in 1856. 
aged thirty-nine years. Mother Shelpman 
was also a native of Ohio, and she died at 
the age of twenty-eight. There were four 
daughters — Saniantha; Emily J., deceased; 
Adaline. wife of E. T. Rector, residing in 
Indianapolis, who is a carpenter and joiner 
by trade and was a soldier in the Civil war 


for three years. The}- are adherents of the 
.Methodist Episcopal church. Adaline was 
previously married to J. H. Brown, now de- 
ceased, and three children were born — Aimer 
W., Minnie E. and Frank H. The next 
daughter is Hannah, wife of Henry Ste- 
phenson, a resident of Lincoln, Neb., and he 
is an agriculturist. They have live children. 
Mr. Piper lias followed agricultural pur- 
suits all his life, though not exclusively. He 
has also paid considerable attention to the 
breeding and raising of sheep and cattle, the 
latter stock being his specialty at the present 
time. That be has made a success of his 
calling is abundantly evinced by the well- 
kept appearance of his farm and the abund- 
ant harvests he gathers. 

Politically Mr. Piper has been a stanch 
and active worker in the ranks of the Repub- 
lican party ever since its organization, and 
has been honored by his fellow citizens with 
several offices of honor and trust. He was 
elected a trustee of Washington township, 
and that his service was efficient and thor- 
oughly satisfactory to his constituents is at- 
tested by the fact that for nine consecutive 
years he was retained in that office. He 
was also elected a member of the board of 
county commissioners, serving in that ca- 
pacity at the time the present court-house 
was being erected. It was at a time when 
there was especial call for watchfulness and 
attention to the interests of the people of the 
county, and Mr. Piper acquited himself of 
his onerous duties in a manner that earned 
him the commendation of all, irrespective of 

Religiously the family are all active and 
consistent members of the Free Baptist 

church at Cold Springs, Whitley county. 

Iinl. Socially the members of this family are 

accounted worthy members of the best peo- 
ple in their community, and by their courte- 
ous manners, genial dispositions and careful 
regard for the ethics of life have endeared 
themselves to a wide circle of friends. 


For a number of years the subject of this 
sketch has been identified with the business 
interest of Albion, and is well entitled to 
representation in the biographical compen- 
dium of Noble county. Paternally he comes 
from good old French Huguenot stock, his 
great-grandfather having been driven from 
France in an early day by reason of religious 
persecution. This ancestor first fled from 
his native land to Saxony, Germany; and 
later, while going on a visit to a relative, he 
was picked up by a British- vessel and pressed 
into the naval service. By this means he 
reached America, where he escaped from the 
vessel, and soon afterward espoused the 
patriotic cause in the war of the Revolution. 
He served with distinction throughout that 
struggle, participating in a number of the 
most noted battles, among which was the 
storming of Stony Point by "Mad Anthony" 
Wayne. The subject's maternal ancestors 
were of English and German people ; his 
grandfather, John Bradley, having been a 
native of the United States, while the wife 
came from near the River Rhine. William 
Harkless, father of John A., was born in 
Ohio, and the mother, whose maiden name 
was Barbara Bradley, was a native of Penn- 
sylvania. These parents married in Adams 
county, Ind., and there began housekeeping 
on a farm, devoting their lives to agricultural 



pursuits. In the spring' of 1869 they moved 
to York township. Noble county, and after 
a five-years' residence migrated to Iowa, set- 
tling' in the county of Marion, that state. 
After spending three years there they re- 
turned to Noble county, where they spent the 
remainder of their days, the mother dying in 
1882 and the father two years later. William 
and Barbara Harkless reared a family of 
seven children, namely: David J.. Mary J., 
Emmeline, Louisa E., John A., Sheldon and 
Joseph M. Of the above only three are liv- 
ing: Sheldon, of Syracuse, Ind. ; Joseph M., 
a photographer of Chicago; and John A., the 
subject of this review. 

John A. Harkless was born in Adams 
county, Ind., January 1, 1858, and spent his 
youthful years upon his father's farm. Dur- 
ing his minority he attended the winter ses- 
sions of the district schools of Adams and 
Noble counties. Ind.. and Marion county. la., 
making substantial progress in his various 
studies. He accompanied his parents in their 
several moves and assisted his father until 
twenty years of age. when he came to Al- 
bion. On coming to this city he entered a 
photograph gallery with the object of learn- 
ing the business and in time became a skillful 
operator. Possessed of natural artistic tastes, 
it was not long until he became proficient in 
every line of the work, and his services be- 
came very valuable to the proprietor of 
the gallery. It was not long before 
he made a proposition to purchase 
the establishment, which, being accept- 
ed, he soon found himself at the head 
of a very flourishing and remunerative busi- 
ness. Mr. Harkless has greatly enlarged his 
gallery and supplied it with all the latest 
modern devices for high-grade work in all 
lines of the photographic art. His familiar- 

ity with every detail of the business, his skill 
as an operator and artistic touch as a finisher, 
have brought him prominently to the notice 
of the public with the result of a large and 
lucrative patronage. The work from this 
gallery is strictly up to the highest standard 
of modern photography, and Mr. Harkless 
depends upon his work in even- artistic line, 
such as Crayon. India-Ink. Pastel, Water 
Colors, etc., as the best means of advertising. 
Nothing inferior is permitted to pass into the 
hands of patrons. Additional to his gallery 
Mr. Harkless is also interested to a consider- 
able extent in merchandising, owning the 
Racket Store, which, under his management, 
is doing a very large and successful trade. 
In looking after both enterprises he is kept 
very busy, but the results fully justify the 
time and energy devoted to his undertak- 
ings. Mr. Harkless has an eye to business 
and knows how to take advantage of oppor- 
tunities. Since coming to Albion his finan- 
cial success has been most encouraging, and 
to-day he is the possessor of a handsome 
competence, accumulated entirely through 
his own agency. He is one of the progress- 
ive men of the town, takes a lively interest 
in its commercial and industrial advance- 
ment and stands well with all classes of peo- 
ple. With few advantages in youth worth 
mentioning-, he has overcome a rather dis- 
couraging environment, surmounted a num- 
ber of formidable obstacles in the way of his 
success, and his life forcibly illustrates what 
a young man of energy and determination 
of purpose can accomplish. Mr. Harkless 
has been twice married, the first time to Miss 
Mary J. Johnson, and later, on the 30th day 
of November, 1899, he was united in the 
bonds of wedlock to Miss Myrtle Y. Simp- 
son, of Albion. In his' political views Mr. 


Harkless is an earnest supporter of the Pro- 
hibition party, believing the ballot to be the 
only correct solution of the whiskey prob- 
lem. He is strictly a temperate man, and 
uses all the ability in his power to counteract 
the great curse the saloons maintain 
throughout the country. 


Few men in Noble county occupy as 
prominent a position in political and busi- 
ness circles as the well-known gentleman 
whose brief biography is herewith presented. 
The record of a busy and successful life 
must ever prove of interest and profit to 
the student who would learn the intrinsic 
essence of individuality. Such has been the 
life of Hon. Joseph S. Conlogue, whose in- 
fluence on the political history of Noble 
county has been marked and salutary and 
whn, through the medium of the journals 
of which he is editor, has to a large degree 
been a factor in molding public opinion. 

Mr. Conlogue is one of the oldest native 
sons of Kendallville, having been born in this 
city on the 19th day of June, 1843. His 
father, Samuel B. Conlogue, was born in 
Steuben county, N. Y., June 16, 1809, and 
his mother, Mary A. ( Cilley ) Conlogue, 
was a native of Livingston county, same 
state, and was born on the 6th clay of May, 
1814. After marriage Samuel B. Conlogue 
moved to Monroe county, Michigan, and 
engaged in the lumber business, which he 
carried on successfully until changing his 
residence in 1S41 to Noble count}-. Ind. 

For a few years after locating in Ken- 
dallville Mr. Conlogue followed carpenter 

work and later purchased a farm in Allen 
township and turned his attention to agri- 
cultural pursuits. In connection with tilling 
the soil he also worked to some extent at 
carpentering and spent the remainder of his 
days on his place near the Village of Lisbon. 
He assisted in building the first houses in 
Kendallville, two private dwellings, one be- 
longing to Hon. William Mitchell, and the 
other to Mrs. Fanny Bearss, in addition to 
which he also erected a number of other 
residences and other public buildings. He 
was a skillful mechanic and a successful agri- 
culturist,and as a citizen stood well in the 
community where he lived. Two children 
were born to Samuel B. and Mary A. Con- 
logue — William F. and Joseph S. 

Joseph S. Conlogue was a lad of four 
years when his parents moved to the coun- 
try, from which time until young manhood 
he lived on the farm. As soon as old 
enough he became his father's assistant, and' 
as such did valuable service in all the work 
required to make agriculture a successful vo- 
vation. During the winter seasons he at- 
tended the district schools, and such was 
his progress that at the early age of sixteen 
he was sufficiently advanced in his studies to 
obtain a teacher's license. He taught dur- 
ing sixteen winters in different parts of 
Noble county, meanwhile devoting the other 
seasons of the year to farm work. 

He was thus engaged until 1880, when 
he opened an insurance office in Kendall- 
ville. For a period of two years Mr. Con- 
logue carried on a fairly successful business 
in the line of general insurance and then, in 
partnership with Dr. J. H. Rerick, pur- 
chased a half interest in the Kendallville 
Standard, continuing its weekly visits for a 
period of five years, during which time the 

r cun/zj^* 



paper was greatly improved in its mechan- 
ical makeup and in the quality of its read- 
ing matter. The circulation also largely in- 
creased and a liberal advertising patronage 
was secured. At the end of five years Dr. 
Rerick disposed of his interest in the plant 
td his son, John D. Rerick, and the firm as 
■changed continued until 1892, when W. S. 
( )sborne purchased an interest in the concern 
and became Mr. Conlogue's associate. 
While the younger Rerick was connected 
with the paper the Daily Sun was estab- 
lished, the first number of which made its 
appearance February 22, 1890. It lias been 
issued regularly ever since and is constantly 
growing in public favor, the circulation in 
Kendallville alone being in excess of six 
hundred bona fide subscribers. The Standard 
is a well printed, ably edited. Republican 
paper, devoted to politics, home and foreign 
news, education, choice literature, humor, 
progress and improvement. .Mr. Conlogue, 
who has proved himself to be one of the 
ablest newspaper men in northeastern Indi- 
ana. The Standard is highly prized as a 
political organ and a clean dignified family 
paper. The office is well equipped for all 
kinds of work in the printing line and with 
a weekly circulation of over thirteen hun- 
dred. The Standard has proven a financial- 
ly successful enterprise. Mr. Conlogue is 
one of the Republican standard bearers in 
Noble county, but he conducts his paper in 
such a way as to win the esteem of his po- 
litical Opponents. He has rendered incal- 
culable service to bis party, in recognition 
of which he was nominated and elected in 
the fall of 1900 to the upper house of In- 
diana legislature. Thus far his senatorial 
experience has fully met the expectations of 
his constituents, and he ranks with the ablest 

members of the body to which he belongs. 
He has been instrumental in promoting 
some important legislation, takes an active 
part in all the deliberations of the senate and 
is recognized as an exceedingly able com- 
mittee worker. His course has justified the 
people's confidence in him and his ability to 
discharge worthily important trusts has 
never been questioned by his friends or po- 
litical adversaries. 

In 1883 Mr. Conlogue and Dr. A. S. 
Parker assisted in organizing the Eastern 
Indiana Agricultural Society, of which Air. 
Conlogue acted as secretary for fourteen 
years and then resigned: in December, 1901, 
he was re-elected, and has done much to- 
ward making this one of the most success- 
ful institutions of the kind in the state. 

Mr. Conlogue has served eight years as 
secretary of the Kendallville school board 
and one year as president, and spares no 
pains in looking after the educational inter- 
ests of the city. He is also president of 
the Xoble County Building & Loan Asso- 
ciation, the success of which is largely due 
to his efforts. As a member of the common 
council, he has stood for municipal reform, 
besides being the means of promoting a 
number of important improvements conduc- 
ive to the public good and adding greatly 
to the development and beauty of the city. 

In July. 1898, he was appointed stamji 
agent and inspector of the United States in- 
ternal revenue office at Indianapolis, Ind., 
for the imprinting of revenue stamps. In 
all the positions with which he has been hon- 
ored he has discharged his duties in a 
straightforward, honorable manner, show- 
ing himself to be a man of sagacity and dis- 
creetness of judgment, of scrupulous in- 
tegrity and gentlemanly demeanor. 



In addition to his career as a politician, 
editor, legislator and man of business, Mr. 
Conlogue has a military record, having 
served as a soldier in the late Civil war. 
In the fall of 1864 he joined Company D, 
One Hundred Forty-second Indiana In- 
fantry, and shortly after entering the service 
was commissioned first lieutenant. 

Air. Conlogue was married in Jefferson 
township. Noble county. March 19, 1868, to 
Miss Julia Strouss, daughter of the late 
Jonas and Anna (Macartney) Strouss, of 
Swan township. Mrs. Conlogue' s parents 
were natives of Pennsylvania, but came to 
Noble county as early as 1836 and settled in 
Swan township on government land, which 
Mr. Strouss purchased at one dollar and a 
quarter an acre. , They were among the 
earliest pioneers of Indiana and both lived 
to lie quite old, the father dying in Swan 
township October 12, 1900. at the remark- 
able age of one hundred years and 
three days. In all probability he was the 
oldest man that ever lived in the county. 
His wife, whose death occurred at Axilla, 
also reached a ripe old age. 

.Mr-. Conlogue was born on the old 
homestead in Swan township May 18, 1846, 
and has spent the greater part of her life 
near the place of her nativity. She has 
borne her husband two daughters — Harriet 
Virginia and Zella Ruth — the former em- 
ployed in the office of the Standard as book- 
keeper and proofreader, and the latter one 
of Kendallville's most popular and success- 
ful teacher's. Both are remarkably bright 
and well educated ladies, no pains having 
been spared to afford them the best intel- 
lectual discipline obtainable. Harriet V. 
was graduated from the Kendallville high 
school and then took a musical and business 

course at the Oberlin, Ohio, University. 
Zella R. completed the public school c< urse 
and later entered De Pauw University, from 
which she was graduated with an honorable 

Mr. Conlogue has always had the wel- 
fare of his community at heart, and as a 
public spirited and progressive citizen lends, 
an active support and co-operation to every 
enterprise for the general good. He has 
upheld worthily an honored ancestral name, 
has been faithful in office, loyal in friend- 
ship and devotion to his family. He pos- 
sesses broad humanitarian principles and 
is essentially a man of the people. As an 
editor he ranks with the ablest of his con- 
temporaries and as a citizen no man in Ken- 
dallville or Noble county stands higher in 
the confidence or esteem of the people. 


The subject of this brief biographical 
mention, George W. Heffner. is an agricul- 
turist of Sparta township, Noble county. 
Ind., who by strict attention to his honor- 
able calling has made for himself an envi- 
able reputation as a successful farmer and 
an honest and energetic business man. Fie 
is a native of the Hoosier state, having been 
born in Clinton township, Elkhart county, 
on the 30th day of August, 1846. His par- 
ents were Frederick and Mary (Miller) 
Heffner. the former born in Germantown,. 
Miami county, Ohio, in 181 1, and the latter 
a native of Pennsylvania, born in 1825. They 
were united in marriage in Clinton town- 
ship, Elkhart county, Ind., about 1844, and 
lived there about eight years. They then 



moved to Perry township, Noble county, 

and remained there about six years. About 
1858 they came to Sparta township, this 
county, and settled on the farm where Mr. 
Heffner now lives. Here they both passed 
away, he on the 15th of September, 1884, 
and she on the 2d»f February, 1899. 

George W. Heffner attended the public 
schools of Noble county, Ind., until he was 
twenty years old. He then worked by the 
day for a year of two until his marriage. 
After that happy event lie was employed in 
a brickyard for about a year, and then took 
up the pursuit of agriculture, commencing 
the cultivation of the tract which he now 
owns and occupies and which comprises 
seventy-five acres of fertile and well-tilled 

George W. Heffner was united in mar- 
riage on the 5th day of July. 1868, at which 
time Miss Eliza Sparrow became his wife. 
She is the daughter of Richard and Cath- 
erine (Kelley) Sparrow, the former a na- 
tive of Maryland and the latter of Ken- 
tucky. Richard Sparrow died in Sparta 
township. Noble county. Ind., in 1880, his 
wife dying January 8. 1891. The union 
of George W. Heffner and his wife has been 
blessed with the birth of ten children, a 
brief record of whom is as follows: Ros- 
ella, born February 16, 1869, and died Oc- 
tober 12. 1869; Mary C. born September 
26, 1870. married Frank Growcock, and be- 
came the mother of three children. Louisa 
C, Otto, who died August 11, 1893, and 
Dessa B. ; Cornelius M. was born November 
12, 1872, and died July 21. 1886; Neva J., 
born July 11, 1875, became the wife of Ed 
Crockett, and has one child, Beulah ; Delta, 
born February f>, 1878. married Thomas 
Baughman ; a daughter died in infancy; 

Calvin F., born October 23, 1883; Chester 

II., horn June 5. [885 ; Richard I\. born 
November 5, 1887, and Ethel B., born 
.March 24, 1892. 

Politically Mr. Heffner is an active and 
uncompromising- Republican, firmly believ- 
ing that the principles and policies advo- 
cated in the platform of that party to be 
those most conducive to the welfare of this 
country. He is a public-spirited and pro- 
gressive citizen, deeply interested in the wel- 
fare of the people of his community and in 
all that contributes to its educational, moral 
and material advancement. His business 
efforts have been crowned with a large 
measure of success, rightly merited, and he 
possesses the esteem and regard of a large 
circle of acquaintances. 


Fred B. Moore, civil engineer and county 
surveyor of Noble county, Ind., was born in 
Orange township, this county, October 6, 
18(17. a son or William H. and Jeannette 
(Hitchcock) Moore, both natives of Noble 
county, and born in Elkhart and Orange 
townships, respectively. The father passed 
his early manhood as an agriculturist, hut 
has now retired from the activities of that 
somewhat laborious life and is living in com- 
fortable ease with the helpmate of his earlier 
days in Rome City. These parents have bad 
horn to them a family of live children, all 
still living, save one, Grace, who died in 
childhood. The survivors are: Fred B., 
Delta W., of Indianapolis: Frank 11.. on the 
parental farm in Orange township, who mar- 
ried Minnie Pointer, who has borne him one 

J 4 8 


child; Edward C, who married Nora Miller 
and lives on the home farm. 

Mr. Moore was reared on the old home- 
stead and received a sound education in the 
district school, and followed this attendance 
by teaching school for eight years, but dur- 
ing this interval still continued his identifica- 
tion with the schools as a student." He took 
a special course in civil engineering at the 
Michigan Agricultural College, at Lansing, 
and in [892-93 was employed on the en- 
gineering corps of the Lake Shore & Michi- 
gan Southern Railroad. In 1892 he was the 
candidate of the Republican party for the 
office of county surveyor of Noble county, 
hut with the rest of the ticket met with de- 
feat. In 1894 he was nominated for the 
same office, and in the ensuing election the 
ticket proved to he successful at the polls, 
and when inducted into office he performed 
hi'- duties in so satisfactory a manner that 
he was elected his own successor in 1896. 
iSi),X and [890, and is now serving his sev- 

Frecl Ik Moore was most happily mar- 
ried, November 25, 1894. to Miss Fanny Ik 
Miller, who was born in Ligonier, Noble 
county, lnd.. and is a daughter of David T. 
and Mary Miller, of Lagrange county. To 
this union ore child has keen horn, Glenn Ik. 
whose nativity occurred October 7, 1895. 
Mrs. Moore is a graduate of the common 
schools of her childhood home and of the 
Grand Rapids (Mich.) high school, and is a 
lady of refinement and quite amornament to 
society. Mr. Moore is a member of Rome 
City Lodge, No. 450. F. & A. M. ; Kendalk 
ville Chapter, No. '4. R. A. M. ; Ligonier 
Council ; also a member of Albion Lodge, K. 
of P. Roth .Mr. and Mrs. Moore are pious 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church 

and are by no means niggardly in their con- 
tributions toward its support. The Moores 
descend from Irish ancestry and the Flitch- 
cocks are of English extraction, the latter 
family having - been identified with the Colon- 
ial and Revolutionary periods of American 


( )ne of the leading attorneys of the state 
of Indiana and the present city attorney of 
Kendallville, Noble county. Ind.. is Robert 
P. Parr, a brief sketch of whose rise and 
pn gress is well worthy a place in this vol- 
ume of Noble county's prominent and rep- 
resentative men. The Old Dominion, of 
which West Virginia was formerly a part, 
has heen made famous in history by a long 
list ( f representative sons, and Robert P. 
Barr ably sustains the high reputation they 
enjoy wherever their lot may lie cast. Born 
in Wood county, W. Ya.. June 8, 1852. he 
there spent his youthful days until reaching 
his thirteenth year, about which time his 
parents made preparation to move to Indi- 
ana. April 14, 1865. the family arrived in 
Noble county and settled on a farm two and 
a half miles east of Axilla, in Allen town- 
ship. Flere Robert P. grew to manhood. 
receiving such education as the common 
schools of the country districts afforded at 
that time, and afterward entering the high 
school at Kendallville, making excellent use 
of the opportunities afforded him. In 1874 
he entered the law office of Augustus A. 
Chapin, of Kendallville, and applied himself 
to the study of iaw under that gentleman's 
tutorship for two years, gaining an excellent 
preliminarv knowledge of the profession and 

H^i^ yZ f^ClAAj 



materially assisted by him in matriculating 
in the law department of the University of 

Michigan, from which he graduated in 
March, 1878. 

He returned to Kendall ville and began 
the practice of law. meeting with suctess, 
and mi March 7, 1881, funned a partnership 
with his old tutor. Augustus A. Cliapin, 
which continued until 1886, since which 
date Mr. Barr has pursued his profession 
alone. Mr. Barr has ever held a high po- 
sition in the estimation of his fellow towns- 
men, and in the spring of 1879 was elected 
mayor of the city, and twice re-elected. In 
1 892 he was a delegate to the Republican 
national convention held at Minneapolis, 
Minn., which body chose the late Hon. 
Benjamin Harrison as its standard hearer, 
a worthy compliment to so worthy a son of 
Indiana. Mr. Barr has also served his city 
as its legal adviser, having occupied the po- j 
sition of city attorney for sixteen rears — a I 
position he still retains. While taking an 
active part in the political affairs of his 
county and state, it has not been to the 
prejudice of his professional duties and ex- 
tensive practice. He has repeatedly served 
as a delegate to the state conventions of the 
Republican party, and sagacity and ability 
are not unknown quantities in the political 
problems there to he solved. 

As an attorney he stands well to the 
front among Indiana's many able members 
of the profession, and in conducting a case — 
whether in the lower court or before the 
United States circuit for the state of In- 
diana — the same receives that careful pre- 
sentation. Forcible, clear and comprehen- 
sive, he has the power to command the earn- 
est consideration of the court and impress ! 
the jury with the tacts and their logical 

application to the case in question and in 
harmony with the requirements of law. 

Mr. Barr was married in Kendallville, 
in 1879, to Eva B. Kingsley, a daughter of 
the late Lorin and Hannah Kingsley. Mrs. 
Barr is a native of Lagrange county. Ind. 
To Mr. Barr's union with Miss Kingsley 
two children have been born — Ralph K., 
now a student in the law department of the 
University of Michigan; and Robert L., a 
sophomore in the literary department of the 
same institution. The father of Robert P. 
Barr was Isaac A. Barr, who was born in 
Jefferson county, Ohio, a farmer %y occupa- 
tion. His mother was Martha A. Henry, 
also a native of Jefferson county. Ohio. 
The father retired from active life some 
years prior to his death, which occurred at 
his home in Avilla. The mother of Robert 
P. is still living. They were the parents of 
three children: John IT, the eldest is a 
prosperous farmer in Lagrange county: 
Robert P. is the subject of this sketch: and 
Mary E. is the wife of \\". D. Carver, who 
was a soldier in the Civil war. a member of 
the Thirtieth Indiana Volunteers, who died 
at Avilla. 


William II. Singrey. an enterprising 
agriculturist of Noble county. Ind.. was born 
in Richland county. Ohio, October 15, 1850, 
and is the son of the late Jacob and Sarah 
(Cocklev) Singrey, and a grandson of 
Thomas Singrey. The grandfather was a 
southern gentleman, having heen horn in 
Baltimore county, Md., March 12, 1801. He 
moved to Noble count}'. Ind.. in the early 
'sixties, and will he remembered lw the older 



residents of this community as a man of 
strict integrity and courtly bearing, whose 
home was the abode of hospitality and whose 
chivalric nature ever prompted him to deeds 
alike gentle and brave. He continued to re- 
side in Jefferson township until his death, 
which occurred in the ripeness of age in the 
year 1886. 

Jacob Singrey was born in Richland 
county, Ohio, and there grew to an honor- 
able manhood. He was there joined in mar- 
riage to Miss Sarah Cockley, who was a 
native of Lancaster county, Penn., and re- 
sided in his native state until the spring of 
[854, when, with his wife and three little 
children, Alverda, William H. and John P., 
he moved to Noble county, Ind., and settled 
on section 29, Jefferson township. At that 
time it was only woods, but he cleared it all 
himself and built it up. Here the)- remained 
during the remainder of their lives, and here 
the two younger children, Sarah' P. and 
Thomas, were horn. The eldest daughter, 
Alverda, became the wife of William A. Ax- 
tell, of this vicinity; and after her death, 
which occurred October 30, 1882. he mar- 
ried the second daughter. Sarah, who died 
in January, 1890. Thomas, the youngest 
son, died in Logansport, Ind., in February, 
1806, Jacob Singrey passed to his reward 
on December 21, 1891, and his wife joined 
him March 30, 1899. 

William H. Singrey was a child of four 
years when he accompanied his parents to 
their new home in Indiana, and it was in 
this state that he received his education and 
reached mail's estate. His father owned a 
tine farm of two hundred and thirty-four 
acres which was well improved, and where 
young Singrey was thoroughly drilled in all 
departments of agriculture; and so congenial 

did he find the employment that he has since 
continued in that occupation, residing on the 
old homestead, and is prosperous. 

Mr. Singrey was married in Albion, Ind., 
November jit. 1888. to Miss Harriet Dil- 
lon, who has been a worthy helpmate. An 
interesting family of two children, Blanche 
and Helen, have blessed their home and 
made glad their hearts. Mrs. Singrey was 
born November 25, 1861, in Allen county, 
this state, and is the eldest of five children 
born to J. Q. A. and Louisa (Baker) Dil- 
lon. Her father was a native of Maryland. 
and her mother of Ohio. Their home was 
in Allen county until 1867, when they locat- 
ed in Jefferson township. Noble county, 
where the father died at the age of fifty-six 
years. Jacob Singrey died December 11, 
1894. and Jacques Dillon died when fifty- 
one vears old- 


Among the younger representatives of 
the industrial business interests of Kendall- 
ville, few have attained a more distin- 
guished position than James Elmer Baker, 
the popular and efficient treasurer of the J. 
R. Baker & Sons' Company. He is a son of 
James R. Baker, whose sketch appears else- 
where, and was born in the city of Ken- 
dallville, January 16, 1868. Provided with 
the best educational privileges his native 
place afforded he made the most of his op- 
portunities, completing the public-school 
course. He then entered upon a course of 
practical training in the manufacturing es- 
tablishment founded and operated by his 
father, and it was not long until he became 
a useful assistant in various capacities. 


James E. Baker grew to manhood in 
Kendallville, and his life and the history of 
the city since 1868 have heen very closely 
interwoven. Entering Ins father's factory 
when young, he familiarized himself with 
every detail tit" the .business and in time was 
promoted t < > treasurer; the duties of this re- 
sponsible position he still continues to dis- 
charge. His business training has been long 
and thorough, and bis knowledge of every 
department of the enterprise with which he 
is connected has been a splendid preparation 
for the position he holds as custodian of its 
finances. He is a skillful accountant; ami 
his thorough acquaintance with the business 
methods, both in the line of his own activ- 
ity and industrial and commercial transac- 
tions in general, makes him one of the most 
valuable members of the firm. Mr. Baker 
is a gentleman of courteous demeanor, and 
thus far in life his career has been one of 
signal usefulness. He bears an unsullied 
reputation in the business circles of his city 
and state, and his integrity and honesty have 
gained him the unqualified regard of all 
with whom he has come in contact. Entire- 
ly free from ostentation, he is kindl; 
genial in his social relations and h; 
friendship of his fellow-c 
and honor him for his 

Mr. Baker was married at Danville. 
Ind.. November 10, 1896, to Miss Eva 
Dooley, a native of Waveland, this state, 
and a daughter of John W. and Elizabeth 
(Hall) Doolev. He has a beautiful, well- 
appointed, home in Kendallville, and with 
his excellent wife moves in the best society 
of the city. They have one child. John R. 
He belongs to two fraternal organization-. 


ions and has the 
tizens. who esteem 
genuine personal 

Kendallville Lodge, No. 316, I. O. O. F... 
and the Knights of the Maccabees. 

Thus briefly have been set forth the lead- 
ing facts in the life of one of Noble county's 
most progressive young men, together with 
some of his leading traits and characteristics. 
He occupies a conspicuous place among' the 
enterprising men of bis city, and is destined 
to act a still more prominent part in its 
future history. 


Sepulture the world over has in all ages 
marked the veneration in which man has 
held the memory of his ancestors ami to 
cherish which he has erected many costly 
monuments, even prior to the age of the 
wonderful pyramids of Egypt, and embalm- 
ents and cerements used to preserve as long 
as possible the mortal parts from decay ab- 
solute. Embalming, although never alto- 
gether a lost art, was not practiced very ex- 
tensively for man)- centuries for various, 
reasons, but within the last fifty years, or 
since the introduction of metallic burial 
cases, it has been revived and brought into 
almost universal use — and preparation for 
the grave is one of the arts used by the sub- 
ject of this sketch in his multifarious busi- 

Datus H. Drake was born in Monroe- 
ville. Huron county, Ohio, June 6. 1854, 
was there reared and educated, and there 
made his home until December, [884, when 
he went to St. Joe. Mo., where he was em- 
ployed by a large furniture concern until 
September, 1889. At the last named date. 

2 5 2 


;. sort of turning point in his existence, cul- 
minating- in his present prosperous lines of 
business, Mr. Drake came to Kendallville, 
Incl., purchased the furniture store which, 
up tn that time, had heen conducted by 
George S. Merklin, to which, the following 
June, he added undertaking or funeral 
directing, and now stands at the head of the 
furniture men and undertakers in northern 

Mr. Drake was married in Monroeville, 
Ohio, October 10, 1878, to Miss Laura J. 
Fish, a native of that city, and whose 
mother, formerly Miss Harriet Sherman, 
was an own cousin of the famous statesman, 
John Sherman, now deceased. The father 
of Mrs. Drake was Sidney D. Fish, one of 
the most prominent citizens of Monroeville. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Drake have been born four 
children, viz: Harry S„ William D.. Flor- 
ence E. and Sherman G. 

Francis H. Drake, the father of Datus 
H. Drake, was born in Pennsylvania, near 
Wilkesbarre, November 2, 181 5. and mar- 
ried Eliza Ann Hubbell, a native of Ver- 
mont, born in 1820. The latter was the first 
white child that ever was taken to live in 
Ridgefield township, Huron county, Ohio, 
and was but five years of age when her par- 
ents settled in that wilderness, for such it 
was at that time. There this young girl was 
reared to womanhood amid the rude, yet 
pleasant, scenes of the backwoods; but she 
imbibed all the romance that life in the wil- 
derness and its poetical influences could be- 
stow, and at maturity was an intelligent and 
accomplished lady, blessed with the robust 
health derived from early days passed in a 
pure atmosphere; and in Huron county her 
marriage took place. The marriage of Fran- 
cis II. and Eliza Ann Drake was crowned 

by the birth of 'six children, of whom three 
died in infancy. The three survivors are 
George F. ; Zitilla C, who is the wife of 
Heman Thomas, of Granville, Ohio; and 
Datus H.. the subject of this sketch. 

Francis H. Drake was first a shipbuilder, 
which business he merged into carpentering 
and building, but since June, i860, he has 
been engaged in the furniture and under- 
taking business in Monroeville, Ohio, where 
his son, George F., is in partnership with 
him, and the firm name stands as F. H. 
Drake & Son. 

Datus H. Drake, who in politics is a Re- 
publican, has been treasurer of the school 
board of Kendallville since 1892. He is a 
friend of all public improvements and freely 
aids any and every thing that is proposed 
for the good of the public. Fraternally he 
is a member of Kendallville Lodge, F. & 
A. M.. and of Kendallville Chapter, No. 64, 
R. A. M., and also of Kendallville Lodge. 
No. 109, K. of P.. and he and family enjoy 
the esteem of a very large social acquaint- 
ance with truly sincere friends. 


This gentleman, the secretary and treas- 
urer of the Flint & Walling Manufacturing 
Company, is well entitled to distinction as 
one of the progressive and enterprising busi- 
ness men of northern Indiana, and for some 
years has been officially connected with this, 
one if the largest and most important man- 
ufacturing establishments in the state, lo- 
cated at Kendallville. Upon the industrial 
activitv of a community or city depends in 
a large measure the prosperity of the people. 




and the men recognized as leading citizens 
and directors of progress are those who have 
in hand the management and control of large 
business enterprises. 

A native of Indiana, Henry I. Park was 
horn August 24, 1845, m tne town of Au- 
burn, Dekalb count}-, of which his father, 
the late Wesley Park, was one of the found- 
ers, and his early years were spent amid the 
familiar scenes of his birth. Like the ma- 
jority of boys in a country town his youth 
was comparatively uneventful, and at inter- 
vals during his minority he attended the 
public schools, where was laid the founda- 
tion of the success which later marked his 
business career. 

On the breaking out of the great Re- 
bellion Mr. Park, with true patriotic fervor, 
responded to the government's call for vol- 
unteers by enlisting in Company H. Thir- 
tieth Indiana Infantry, with which he served 
about one year, being compelled to sever his 
connection with the army at the expiration 
of that time by reason of a disability, which 
unfitted him for the rugged duties of a sol- 
dier. Returning to Auburn after receiving 
his discharge, he became associated with his 
brother, Amos B. Park, as suttler of the 
Forty-fourth Indiana Volunteers, and, as 
such, accompanied the regiment throughout 
its varied experiences, until mustered out 
in 1865. In that year he came to Kendall- 
ville and engaged in the hardware business 
with the brother above mentioned, and the 
firm thus constituted continued until the 
spring of 1872. Shortly after disposing of 
his commercial interest Mr. Park became 
connected with the manufacturing firm of 
Flint & Walling, and upon the incorporation 
of the company some time later he was chos- 
en secretary and treasurer, the duties of 

which dual position he has since discharged 
in an eminently able and satisfactory man- 
ner. To narrate in detail Mr. Park's long 
and busy career in the high and responsible 
1 ffice with which he has been honored, or to 
put in cold dead type the many duties which 
he lias so faithfully and worthily discharged, 
would far transcend the limits of an article 
of this kind, and at the same time it would 
be to publish to the people of Kendallville 
and Noble county a formidable array of 
facts; suffice it to state, therefore, that he 
enjoys to an unlimited degree the trust and 
confidence of the management of the mam- 
moth enterprise with which he is identified, 
and as secretary and treasurer possesses a 
thorough and accurate knowledge of even- 
detail of the business coming within his 
sphere. An accomplished accountant and 
an able financier, his manifold duties are so 
systematically arranged as to cause him little 
or no inconvenience, while as custodian of 
the funds of the firm his record has been 
horn rable and upright, never having 
swerved from the strict path of rectitude 
but always proving able to discharge 
worthily the responsibilities resting upon 
him as the principal factor in a station de- 
manding the highest order of business tal- 
ent. He has labored faithfully and earnestly 
to promote the interests of the great enter- 
prise, subordinating every other considera- 
tion to this one object, and it is conceded 
that much of the phenomenal success with 
which the firm has met is directly attributed' 
to his energy and systematic methods. 

Aside from his connection with the 
Flint & Walling Company. Air. Park lias 
been a prominent factor in the general busi- 
ness and industrial interests of Kendallville, 
every enterprise calculated to advance the- 



city, materially or otherwise, receiving his 
hearty support and co-operation. All edu- 
cational interests or movements for the dis- 
semination of knowledge find in him a 
friend. ile is unwavering in support of 
whatever he believes to be right and up- 
holds his honest convictions at the sacrifice 
of every other interest. As a citizen he is 
deservedly popular, charity and benevolence 
being among his chief characteristics, and 
to the poor and needy he is ever ready to 
extend a helping hand. 

Fraternally Mr. Park is a Mason of high 
standing, having attained the thirty-second 
degree in the ancient and honorable order, 
while the Presbyterian church, of which he 
is a zealous member, represents his religious 
creed. At the present time he is a trustee 
of the congregation worshiping in Kendall- 
ville, and for the support of the gospel, 
both at home and abroad, he is a frequent 
and liberal contributor. His political sup- 
port is given to the Republican party, but 
the wiles and chicanery of the modern par- 
tisan have always received his strongest con- 
demnation. While earnest in the support 
of his principles and ever ready to assign an 
intelligent reason for his opinions and con- 
victions, he is. first of all, a man of business, 
and has never entertained any aspirations 
for political honor of any kind. 

Mr. Park is a man of broad general in- 
formation, a careful reader of the world's 
best literature, and an intelligent student 
of current events. Conscientious in the dis- 
charge of the duties of citizenship, he is a 
valuable factor of the body politic, and his 
aim has always been to shape his life accord- 
ing to the highest standing of excellence. 
He entertains noble aims and high ideals, 
and the consensus of opinion in the city of 

his residence is that he stands before the 
world a model of the successful business 
man and a true type of the broad-minded, 
courteous gentleman. 

Hon. 'Wesley Park, father of Henry I., 
was a native of Virginia, and. as stated in a 

■ preceding paragraph, an early settler and 
founder of the town of Auburn, 'Intl., where 
he located as long ago' as the year 1835. 
He was the first treasurer of Dekalb county, 
which office he filled a number of terms, and 
in many other ways he became a prominent 
and influential citizen. At the breaking out 
of the Civil war he recruited Company K. 
Forty-fourth Indiana Volunteers, and upon 
the organization of the regiment received his 
commission as captain. He accompanied his 
command to the front and proved a brave 
and gallant leader, participating in a num- 
ber of battles, the most important of which 
was Fort Donelson, Tenn. By reason of 
physical ailments, incapacitating him from 
further active service, be resigned a short 
time following the action at Fort Donelson, 
and shortly thereafter was appointed suttler 
of the regiment to> which he had belonged. 

I He continued in that capacity until after the 
battle of Pittsburg Landing, when, finding 
bis health daily failing, he resigned the po- 

1 sition and returned to his home in Auburn. 
Subsequentlv Mr. Park emigrated to north- 
ern Missouri, where he spent the remaining 
years of his life. 

The maiden name of Mrs. Weslev Park, 
the mother of the subject of this article, was 
Sophia Ingman. She was a native of. Ohio 
and bore her husband ten children, six of 
whom grew to maturity, namely: Amos 
B., Henrietta, Henry I., John AY, Emma 
and Elizabeth. Of these John AY is con- 
nected with the Flint & Walling Manufac- 


turing Company as traveling salesman; he 
is a capable and reliable business man and 
has done much to advertise the firm through- 
out the United States and bringing its vari- 
ous products to the favorable notice i f the 
people of the country. The mother departed 
this life in Auburn, Ind., in 1852, she hav- 
ing been the first white woman settler in 
that village. 

Henry I. Park was married in Ligonier, 
Ind., to Lelle C. Chapman, daughter of 1 Ion. 
G. W. Chapman, of Ligonier, and by this 
union two children have been born, viz.: 
Harriet C, who died when but in her sev- 
enth year, and Henrietta I. 


To present in detail the leading facts in 
the life of one of Kendallville's busy men 
of affairs and throw light upon some of his 
more prominent characteristics, is the task 
in hand in order to place before the reader 
the following brief biography of Archy 
Campbell. Though still in the prime of vig- 
orous manhood, he has already won a dis- 
tinguished place in the business world, be- 
sides impressing his strong personality upon 
the community where for a number of years 
he has been a forceful factor in directing 
thought and molding opinion. Mr. Camp- 
bell is descended from sturdy Scotch-Irish 
ancestry and combines in his make-up the 
characteristics of these two strong and vir- 
ile razees. His father. Donald Campbell, a 
native of Scotland, was born in the year 
1808, and his mother. Elizabeth Geegan, 
was born in the state of New York in 1S17. 
The former died December 22, 1892, in 
LaChute, province of Quebec. Canada, al 

the ripe old age of eighty-five years. The 
family of Donald and Elizabeth Campbell 
consisted of four children, namely: Ida, 
who died at the age of sixteen; Geraldiue, 
widow of the late Pliny C. Taber, of Ken- 
dall ville; John A. and Archy. 

Archy Campbell was born September 
28, 1856, in Syracuse, N. Y, and spent the 
first twelve years of his life in the city of his 
1 : tivity. He was then taken by his parents 
to the town of Morrisburg, Canada, where 
he remained until his twentieth year, mean- 
while attending the public schools and ob- 
taining a good practical education. Leav- 
ing Canada prior to attaining his majority, 
he joined a brother in California, but did 
not long remain in that state, returning east 
after a few months and locating in the city 
of Kendallville, Ind., where, in partnership 
with his brother, John A. Campbell, he en- 
gaged in the mercantile business. For a 
period of four years the firm of Campbell 
Brothers did a large and lucrative business 
and became widely and favorably known in 
commercial circles throughout northeastern 
Indiana. At the expiration of four years 
Archy Campbell purchased his brother's in- 
terest in the store and conducted a success- 
ful trade until 1887. when Jacob C. Fetter 
was admitted to- partnership, under the firm 
name of Campbell & Co. From 1887 to 1894 
Messrs. Campbell & Fetter devoted their at- 
tention exclusively to merchandising, dur- 
ing which period they greatly increased 
the volume of their business and became the 
leaders in their line of trade in the city. 
In the latter year they engaged in banking, 
an enterprise which they still carry on and 
which, like their mercantile interests, has 
redounded to their success and financial 

2 5 6 


By nature, education and experience, 
Mr. Campbell is endowed with business 
qualifications far above the average, and by 
strict attention to every detail of his enter- 
prises has achieved signal success, where 
many men would have failed. As a mer- 
chant, he is extensively and favorably 
known in the commercial world and through- 
out his career in Kendallville has earned a 
reputation for integrity and fair dealing- 
such as few attain. In all the transac- 
tions of life he is noted for the exact justice 
he shows in his intercourse with his fellow 
men. being prompt, energetic and watch- 
ful, at the same time extending to those 
with whom he has dealings the largest meas- 
ure of courtesy. Prompt in meeting even- 
obligation he has always enjoyed unlimited 
credit, and by the exercise of sound judg- 
ment and superior financial abilities he has 
built up a private fortune which places him 
among the most substantial men of Ken- 
dallville and the county of Noble. As a 
financier, he easily ranks with the success- 
ful capitalists of northern Indiana, and from 
his long experience in monetary and com- 
mercial affairs his opinions have great 
weight and his ideas always receive the ut- 
most consideration. 

While essentially a business man in the 
full sense of the term. Mr. Campbell is also 
public-spirited in all the word implies. Since 
becoming a resident of Kendallville he has 
manifested a lively interest in everything 
pertaining to the city's growth and welfare, 
and as president of the local educational 
board he has done much to promote the ef- 
ficiency of the schools and to awake an in- 
terest in the intellectual improvement of the 
community. By reason of the active part 
taken in all enterprises promoting the public 

gooc 1 or the general diffusion of knowledge 
he has earned the gratitude and good will 
of his fellow-citizens, and it is praise well 
and honorably earned to class him with the 
progressive men and leading benefactors in 
a city noted far and wide for the high char- 
acter of its citizenship. 

Mr. Campbell was married in Kendall- 
ville, March 12, 1880, to Miss Kate R. 
Mitchell, daughter of Hon. John Mitchell, 
one of the city's most progressive busi- 
ness men ( see sketch of John Mitchell ) . 
and his home has been brightened by the 
presence of four interesting children, name- 
ly; Donald .Mitchell. William Archy, Jo- 
seph Weston and Gertrude Mitchell, all liv- 

Mr. and Mrs. Campbell are popular with 
all classes of people in Kendallville, and 
their home is a favorite resort of the best_ 
social circles of the city. They are highly 
esteemed for their man)- sterling qualities 
of head and heart, and as earnest and de- 
voted members of the Episcopal church are 
first and foremost in every good work for 
bettering the condition of the poor and un- 
fortunate. They have always exerted a 
wholesome moral infleuence in the commun- 
ity, and with the spirit of true helpers of 
humanity they have never made ostentatious 
display of their benevolences or charities. 


The gentleman whose name stands at 
the head of this biographical sketch was 
born in Townsend township, Norfolk coun- 
ty, Ontario, Canada. July 4, 185 1, the an- 
niversary of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence from the ru'e of the government un- 





der which he was born — old England — and 
from the control of which government he 
was taken by his parents to Silver Creek, 
Allegan county, Mich., in 1857, and four 
years later to Cooper, Kalamazoo county, in 
the same state. Two years later the family 
removed to Prairieyille, Barry county. Mich., 
where the}' resided seven years, and there 
young Millard F. received the greater part 
of his education in the common schools. 

It may be inferred, and truthfully, that 
the parents of Mr. Owen, of this sketch, 
were of strong Yankee proclivities — using 
the word "Yankee" as it is applied by Bri- 
tons to all the inhabitants of the United 
States — as the name of the subject of this 
sketch is Millard F., and was no doubt 
named in honor of Millard Fillmore, a form- 
er resident of Buffalo, N. Y., and elected in 
[848 vice-president of the United States on 
the Whig ticket with Zachary Taylor, the 
renowned hero of our war with Mexico, 
and whom Fillmore succeeded to the presi- 
dency about a year after attaining the office. 
The fact is, that the father of the subject 
was born in New York state 

When Millard F. Owen was about nine- 
teen years of age the family located in Ot- 
sego, Allegan county. Mich., where the fa- 
ther, of whom further mention will be made, 
entered into the produce business, and 
where, when Millard F. had attained his 
majority, the father and son entered into 
partnership, under the firm style of J. W. 
Owen & Son. In the spring of 1873 trns 
firm sold out their business, and Millard F, 
the subject, engaged in telegraphy in the 
office of the L. S. & M. S. Railway Com- 
pany, at Otsego. Mich., in which employ he- 
was retained until June, 1874, after which 
time he acted in the same capacity in differ- 

ent offices of the Grand Rapids & Indiana 
Railroad Company until December 15 of 
the same year, when he was appointed 
agent for the same company at Runic City, 
and superintendent of the "Resort" in sum- 
mer, anil here he has resided ever since, 
with the exception of six months passed in 

In 1876 Mr. Owen became connected 
with the boat "livery" service at Rome City, 
Ind., and with the steamer line in [878, and 
in the latter year he represented the Grand 
Rapids & Indiana Railroad Companv in the 
committee which organized the Chautauqua 
Assembly. It may be here mentioned, by the 
by. that Mr. Owen filled the offices of presi- 
dent and auditor of this assembly at its 
twenty-third annual meeting in 1901. 

In 1895 Mr. Owen assumed the manage- 
ment of the "Island Hotel and Restaurant," 
and in 1896, when the Spring Beach Hotel 
Company was organized, was appointed its 
secretary, in which capacity he is still act- 
ing in the most satisfactory manner, and in 
a manner, in which, perhaps, few other per- 
sons could act. Mr. Owen is also manager 
and secretary of the row-boat company at 
J Rome City, and is president and manager of. 
the Steam-Packet Company of the same 
place, all these responsible positions giving 
proof of his mure than ordinary ability as 
an executive official, which quality is further 
shown in the relations of his subsequent 
business career. In 1898 the Rome City 
Ice Company was organized, but was really 
owned by Millard F. Owen and Henry G. 
Cobb, and in September, 1900, Mr. Owen 
purchased the Sylvan Lake Hotel, of which 
he is still the sole proprietor. 

June 20, 1870. Mr. Owen was united in 
marriage with Mrs. Mary A. Haughton, 


will, u of Clark Haughton, the manager, 
formerly, of the Lakeside House, which 
sin. id mi the site of the present Sylvan Lake 
111. use. Mr>. Owen, now deceased, was a 
daughter of William R. Truesdall, and was 
born in Norwalk, Ohio, January 9, 185 1. 
She was reared in Ohio until about seven- 
teen years old. when she came to Rome City 
with her parents. To Air. and Airs. Owen 
were born three children — Laura De, Jessie 
M. and Vera T. Of these, the eldest, Laura 
De. is the wife of Clement G. Routsong, who 
is the night operator of the telegraph of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railway Company at Al- 
bion, Ind. The mother of these children was 
called away, however, at Rome City, July 4, 
1898, and her loss most deeply mourned by 
her sorrowing family and friends. 

Joel W. Owen, father of Millard F., was 
born in Genesee count}', N. Y., March 28, 
1817, and the wife of Joel W., before mar- 
riage, was Miss Mary Woodbeck, who was 
also a native of New York and was born 
November 19, 1828. These parents were 
married in Rockfurd, Norfolk county, On- 
tarii . August 14. 1850: from Canada they 
returned to the United States in 1857 and 
li cated in Allegan county, Mich., where the 
father embarked in sawmilling. starting also 
the first gristmill at Plainwell and also the 
first at Allegan, the court town of the coun- 
ty. Joel W. Owen, however, had first mar- 
ried Miss Cynthia Kitchen, who died in On- 
tario, leaving one sun. Egbert A. To the 
second marriage have been born five chil- 
dren, viz. : Millard F. ; Cynthia, who is the 
wife of Eber Sherwood, of Otsego, Mich.; 
Jessie: Charles: and Cora, wife of William 
Junes, nf Detroit. The parents now have 
their home at Otsego. Mich. 

[esse Owen, the father of Joel W. Owen, 

was born in Chemung, N. Y., September 29, 
1787, was by profession a Methodist clergy- 
man, and was also a gallant soldier in the 
war of j8ij. His death occurred at Plain- 
well, Mich.. December 12, J870. and the 
dates here given show at what an advanced 
age. His wife, the maternal grandmother of 
Millard F. Owen, was before marriage Miss 
Anna Winter, who was born in the state of 
Xew York August 11, 1786, and died at 
Silver Creek, Mich, (or Argenta. Mich.), 
February 2H, i860. Epinetis Owen, father 
of Jesse Owen, died from the effects of an 
injury received in a mill at Vittoria, On- 

Millard F. Owen is noted for the interest 
lie takes in ancient relics and old books, and 
of the latter he owns many of rare value. 
He keeps a hotel that is famous throughout 
northeastern Indiana and his cuisine is as 
renowned for its excellence as are the home 
comforts in general of the hostelry and the 
genial affability of the landlord. 

Mr. Owen is a member of blue lodge, 
No, 451, F. & A. M. and of R. A. M. chap- 
ter. No. 64. of Kendallville, and of Eastern 
Star, No. 232 ; he is also a member of Rome 
City Lodge, No. 460. K. of P. As a citizen 
he is one of the most progressive in Noble 
county, as well as one of the most public 


Peter A. Sunday, leading business man 
of Albion, Noble county. Ind.. a native of 
Ashland county. Ohio, was born February 
18, 1834, and is a sun of Henry and Eliza- 
beth (Kunkle) Sunday, both natives of the 
Buckeye state. Of these parents the father, 
although he had passed his life as a farmer 



in his native state, was suddenly called away 
by death while he was visiting a son in La- 
grange county, Ind. ; the mother passed 
away at her home in Ohio. They were the 
parents of seven sons and one daughter, 
who were born in the following older: Wes- 
ley, Andrew, Daniel, Jefferson, John, Peter 
A., Amanda and Levi. Of these eight Peter 
A. and Jefferson are the only survivors, 
Daniel, John and Levi having died in child- 
hood. Amanda was married to a Mr. 
Knull, and her death occurred in April, 
190 1 ; Jefferson is now a farmer in Fulton 
count}-, Ind. 

Peter A. Sunday was hut thirteen years 
of age when he left the parental roof and be- 
gan an apprenticeship at harness-making in 
Lagrange, learned the business, and worked 
as a journeyman until his coming to Albion, 
November 8, 1864. Here he at once estab- 
lished a manufacturing business in his own 
line, in which he has met with signal suc- 
cess. He now owns considerable property 
in Albion, mostly consisting of residences 
and vacant lots; he also owns valuable prop- 
erty in the city of Lagrange. Ind. ; city 
property in Mansfield, Ohio; a farm in No- 
ble count v. Ind.. and city lots in Wichita, 
Kans., all resulting from his own unaided 
enterprise and good management. 

Air. Sunday was united in marriage 
March 13, 1862, at Lagrange, Ind., with 
Miss Lucretia L. Garmire, a native of Fos- 
toria, Ohio, who was but four years of age 
when brought to Indiana by her parents. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sunday have had no children 
born to their union, but in order to fill the 
parental void in their heart have reared 
H. G. Garmire. a brother of Mrs. Sunday, 
since his thirteenth year until manhood, be- 
ing in the home over twentv years. 

The education of Mr. Sunday was but 
limited, as far as schools are concerned, yet 
by private study be has acquired a large 
ami unt of useful information, including the 
German language, which, although he can 
read with ease, he cannot speak very fluently. 
He early became imbued with business prin- 
ciples, his adherence to which has resulted 
in his present competence. Mrs. Sunday, 
however, was educated in the city schools 
of Lagrange and secured excellent educa- 
tional training. 

In politics Air. Sunday is of Democratic 
proclivities, although he is not held down to 
party lines on local issues, and has never 
sought public office; nevertheless, he was the 
first city marshal of Albion, which position 
he filled two terms. In religion Air. and 
Airs. Sunday are identified with the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran church, the tenets of which 
they adhere to with fervid tenacity. 

The Sunday family, although small in 
numbers, wield a large influence in the so- 
cial circles of Albion, being greatly respected 
by the entire community. 


Cornelius B. Phillips is a native of New 

York and lived on a farm until seven years 
of age. He then went to New York City, 
where he was employed, as a clerk in a whole- 
sale house. In September. 1850. he came to 
Albion, Ind., and clerked for William M. 
Clapp in a dry-goods store for six years. 
He then embarked in business in connection 
with John E. Walters and continued therein 
two years and six months. He then entered 
into a partnership with Judge Clapp in the 


dry-goods business, and continued therein 
until 1876, when he engaged in business 
alone, which venture proved extensive and 
very .successful, and lasted until 1880, when 
he was burned out, losing about fifteen thou- 
sand dollars. He then engaged in the grain 
and insurance business. He has long been 
associated with the business interests of No- 
ble county and of Albion, and has always 
ranked as a citizen of sterling integrity and 
of great moral worth. He is intelligent, of 
good business qualifications, is industrious 
and persevering, and has succeeded in secur- 
ing a competency from a financial point of 
view. He served two terms of four years 
each as auditor of Noble county, has held 
several other important positions, and in 
every instance discharged the duties thereof 
with marked ability and to the entire satis- 
faction of the people, and has left no stain 
of dishonor to sully his fair reputation. 

In November, 1861, he was married to 
Miss Catharine Pepple, an amiable and in- 
telligent daughter of the late James Pepple, 
of Albion. She died in 1877. To this union 
were born three children : Thurlow, who 
died unmarried; Grace, who became the wife 
of George O. Russell, Jr., of Albion, and 
who died a few years ago ; and Ettie, now 
the widow of Arthur Talbert, deceased. In 
1878 Mr. Phillips was married to Miss Mary 
Kuhn, an intelligent and refined daughter 
of Washington and Rebecca Kuhn, of York 
township. She still survives, and is mistress 
of a happy home. To this union were born 
four children : Fred, Cornelius B. W ., 
Mabel and Lula. 

Mr. Phillips has for many years been an 
honored member of the Masonic order and 
also of the Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows. For seventeen years he served as sec- 

retary of the former order, and held the 
presidency of the latter for several years. 
While not a member of any church, he is a 
regular attendant at, and a liberal supporter 
of, the Presbyterian church of Albion, of 
which his wife is a zealous and consistent 
member. Since he left the auditor's office 
he has been in the grocer}- business, and is 
having a large, flourishing trade. Mr. 
Phillips from early youth, as above indi- 
cated, has had the benefit of commercial 
training, and being of an industrious and 
stirring nature, his future success seems as- 
sured. His residence is commodious, tastily 
and richly furnished, and is presided over 
by one who does not seem to rely chiefly 
upon a splendid mansion with costly fur- 
nishings for happiness, believing that — 

"Home's not merely four square walls, 
Though with pictures hung and gilded; 
Home's where affection calls, 
Filled with shrines the heart has builded." 


It is well known historically that when 
the ordinance of secession was passed and 
was adopted by most of the southern states, 
many of the best and wisest men of old Vir- 
ginia deplored the condition of affairs and 
strove, though in vain, td save the state 
from the clutches of the secessionists. A 
large section in the northwest part of the 
old state, however, remained loyal to the 
Union, and representatives from forty coun- 
ties met in convention at Wheeling, on the 
Ohio river, June 11, 1861, rejected the or- 
dinance of secession and organized a state 
government, the constitution of which was 

-U^£/ri&£ /So^ **C* /cu e^[ 



adopted May 3, (862, and the state ad- 
mitted into the Union June 20, [863, and 
among the counties that constituted the new- 
state was Berkeley, in which the subject of 
this sketch had his nativity. 

G& rge Rumbaugh, be it then explained, 
was bom in Berkeley count}-, \"a., August 
14. 1829, and was about five years of age 
when taken by his parents to Seneca county, 
Ohio, where the family settled on a farm, 
on which young George was reared to man- 
hood. In the spring of 1850 George came 
from Ohio to Noble county. Ind., with no 
capital save his strong arms and his knowl- 
edge of farming. He also possessed a 
strong determination to succeed in life, if 
determination and industry were to count 
for anything. 

By practicing frugality and by laboring 
diligently and by keeping his eyes open to 
the main chance. Mr. Rumbaugh worked his 
way upward until he became the owner of 
several farms in Jefferson township, and in 
1883 came to Orange township and pur- 
chased his present fine homestead of eighty 
acres, all of which is handsomely improved. 

Mr. Rumbaugh was united in marriage 
at Albion, Ind., September T4, 1854, with 
Miss Martha Pike, who was horn in Seneca 
county, Ohio, November 4. 1838. and to this 
union have been horn four children, who still 
live to honor, love and cheer the declining 
years of their parents, and whose births 
took place in the following order: Daniel, 
Willard. Laura and Nettie J., and of these 
highly cultivated children further mention 
will be made before this sketch shall have 
been brought to a close. In the meantime 
something may be and ought to be said rel- 
ative to the military career of the brave and 
patriotic father. 

In September, [864, George Rumbaugh 
enlisted in Company 1). Thirteenth Regi- 
ment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, with 
which he took part in the engagement at 
Fort Fisher, and also in several severe skir- 
mishes, and served until honorably dis- 
charged on account of disability at New 
Berne, X. C, in June 1865. After his dis- 
charge from the military service Mi'. Rum- 
baugh returned to his wife and children, 
whom he had left behind, while he risked his 
life on the battle field. Mr. Rumbaugh's 
regiment was assigned to the Army of the 
Potomac and he was on the famous march 
through the Carolinas. and he was in New 
Berrie, N. C, when the glad intelligence 
reached the poor hoys of the surrender of 
General R. E. Lee, and just at this time these 
glad tidings meant home and friends and 
loved ones again. Five days subsequently 
the sad news of the assassination of the 
great and good Lincoln came, which was a 
sore contrast to the former. 

Daniel Rumbaugh. the eldest child of 
Martha (Pike) Rumbaugh's 

Jefferson township, 

( rei rge ami 

children, wa 
Noble county. Ind., August jj. 1856, was 
educatied in the common schools and was 
reared to agricultural pursuits. lie was an 
unusually bright young man and has always 
been greatly interested in local politics. 
Since 1887 he has been a member of the 
Republican county central committee; Will- 
ard Rumbaugh. the second born, is a mer- 
chant and is postmaster at LaOtto. Ind.; 
Laura and Xettie J. still have their home 
under the parental roof. Of these. Willard 
was a school teacher in Noble count}- for 
four years when a young man, and Nettie 
J. has taught in the public schools of Noble 
county since 188s — a vocation she is still 


following- with the earnest approval of the 
people. The family are members of the 
United Brethren church and enjoy the re- 
spect of the entire community. 

William Rumbaugh, the father of the 
above named George, was born in Virginia 
and there married Miss Mary Musetter, a 
native of the same state, who became the 
mother of the respected family already 
named in detail. From Virginia Mr. and 
and Mrs. William Rumbaugh removed to 
Seneca county, Ohio, in the latter part of 
the 'thirties, and in that count)* the mother 
died when fourty-four years old and the 
father when about seventy years of age. 
They were greatly respected by their neigh- 
bors and reared a family of nine children, 
of whom George, the subject of this sketch, 
was the fourth in order of birth. 

Samuel Pike, the father of Mrs. Martha 
Rumbaugh, was born in the state of New 
York, and married Miss Mary Cutright, a 
native of Seneca count}-, Ohio. Mr. and 
Mrs. Samuel Pike came to Noble dainty. 
lnd., in 1852, and located in Jefferson town- 
ship, but later removed to Wayne township, 
where the mother passed away, but the fa- 
ther, returning- to Jefferson township, died 
there when sixty-nine years old. 

George Rumbaugh has been one of the 
most energetic and progressive men that 
ever lived in Orange township. He has 
through his personal efforts raised himself 
from the plane of comparative poverty to 
the height of prosperity, has reared a fam- 
ily of which the township and county may 
well feel proud, and he enjoys the respect 
and unaffected esteem of all his neighbors, ] 
near and far. His son Daniel, especially, j 
promises to be indeed a worthy successor, i 
while the record of the career of the other I 

children, so far as given, fully shows that 
they are not a whit behind in the march of 
civilization and progressive usefulness. 


Rev. Owen W. Bowen. Evangelical Lu- 
theran clergyman at Albion and a fervent 
and earnest dispenser of the truths and bless- 
ings of the gospel, was born in Noble coun- 
ty, hid., March 6, 1841, and is a son of 
William E. and Elizabeth (Weitzel) Bowen, 
both of Pennsylvania nativity and of English 
and German descent, respectively. William 
E. and Elizabeth Bowen were married in the 
Keystone state, and in 1837 came to Noble 
county, lnd., where William E. entered 
forty acres of farm land in Green township, 
to which he subsequently added, by pur- 
chase and otherwise, until at his death he 
was possessed of three hundred and sixty 
acres. Pie was born February 7, 18 10, and 
died May 5, 1881 ; his wife was born Feb- 
ruary 15, 1814, and died August 26, 1882. 
These parents had a family of nine children, 
of whom five are still living, namely: Mar- 
garet, wife of E. D. Spencer, of Albion; 
Rev. Owen W. ; Elizabeth, widow of Dr. 
S. M. Spencer, also residing in Albion; 
William W., a well-to-do farmer living one 
mile north of the city; Franklin J. is a me- 
chanic and resides at Fort Wayne. The 
father of this family was quite prominent 
in political life, served as sheriff four years, 
as county treasurer four years, and for many 
years was a constable and justice of the 

Rev. Owen W. Bowen was educated in 
Albion, and later on taught school eight 



winter terms. He also pursued a two-years' 
course of study at Wittenburg" College, 
Ohio, where he was prepared fur the min- 
istry. He began his labors as pastor in the 
Lutheran church at Three Rivers, Mich., 
where he remained three years, to the great 
edification of his congregation. He was 
next' stationed at Ligonier, Ind., and sup- 
plied the Salem charge, preaching for about 
five years. In 1883 he came to Albion, 
where he had three congregations under bis 
charge for about four years, anil was presi- 
dent of the school board for four years. 
The next five years he bad charge of the 
Massillon congregation at Monroeville, Ind., 
and then returned to Albion, where he has 
no regular work, but supplies each of the 
pulpits as circumstances require, his elo- 
quence and lucid logic, as well as fervency, 
making him a welcome speaker on all oc- 
casions and to all hearers. 

Rev. Mr. Bowen was joined in marriage 
at Constantine, Mich., May 9. 1872. with 
A 1 i -. ^ Sarah C. Ileckmau. who was born in 
Pennsylvania, February 4, 1847, and was a 
daughter of Aaron Heckman, a farmer. 
Two children came to bless this union, to- 
wit: Maggie Belle, born April 14, 1873, is 
now the wife of Mert Webster, foreman in 
one of the departments of the rubber fac- 
tory at Mishawaka; and William Luther, 
who was horn January 2, 1875. an( 3 ' s an 
employe in the same department. 

Mrs. Sarah C. Bowen departed this life 
February 8, 1901. at the family home in 
Albion. She was a worthy and exemplarv j 
Christian and a true helpmeet. Since her 
death Air. Bowen has kept house alone at 
the old home, although he owns a farm in 
Green township, which he frequently visits, 
and this diverts his mind from his sorrows. 

Mr. Bowen has affiliated with the Democrats 
through his mature years, but has not been 
held down strictly by party discipline, as he 
is a Prohibitionist in sentiment and an ardent 
advocate of sobriety. His exalted Christian 
character commands the respect and admira- 
tion of his fellow-citizens, and nowhere more 
so than in the county of his birth. 


This prominent physician of Noble 
county, Ind.. and honored citizen of the city 
of Ligonier, was born June 3, 1833, in the 
town of Edinburg, Portage county. Ohio, 
and is a son of Jacob ami Mary I Morgan) 

Jacob Knepper was of German ancestry, 
but was horn in Pennsylvania, and his wife 
was a native of Ohio. They were married 
in Columbiana county, and afterward re- 
sided in Edinburg for a number of years. 
They later removed to Williams county, 
Ohio, where the father died at the age of 
seventy-six vears and the mother at the age 
of sixtv-six. They were the parents of 
seven children: of these Rossanah is the 
widow of Henry Thomas and now resides 
with her daughter in Cleveland; Jeremiah 
M.. died in Bryan. Ohio, in 1805. at the age 
,4" sixty-three; Edwin W., of this sketch: 
William M. is a successful farmer of Will- 
iams county. Ohio: Selina was the wife of 
Aaron Brannon ami died in 1879; Allen is 
a farmer, now living in Williams county, 
Ohio: and an unnamed child died in infancy. 
Edwin W. Knepper received his early 
education in his native state by attending 
the public schools and the Carroll Academy. 



He commenced his professional studies with 
Dr. H. Cooney, of Bryan, Ohio, and began 
the practice of his profession at Eden, Ohio, 
in 1864, where lie remained two years, com- 
ing to Ligonier in May, 1866, has here re- 
mained and is now in the enjoyment of a 
large and remunerative practice. 

The Doctor was married in Ohio, Febru- 
ary 7. [857, to .Miss .Margaret Jane McQuil- 
kin. a native of Carroll county, Ohio, who 
was born August 5, 1835. They have be- 
come the parents of six children. Two died 
early in infancy and two died unmarried. 
The living are Edwin W., Jr., an expert ac- 
countant in the employ of the American Steel 
and Wire Company of Cleveland. He was 
educated in the high school of Ligonier, 
took a two-years' course at the State Uni- 
versity of Indiana, and completed his stud- 
ies by a two-years' course with the Com- 
mercial College of the V. M. C. A. of Cleve- 
land. He is still single. The other living 
child is Mabel Jane, also a graduate of the 
Ligonier high school. She has taught two 
terms. Considerable attention was given to 
her musical education, and she is now an 
accomplished musician and line vocalist. 

Dr. Knepper, in his political views, is 
a life-long Republican, having voted for 
every presidential nominee of the party from 
the days of John C. Fremont to the present 
time. In 1897 he was elected to the lower 
house of the general assembly, represent- 
ing the joint district of Noble and Dekalb 
counties, and served two years. He also 
held city and school offices in Ligonier. In 
the legislature the Doctor was a member of 
the committee 011 claims, mileage and ac- 
counts, chairman of the committee on stat- 
ues; also member of the committee on for- 
estry, medicine, health and vital statistics. 

and state library. He was especially inter- 
ested in the passage of the medical bill, which 
became a law. 

In the professional societies the Doctor 
has been a member of the American Medical 
Association, and of the Indiana .Medical So- 
ciety for thirty years. He is a member and 
past president of the Northwestern Indiana 
Medical Association, and has twice served 
as president of the Noble Count}- Medical 
Association. He \vas the legal surgeon of 
tne Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- 
way for six years, or while its service was 
maintained at this point. In the fraternal 
organizations he holds membership in Ex- 
celsior Lodge, No. 267, I. O. O. F., and has 
passed the chairs ; also a member of Wash- 
ington Encampment. No. 89, of which he is 
past city patriarch. For about twenty years, 
ne held the position of district deputy for 
subordinate lodges and the encampment. 
1 le is also a member of Ligonier Lodge, No. 
123, K. of P. Religiously the Doctor and 
his family are members of the Presbyterian 
church. Their social relations are of the 
highest and they enjoy the friendship and 
esteem of a large circle of friends in the city 
and countv. 


One of the most practical and prosperous 
farmers of Noble count)'. Ind.. is James 
Tate, who was born February 22, 1822, in 
Flaxby, parish of Gouldsborough, county of 
York, England, and is a son of John and 
Christine (Cross) Tate. John Tate was 
horn in Lincolnshire, England. September 
30, 1786, followed the occupation of farm- 
ing, meeting with reasonable success, and 


fiLslsiAA^? *J 

y?i>i5> Jz^i^r^-<-^-^- Th cfa-*^-^ 



died April 12, [864, in Flaxby. The muther. 
Christine (Cross) Tate, was born in West- 
minster, London, in 1797. and died in Flax- 
by, January 24, 1877, leaving eleven chil- 
dren, namely: John Henry, Susanna, 
Tin mas. James, Robert. Ann Elizabeth, 
Phillip, Mary Sarah, Catherine, Martha 
Jane and Emma. 

James Tate was educated "on his native 
heath" and there engaged in farming and 
also to some extent in butchering until he 
was about twenty-eight years old. Being 
favorably impressed with the reports given 
of the country across the sea and desirous of 
trying for himself if the stories were true he 
sailed for New York in the spring of 1850 
and reached port in May of that year. He 
went at once to Summit count}-, Ohio, where 
he was married. April 4, [854, to .Miss Caro- 
line Julia Schofield. Mrs. Tate was born in 
Tompkins county. N. Y., October 10, 1827, 
and grew to be an estimable young woman, 
who took a deep interest in the cause of 
religion and gave much of her time to its 
advancement. She died April 20, 1887, 
leaving five children: Robert Newton, 
Christine E., Richard Baxter, Rosa Ann, 
who married J. W. Hunter, of Abingdon, 
111., and Dora Lila, while one child had en- 
tered the gates of the Holy City. On April 
28, 1890, Mr. Tate was again joined in 
marriage, the lady of his choice being Mrs. 
I.uthena M. (Gallup) Jones, widow of 
Pomeroy Jones and daughter of Rufus B. 
and Abigail (Reynolds) Gallup, of whom 
further mention is made below. Pomeroy 
Jones was a native of Mercer county. Penn., 
born December 7, 1832, but was taken to 
Dekalb county. Ind., and there grew to man- 
hood. About 185 t he moved to Wayne 
township, Noble county, where he died April 

12. 1880. Luthena M. Gallup was born in 
Saratoga county, N. Y.. January 31. 1838, 
and is a lady possessing man)- pleasing at- 
tributes of character, which endear her to 
those who have come within the charmed 
radius of her acquaintance. Her first union 
resulted in the birth of three children, name- 
ly : Abbie A., who became the wife of S. 
C. Franks, and died in Kendallville. March 
2, 1884: Rufus C. and J. Austin. 

Immediately following his first marriage 
Mr. Tate left Summit county, Ohio, in 
April. 1854, to locate in Noble county. Ind. 
He settled in Wayne township, where he 
was a renter for one year, and then pur- 
chased a farm in that township and contin- 
ued to make that locality his home until 
1875. when he moved to his farm in Orange 
township, where he has since lived. He 
owns three hundred and twenty acres of as 
fine land as can be found in the county, in 
Orange township, and one hundred and sev- 
enty acres in Wayne township and is one of 
the most successful farmers who have been 
a credit to Noble county. His land is kept 
in good shape furnished with good, substan- 
tial buildings, surrounded by well kept lawns 
snd fields, while his orchard supplies him 
with fruit that would tempt the appetite of 
an epicure. It would be impossible to find 
a man who stands better among his neigh- 
bors or who takes greater pleasure in the 
welfare and prosperity of the community 
than Mr. Tate, whose residence here of al- 
most half a century has shown him to be 
an honorable, upright man in every walk 
of life and one who well deserves the high 
respect and implicit confidence reposed in 
him. Both Mr. and Mrs. Tate are zealous 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in which thev are untiring workers. 


It was in 1888 that lie erected his beau- 
tiful home, just in the limits of Rome City, 
Ind., with spacious outbuildings, which are 
a credit to the township. He is a member 
of the F. & A. M., lodge No. 451, at Rome 
City, and Miss Dora is a member of the 
Eastern Star, No. 232. 


Ligonier, Noble county, Ind.. is favored 
with many notable citizens, and among the 
foremost stands Harvey E. Hoak, not only 
as an enterprising farmer but as the inventor 
and manufacturer of a superior incubator 
which finds a ready sale in all parts of the 
country. Mr. Hoak was born March 4, 
1867, and is a native of Noble county. His 
father, Daniel Hoak, was born in Cham- 
paign county, Ohio. June 16, 1841, and in 
1 85 J came to Indiana with his parents, who 
located in Sparta township, one mile north- 
vest of Cromwell. Here he resided until 
bis marriage, in 1866, to- Miss Susan Hitler, 
daughter of Joseph Hitler, when he took 
possession of the Jane Greene farm, upon 
which lie lived until the purchase of the 
land now occupied by his son, Harvey E. 
He died June 20, 1900, leaving two chil- 
dren, Harvey E. and Mary L., the latter of 
whom was horn February 4, 1872, and mar- 
ried Harris 1'. Tucker, a prosperous young 
farmer of Sparta township, by whom she 
has two children, Joyce and Paul. 

Harvey E. Hoak attended the schools of 
Ligonier until he had completed the junior 
year, when he entered the drug store of his 
uncle in Ligonier, remaining there three 
years. He then entered the employ of Dr. 

E. L. Watson, of the same village, and was 
with him two years. On April 25, 1894, he 
led to the altar of Hymen Miss Blanche 
Marker, who was born November 20, 1873, 
and is a daughter of Albert and Sarah (Sur- 
fus) Marker, both of whom are natives of 
Indiana. Mr. and Mrs. Marker were mar- 
ried in j 870 and are the parents of three 
children, viz: Blanche: Charley, born Oc- 
tober 24, 1876: and Nettie M.,,born August 
6, 1882, but who died March 22, 1887. 
Two children have blessed the home of Mr, 
Hoak, namely : Bernice, who was born No- 
vember 9, 1895, and who, on October 4, 
1897, came to a tragic death, her throat and 
one side of her face being lacerated by angry 
swine; and Russell L., who' was born No- 
vember 2j, 1898, and is a bright, attractive 

After his marriage Mr. Hoak engaged 
in argicultural pursuits and tended the 
homestead, although his residence was on 
the Henry [Miller farm until after the death 
of his father, when he moved into the house 
in Jul)', 1900. He owns one hundred and 
twenty-six acres of land and is a careful 
farmer, who looks closely after the details 
of his work and who does not hesitate to 
branch out in new lines when he finds the 
occasion propitious. He makes a specialty 
of fancy stock,-, believing, and rightly, that 
it pays to handle only the best if a raiser 
wishes for good results, and the animals 
found on his premises are all thoroughbreds. 
He raises Shropshire sheep, Poland-China 
hogs, Barred Plymouth Rock chickens, 
Pekin ducks and Mammoth Bronze turkeys, 
and owned the largest turkey exhibited at 
the Chicago Poultry Show. He cares for 
bis stock in a manner that results in profit 
as well as satisfaction from them, and 


>6 7 


it is a genuine pleasure to 

Mr. llnak and his family are true Chris- 
tians, and Mr. Hoak willingly aids finan- 
cially any organization designed to benefit 
mankind. Fraternally he is a member of 
Lodge No. 123, Knights of Pythias, of Lig- 
onier, and is a Democrat in politics, and cast 
his first vote for Cleveland. Mr. Hoak, 
although an American-born citizen and non- 
partisan, will support the measures which 
will best benefit the masses. Mr. Hoak has 
musical talent and at one time was a mem- 
ber of the Ligonier .Military Band, composed 
of thirty pieces, and this band took the prize 
instruments, valued at twenty-five hundred 
dollars, at the international encampment at 
Chicago, 111. He took lessons on the violin 
from the eminent violinist. Otto Soldon, who 
had performed before the crowned heads of 
Europe. The Ligonier Band also took the 
thirteen-hundred-dollar prize at Peru and 
also a prize at Findlay. 

Mrs. Hoak graduated in the common 
schools in the class of 1886 and is also a 
graduate from the Ligonier high school 
with the class of 1892, and was valedictorian 
of the class. 

The beautiful Hoak farm shows culture 
and refinement and the home is fraught with 
the best authors and literature. 

Of the per 

nan much m 
aphv of his Eathe 
diich will be foun 
vork and to wl 
eader is 1 

nal history of this gentle- 
be learned from the biog- 
he late Daniel Lower. 
ind on another page of this 
which the attention of the 
fully invited. 

John A. Lower, an agriculturist of Elk- 
hart township. Noble county, Ind.. and a 
gentleman of repute both as a farmer and a 
public-spirited citizen, was born on his fa- 
ther's farm in this township, November 25, 
1 85 J, and here he has always made his 
home, assisting on the home place until his 
marriage. April 8, 1877, to Mis.. Mary A. 
1'ollock, who was born in Noble county* De- 
cember 10, 1858, and is a daughter of Lance- 
lot and Nancy (Masters) Pollock. To this 
congenial union have been horn six children. 
of whom five are still living, and of whom 
one died in infancy. The names of the sur- 
vivors are Pearl V., who is the wife of Earn- 
est C. Nichols; Daniel A.; Frederick .'v.; 
Ollie M.: and Russell. 

In the fall of 1877 Mr. Lower and his 
bride settled on the farm of one hundred 
and seventy acres on which he still lives, and 
which he has improved with a fine dwelling 
and substantial farm buildings of every need- 
ful kind for the care of implements, stock. 
en ps. etc.. while the farm itself is cultivated 
on scientific principles that net to the owner 
the most profitable returns and is not ex- 
celled in good management by any similar 
tract of land in the township. 

The late Daniel Lower, father of the 
subject of this sketch, was born in Bavaria, 
Germany, March 22, 1815. and first mar- 
ried Abigal DeLong, who died in Elkhart 
township. Noble count)-, the mother of six 
children, of whom five reached the years of 
maturity, and were named as follows: 
Elizabeth, who is the wife of Joseph W. 
Marshall: William D. : Jacob; Margaret, 
who died when about twenty years old; and 
Mary, who is the wife of Frederick Schwab. 

The second marriage of Daniel Lower 
was to Elizabeth Kreglow, who bore him a 


large number of children, of whom five 
reached mature years, viz: Abigal, who 
is now deceased; John A., the subject of this 
sketch: Daniel D. ; Barbara, the wife of 
George Domer; and James, who is now also 
deceased. The mother of this family has 
also passed away. 

John A. Lower, who is classed among 
the foremost citizens of Elkhart township 
and as one of its best farmers, counts his 
friends by the score and is universally re- 
spected. He is broad minded and public- 
spirited and is ever ready with his means in 
aiding any project designed for the public- 
good. Although a popular member of the 
Democratic part)-, he has never been an 
office seeker, although be is ever ready to 
render his services in forwarding the public- 
welfare when needed. His wife, who is a 
most amiable lady and a true helpmate, is a 
consistent member of the Free Baptist 


An influential and prosperous citizen of Jef- 
ferson township. Noble county, Ind., is the 
third in a family of twelve children born to 
John and Lydia (Seeley) Hardendorf. He- 
is a native of Steuben count) - , N. Y., and 
was born August 6, 1828. John Harden- 
dorf was born in Montgomery county, N. 
Y., and spent his entire life in that state, dy- 
ing in Syracuse, August 12, 1848. when in 
his fifty-ninth year. His wife was a native 
of Saratoga and died in June, 1885. in Al- 
legan)' count)-. Mich, having attained the 
advanced age of eight)- years. 

Alpheus Hardendorf was reared toman- 
hood in Syracuse and engaged in various 

pursuits until the year 1849. when he came 
to Indiana, where he engaged in farming in 
Steuben count)-, for three years. He then 
moved to Walworth count)-. Wis., but re- 
mained only a short time, returning to In- 
diana in February, 1858, settling in Noble 
count)-, near Kendallville. Wavne township. 
After living there about six and one-half 
years he moved to Jefferson township, wdiich 
his since been his place of residence. Here 
he owns eighty acres of fine farm land, 
which he has placed in such an excellent 
state of improvement that it vields an 
abundant return for the labor expended 
upon it. 

August 30, 1857. in Whitley county, this 
state, occurred the marriage of Mr. Harden- 
dorf and Miss Celestine Tousley. a daughter 
of David and Nancy ( Noyes) Tousle)-, the 
former a native of Vermont and the latter 
of Rome, N. Y. Mrs. Hardendorf was 
horn in Jefferson county, N. Y., September 
15, 1824, and has been an able and willing 
assistant of her husband during the many 
years in which they have traveled the check- 
ered pathway of life together. Their union 
resulted in the birth of four children : Al- 
pheus J. ; Anna M.. who became the wife 
of Frank A. Hitchcock, died in New Mex- 
ico at the age of thirty-four years; two chil- 
dren died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Harden- 
dorf are untiring workers in the Methodist 
Episcopal church, of which the)- are mem- 
bers and enjoy the confidence and esteem 
of all who know them. Mr. Hardendorf 
was converted and joined the church when 
but thirteen years of age. Three years after- 
ward, at the age of sixteen, he was appointed 
steward, and at the age of eighteen he was 
I a class-leader. From that time until n< >w be 
has been an official member of the church. 




being steward and class-leader at the same 
time, with the exception of a few years. 1 [e 
has held all the other offices of the quarterly 
conference, save two; to one he was elected 
but did nut serve, the other being recording 
steward, which is conferred by appointment. 
Mrs. Hardendorf was converted at the age 
of nineteen years, and has been a member 
ever since. 


Each calling or business, if honorable, 
has its place in the scheme of human exist- 
ence, constituting a part of the plan whereby 
life's methods are pursued and man reaches 
his ultimate destiny. While all businesses 
are needed, the actual importance of each 
is largely determined by its usefulness. So 
dependent is man upon his fellow-men that 
the worth of the individual is largely reck- 
oned by what he has done for humanity. 
There is no class to whom greater gratitude 
is due than to those self-sacrificing, noble- 
minded men whose life work has been the 
alienation of the burden of suffering that 
rests upon the world, thus appreciably 
lengthening the span of human existence. 
This influence cannot be measured by any 
..uman standard; their helpfulness is as 
broad as the universe and their power goes 
hand in hand with the beneficent laws of na- 
ture that come from the source of life itself. 
Some one has said, "He serves God best 
who serves humanity most." 

The skilled physician, then, by the exer- 
cise of his native talents and acquired ability, 
is not only performing a service for human- 
ity but is following in the footsteps of the 
great Teacher who said : "Inasmuch as ye 

have done it unto the least of these, my 
brethren, ye have dune it unto me." 

.V name that stands conspicuously forth 
m connection with the medical profession oi 
northern Indiana is that of Dr. William H. 
Franks, the subject of this review, a regular 
practicing physician and surgeon at Ligo- 
nier, hid. The Franks family was estab- 
lished on American soil by .Michael Franks, 
the grandfather of Dr. William II.. who 
emigrated from Germany and located in 
Fayette county, Penn., where he reared a 
large family. The Trader family is of Irish 
ancestry. The Doctor was born near 
Uniontown, Fayette county, Penn., on the 
26th of April, 1841. He is a son of Samuel 
and Susan ( Trader) Franks, natives also of 
the same county. Their lives were there 
spent, the mother dying of cancer at the age 
of fifty-nine. The father was not remarried, 
and lived to the ripe old age of eighty-seven 
years. He was a farmer during his active 
life and was fairly successful in that calling. 
Samuel and Susan Franks were the parents 
of eight children, whose curcumstances are 
as follows : Sarah, the eldest, is the wife 
of John L. Whetstone, a farmer of Fayette 
county, Penn.; Amy, the second born, be- 
came the wife of Ross Anderson, and, both 
are deceased; Elizabeth H. married John 
Jaco, who enlisted for service during the 
Civil war and was killed on the held of bat- 
tle. She is still a widow and resides in her 
native county. William H., the subject of 
this sketch, is next in order of birth. Eliza 
J. is the wife of Charles Griffin and is now- 
living in Kansas. Her husband served in 
the army throughout the entire peril id of 
the Civil war. Amanda became the wife of 
Harry Zimmerman and lives in West Vir- 
ginia, where her husband is an operator and 


station agent on the Baltimore & Ohio 
Southern Railway. Mary C. is the wife of 
Luther Wheeler, of Deer Park, Md. Susan 
died of diphtheria at the age of seven years. 
Dr. Franks was educated in the public 
schools of his native state and at George's 
Creek Academy, Fayette county, Penn. 
After finishing his common-school studies 
he began the study of medicine in the office 
of Dr. F. C. Robinson, at Uniontown, Penn., 
and remained there three years. He then 
entered Jefferson Medical College at Phila- 
delphia, and after finishing a course of study 
in that institution removed to Indiana in 
[864, and for eleven years practiced the 
healing art at Brimfield, Noble county. De- 
siring to further perfect himself in the sci- 
ence of medicine, he in 1873 entered Rush 
Medical College, Chicago, completed the 
course in medicine begun at Jefferson Medi- 
cal College, and graduated in the spring of 
[874. In 1878 Dr. Franks located in Ligo- 
nier, and has since remained there, engaged 
in the constant practice of his profession. 
Since locating in his present field of en- 
deavor the Doctor has been favored with a 
liberal share of public favor, his success be- 
ing but the just reward of his honest efforts 
to fulfill the exacting demands made upon 
his skill as a physician. Added to this is a 
natural geniality and cheerfulness of dis- 
position which not only helps him to make 
friends but which is so vital an element of 
success in the sick-room. The Doctor is .1 
member of the Noble County Medical So- 
ciety and the Indiana State Medical Society. 
I hi September 23, [866, Dr. Franks was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary E. Gib- 
son, a native of Noble county, Ind.. and a 
daughter of A. ( ',. and Eliza Gibson, natives 
of Virginia. The parents were among the 

early settlers of the county, coming here 
when there were but few white people in this 
part of the state. The marriage of Dr. and 
Mrs. Franks has been blessed with the birth 
of four children, two of whom have passed 
away. Walter E. was afflicted with spinal 
disease from childhood and died at the age 
of nineteen. He was a bright and intelli- 
gent boy. Earnest G is in the employ of a 
railroad company in Colorado. The third 
born of this family was Arthur, who died 
of diphtheria at the age of seven years. 
Haidee May, a young lady, is still under 

! tne parental roof, and is a graduate of the 

j high school in the class of 1899. She takes 
much interest in her musical studies and Is 

j a bright young lady of much promise, the 
idol of loving parents and a favorite among 

' her many friends. Dr. Franks and family 
have lived upon the same lot in Ligonier for 
twenty-three years. 

Religiously the Doctor is a faithful mem- 
ber of the Baptist church, while Mrs. Franks 
and daughter Haidee are adherents of the 

j Methodist Episcopal church. Politically 
Dr. Franks has been a life-long Democrat, 
though not immovably bound by party ties. 
His sympathies are with the free-silver 
movement as advocated by William Jennings 

Dr. Franks owns a fine farm of one hun- 
dred and sixty acres in Elkhart county, ad- 
joining the county line. It is finely improved 
and well stocked, in the latter line the Doc- 
tor making a specialty of thoroughbred Pol- 
and-China hogs and Shropshire sheep. He 
rents the farm but reserves his stock. 

The Doctor's friends are legion and the 
future undoubtedly holds in store for him 
greater successes than any that have hereto- 
fore come to him. The family are occupy- 


ing an enviable position in the community 

and have won by merit the respect and es- 
teem in which thev are held. 


For the past thirty-seven years this gen- 
tleman has been a photographer at Ligonier, 
and is now its leading artist. He is a native 
of Wayne county. N. Y.. his birth occur- 
ring March 6, 1836. He is a great-grandson 
of Zebulon Cornell, a grandson of John and 
Mahala (Allen) Cornell, and i-, one in a 
family of four sons and two daughters born 
to the marriage of William A. Cornell and 
Mary E. Case. The family is of Irish- 
Scotch-Welsh origin, their coming to this 
country being prior to the establishment of 
the American colonies as an independent 
gi vernment. Notwithstanding the fact thai 
the family belonged to the religious sect 
known as Quakers, and consequently op- 
posed to mortal strife, Zebulon Cornell was 
;> soldier in the Revolutionary war, and the 
flintlock gun carried by him is a valued pos- 
session of the subject of this sketch. John 
Cornell came from New York state to In- 
diana about the year 1850, locating at La- 
grange, where he passed the remainder of 
his days. William A. Cornell was a tanner 
and shoemaker, and died at Lagrange, Inch, 
in 1865. 

11. R. Cornell lived in his native state 
until seventeen years of age. his time being 
passed in going to school, assisting his fa- 
ther and such other occupations incident to 
the youth of the average American hoy. In 
[853 he went to Michigan, and after work- 
ing at such employment as offered for about 

two years, served a three years' apprentice- 
ship at the carpenter's trade, and the suc- 



•ee years was engaged m 

q 'en- 

tering and contracting, a part of the time 
being located at Lagrange, Ind. In 1862, 
in partnership with his brother, Charles G., 
..e engag'ed in the photographic business at 
Toledo, Ohio, and thus continued until Oc- 
tober, 1864, when he came to Ligonier, 
where he has since resided, engaged in the 
same occupation. Mr. Cornell has an es- 
tablished reputation of being one of the best 
photographers in the state. In 1858 he mar- 
ried Natio Antoinette Bush, who died in 
February, 1864. leaving two daughters — 
Matie E. and Nettie B. These children 
nave never known the want of a mother, as 
tlie marriage of Mr. Cornell to Miss Ann 
E. Gould happily supplied their loss. To 
this marriage one daughter was born, Helen 
Irene, who died in infancy. Mr. Cornell is 
a Royal Arch Mason, an encampment de- 
gree Odd Fellow and a Knight of Pythias. 
He is a Republican, served on the old town 
board and afterward in the city council of 
Ligonier, and has in all ways lived the life 
of a law-abiding- citizen. 


Inventor and manufacturer of the Ormas 
Incubator, is a worth)- son of Indiana, hav- 
ing been born in Kendall ville, October 27, 
18(17. a son ot " John D. and Susan (Blue) 
Banta, natives 1 f Elkhart township. Albert 
Banta, grandfather, was < ne of the pioneers 
of Noble county, and prominent in bringing 
about that development of our resources 
which has made northern Indiana famous 



among the middle states. The family of 
John and Susan Banta comprised seven chil- 
, dren: Len, the subject, is the eldest; Wil- 
mah; Grace; George F. ; Bruce; Jennie; and 
William, who died in childhood. The 
youngest three are married ; George has 
heeu a merchant for some years in Kansas ; 
Bruce is in the employ of his hrother Len ; 
Jennie is the wife of Luther Starkey and re- 
sides in Wolf Lake. 

Len Banta had the usual educational ad- 
vantages which fell to the lot of the Indiana 
he iv of his day, taking the usual course in the 
public schools of his district, supplemented 
by a course in the normal institutes of No- 
ble and Whitley counties for several years. 
On laving aside his studies to take the re- 
sponsibilities of life, he taught school in the 
aforesaid counties for five and a half years, 
and then went to Oregon and engaged in 
mining for several years, the hazardous en- 
terprise proving successful. In 1875 he re- 
turned to Ligonier and established his pres- 
ent business, which has proved quite re- 
munerative. He is the patentee of the Or- 
mas Incubator, the name indicating the lo- 
cality where he was living when he worked 
out the problem involved in its construction. 
The product is a self-regulating machine for 
the artificial hatching of eggs. His business 
of manufacturing gives employment to a 
number of men, and the annual output is 
two thousand machines, which find a ready 
sale among poultry men. 

Mr. Banta was married in this county 
in 1889 to Miss Bertie Mathews, a daugh- 
ter of Captain E. W. Mathews, now of this 
city. She received her preparatory educa- 
tion in the public schools of Albion and is a 
graduate from the high school. No chil- 
dren have blessed this union, but some three 

years ago Mr. and Mrs. Banta adopted a 
little two-year-old girl named Jessie, who 
receives all the care and laving kindness 
that would be bestowed on a child of their 

The parents of Mr. Banta are residents 
of Ligonier, the father a retired merchant 
and mechanic in good circumstances. Len 
Banta is a member of the Independent Or- 
der of Odd Fellows. Religiously he and 
wife are members of the Free-Will Baptist 
church, and enjoy the society and friendship 
of a large circle of friends. 


Resides in Orange township in one of the 
most beautiful and palatial homes found in 
the rural districts of Noble county, Ind., 
and is numbered among the prominent men 
of the county and one of its most successful 
farmers. Mr. Hosier was born in Morrow 
county, Ohio, April 22, 1846, to Samuel 
Rorhbaugh and Barbara (Keifer) Hosier, 
both natives of Pennsylvania, he of York 
county, where he was born November 10, 
1820, and she of Lebanon county, born Au- 
gust 15, 1823. They resided in what was 
then Morrow county, Ohio, until the spring 
of 1850, when they moved to Indiana, stop- 
ping in Albion for a short time and then lo- 
cating in Rome City. While living there the 
father worked at his trade, which was that 
of a carpenter, and two years later moved to 
their farm in Orange township, where they 
still reside. Five children were born to 
them, namely: John H., who resides in 
Reedsburg, Wis.; William W.. of this 
sketch; Mary C, wife of Thomas L. Imes; 



Minerva L., who died in infancy; and Ella 
1!., wife of William A. Imes. The paternal 
grandparents of William H. Hosier were 
George and Catherine (Rorhbaugh ) Hosier, 
the grandfather being a skilled carpenter. 
The family is of German descent and the 
name was originally Hasler. 

William H. Hosier was a child of four 
years when his parents came to Noble coun- 
ty, hid., where he grew to manhood. He 
was educated in the common schools and 
then entered the Eastman Business College, 
of Chicago, in 1866, where he took a com- 
plete business course.; lie was pleased with 
the free, untrammeled life of the farm and 
chose that vocation as the occupation of his 
life, meeting with well merited success a- a 
result of his industry and application to the 
various details which go to form the ele- 
ments of farming. He remained with his 
parents until his own marriage. December 
to. 1N74. to .Miss Mary E., daughter of the 
late William lines, of Orange township. Mr. 
Imes was one of the most widely known resi- 
dents of the township, having resided here 
for almost fifty years, and entered heartily 
into all the enterprises of public import. 
Her mother was Jane ( 1 fafferty 1 Imes. who 
survives her husband and lives on the home- 
stead. Airs. Hosier was one of seven chil- 
dren and was horn March 14. 1856, in 
Orange township, where she was reared and 
educated. She has presented her husband 
with two. daughters: Nellie, who died at the 
age of four days, ami Mary Mamie, who is 
the wife of Edward H. Rhoades, of Toledo, 
Ohio. Mrs. Rhoades was the recipient of 
her dipli ma at the age of thirteen and then 
attended the high school at Rrimfield one 
year and at Rome City two years. She then 
entered the college at Oberlin, Ohio, in [894, 


and took- a musical and classical course at 
this famous institution. Mr. Rhoades is an 
attorney at law. He graduated from the 
Oberlin University, is associated with his 
father, ami the style of the firm is Rhoades 
& Rhoades. Mr. and Mrs. Rhoades have 
one little son, by name of William Hosier. 
Mr. Hosier is both prominent and popu- 
lar in his count}', is an adherent of the Re- 
publican party and cast his first vote for 
Grant, lie was trustee of Orange township 
two terms — from [884 to 1888 — and was 
one of the first members of the county coun- 
cil appointed after that office was created. 
Mrs. Hosier is a member of the Methodisl 
Episcopal church at Brimfield. hid. 


The Noble county bar has many able 
and well-known lawyers who enjoy a repu- 
tation its citizens refer to with commendable 
pride, and it with this class that Mr. Zim- 
merman is known, and to which he has at- 
tained by that strict attention to business and. 
m m rable dealing which a community re- 
quires from those it wishes to refer to as: 
repri sentative men. 

Mr. Zimmerman is a Pennsylvanian by 
birth, and was born in Huntingdon county, 
October 27, JN4J. His parents are descend- 
ants of that -rand old stock of which Will- 
iam Penn was the most prominent type; 
whose characteristics can never he obliter- 
ated and have had and will continue to have 
a controlling influence over the life work of 
her people for all time. His early educa- 
tion was under her broad and liberal public 
school system, supplemented by an academic 



course at the Cassville Seminary and the 
State Normal School. Graduating with hon- 
ors at the age of seventeen, he immediately 
•commenced teaching and followed the pro- 
fession for several years. In 1864 he began 
the study of law in Hollidaysburg, applying 
himself with such earnestness that, on July 
27, 1867, he was admitted to the bar in his 
native state. So closely had Mr. Zimmer- 
man applied himself to teaching and to the 
study of law that his health was much im- 
paired, and it was deemed advisable to seek 
a different climate wherein to recuperate. 
After visiting several localities he finally 
visited Indiana, came to Noble county in 
[809, and was so well pleased that he de- 
termined to there locate. He secured the 
position of principal of the schools of Ligo- 
nier. Noble count)-, which he held for one 
year. and. his health having much improved, 
lie began the practice of his profession. He 
served four years, 1874-78, as county super- 
intendent of schools, and his wisdom and 
practical methods are yet recognized 
throughout the county. In the practice of 
his profession he has met with nattering and 
yet substantial success, and none enjoy .1 
higher reputation as a skillful attorney and 
wise counselor. 

In 1877 Mr. Zimmerman was married 
to Miss Ida E. Loomis. a native of Cleve- 
land, Ohio. She is a lady of superior edu- 
cation, and with cultivation which elevates 
while it adorns. Two children were born 
to them: Harry L. and Bayard G. The 
former is now a prosperous fanner in South 
Dakota, where Mr. Zimmerman also has 
large interests, having a tine stock farm of 
three hundred and twenty acres near Huron. 
The entire family of Mr. Zimmerman are 
strong members of the Presbyterian church. 

are highly esteemed by the congregation 
with whom they worship, besides numerous 
friends who know and appreciate their many 


This ex-soldier and well-known business 
man of Ligonier, Noble county, Ind., was 
born in Fairfield county, Ohio, in 1846, 
where he lived with his parents on a farm 
until 1859, when they moved to Ligonier, 
Ind., where they have since resided. He 
attended school until the age of sixteen 
years, when he enlisted in Company A, First 
Indiana Heavy Artillery, and served three 
years. The command was assigned to the 
Department of the Gulf, which embraced 
Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas, with which 
he participated in the engagement of Sabine 
I 'ass, Tex., under General Franklin; toeik 
part in the Red River expedition under Gen-. 
eral Banks ; was in the White River cam- 
paign in Arkansas, and engaged in the cam- 
paign around Duvall's Bluff, Ark. On the 
completion of his service in the army he re- 
turned home and attended school for two 
years in the old brick school-house on the 
public square. 

In 18(17 Mr. Dunning was married to 
Miss Rosa 1!. Mayfield, a native of Ligonier 
and a daughter of Samuel Mayfield. Three 
children have been born to them, as follows: 
Laura, who is at home with her parents; 
Lewis J., Jr., who married Miss Nellie 
Cooper, of Grand Rapids, Mich., and is now 
engaged in business with his father, the firm 
name being J. L. Dunning & Son ; and 
Blanche became the wife of J. W. Draper, 
manager of the Ligonier Electric Light 



The parents of Jesse L. Dunning were 
Lewis J. and Anna (Huber) Dunning, resi- 
dents of Lancaster, Ohio. The father was 
born in Stillwater. N. Y., in 1815, and the 
mother in 1824 in Fairfield count). Ohio. 
Lewis J. Dunning was a school-teacher in 
early life, and. believing that Indiana offered 
better opportunities for advancement, moved 
to Ligonier, Noble count}-, in 1859, taught 
school in the < > 1 < I red school-house one win- 
ter and then settled cm a farm one mile 
south of Ligonier. In 1861 he again moved 
to Ligonier and engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness with Captain J. E. Braden. Lewis J. 
Dunning, Sr., died April 23, 10.00, and his 
widow is now a resident of Ligonier, at the 
age of seventy-seven years. Their children 
were: Luanda/wife of W. A. Jackson, of 
Goshen ; Emma married Frank Jackson, 
brother of W. -V., and they are living at 
Benton, Ind.; Elizabeth is unmarried and 
resides with her mother: one brother die! 
in childhood; and Jesse L. is the subject of 
this biography. 

Prior to engaging in business with his 
father Jesse L. Dunning entered the store 
■of Braden &: Company, with whom he re- 
mained for two years. In 1869 father and 
son engaged in business, and the son has oc- 
cupied the present stand uninterruptedly 
from that date. They enjoyed the utmost 
confidence of the public, and the present firm 
is regarded as very reliable and successful. 
Jesse L. Dunning has given thirty-five years 
of his life to the business, and enjoys a high 
reputation in business circles, as well as 
with the public in general. 

Jesse L. Dunning has held several re- 
sponsible positions in city, count)- and state. 
He served nine years on the city school 
board, eight of which he was its treasurer 

and handled many thousands of dollars. 
He was appointed to the county board of 
review by Judge Adair and served for three 
years. He has recently been appointed post- 
master at Ligonier, which appointment gives 
universal satisfaction. Politically Air. Dun- 
ning is a stanch Republican, and is active 
and influential in the councils of the party. 
In his religious views Mr. Dunning is broad 
and liberal and is not identified with any de- 

In addition to his general business Mr. 
Dunning is interested in the Hotel Gold- 
smith, the principal hostelry in Ligonier. 
Mr. Dunning is now engaged in erecting the 
finest business room and flat in the city, 
being 22x166 feet, two stories and basement 
and heated throughout by hot water system. 
His increasing business made it necessary 
to have more room. His block is pro- 
nounced a model of convenience and ele- 
gance, being of pressed brick and cut stone, 
and he will occupy it about December 1, 
1 90 1 . 

Among the fraternal organizations Mr. 
Dunning holds membership with the Odd 
Fellows, Knights of Pythias, the Macca- 
bees, Order of Elks and the Grand Army of 
the Republic, being the present commander 
of the local post. Taking a lively interest 
in all matters pertaining to the development 
and progress of the city, every movement 
in that direction meets with his hearty ap- 
proval and earnest support. 


The yeomanry and mechanics of a na- 
tion constitute its true greatness: in fact, 
make it what it is or may be. A body of 


men cast upon a desert by shipwreck or other 
disaster would indeed be helpless were their 
only hope, in failure of rescue, to rest in the 
gold or other wealth possessed by any one 
of their number, as that under such circum- 
stances would prove to be mere dross and 
utterly worthless toward establishing a com- 
monwealth. But let the unfortunate vic- 
tims of such a calamity be gifted with a 
reasonable share of health, strength, mechan- 
ical and agricultural skill, and there will in 
the course of time arise from the desert a 
blooming and happy community, replete 
with all the necessities and many of the lux- 
uries of life. It may, then, be said that the 
subject of this sketch is doubly fortunate, 
insomuch that he is both a farmer and me- 

John Walker was born in Richland 
county, or rather that part of Richland now 
known as Morrow county, Ohio, December 
21, 1 82 1, and was there reared to manhood, 
both as a farmer and a blacksmith. 

In May, 1849, he came to Noble county, 
Ind., and located in York township, where 
be cleared up a farm, on which he erected 
a comfortable dwelling and made many 
other improvements, thus developing from 
a comparative wilderness a home that was 
an ornament to the neighborhood and which 
was a source of pecuniary profit to himself. 
On this place he lived until early in the 
'eighties, when he came to his present home 
in Albion township, since which time he has 
retired from all active labor and has been 
passing his years in quiet serenity and com- 

Mr. Walker was united in marriage, in 
Morrow count), Ohio, March j;, 1845, 
with Miss Miriam Cook, also a native of 
Richland county, Ohio, and born November 

to, 1824, but no children have come to sanc- 
tify this union. 

In politics Mr. Walker is a Democrat, 
but while he is interested in the success of 
his party at the polls, is not a seeker after 
office, and office-holding is so distasteful to 
him that, while a resident of York township, 
he declined to serve after having been 
elected township trustee. 

Mr. Walker, however, has passed his 
years in useful industry, is very public spir- 
ited, and at all times is ready to lend a help- 
ing hand in advancing the public welfare 
and the moral progress of his community as 
well as its physical condition, and no man in 
the township is more highly respected by 
his neighbors. 


There are men in this life who face death 
with impunity and win for themselves as 
grand a name on the field of war in a few 
vears as they do in the peaceful fields of ag- 
riculture in half a lifetime, but happy is 
the man who secures a reputation in both 
fields within the span of a quarter (if a cen- 
tury, as has done the subject of this sketch. 

Daniel L. Sower was born on a farm in 
Morrow county, Ohio, October 27, [840, 
and when ten years of age went with his 
parents to live in Seneca county, Ohio; four 
years later he went with his father to Gratiot 
county. Mich., and located within six miles 
of Ithaca, in Noth Star township, where he 
lived about five years and then returned to 
Morrow county, Ohio, remained there two 
vears. and February 26, 1862, enlisted in 
G inpanv ( i. Fi irty-mnth Ohio Volunteer 

fe « 




Sp*^ :v 

^u^7^a£^ cso. <gfc 




Infantry, in which he served three years. 1 [e 
endured the hardships of a soldier's life 
must manfully, bravely conducted himself in 
several sanguinary engagements, and under- 
ment many months of cruel imprisonment 
with fortitude, if not with patience. 

At the commencement of his military ca- 
reer Mr. Sower was overcome by fatigue on 
a long march and fairly gave out near Per- 
ryville. Ky. He was captured by the enemy, 
but was paroled the next day. and the fol- 
lowing spring was exchanged, when he re- 
joined his regiment at Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
At the battle of Chickamauga he was wound- 
ed, was again taken prisoner, and was sent 
to Richmond. Ya., where he was confined in 
the Pemberton prison for about two months 
and then sent to Danville, Va.. where he 
was imprisoned five months or longer, and 
then taken again to Richmond, where he 
was paroled a few days later and sent to 
Camp Parole, Md., having suffered about 
nine months of rebel imprisonment. After 
being detained at Camp Parole about six 
weeks he was transferred to Camp Chase, 
at Columbus. Ohio, where he was held about 
five months, when he was exchanged and 
rejoined his regiment at Huntsville, Ala. 
He took part in the siege of Corinth, after 
the battle of Shiloh, and was honorably dis- 
charged and mustered out at Huntsville, 
Ala., February 27, 1865. 

Mr. Sower never had the advantages of 
a good practical education. Whilst a resident 
of Michigan he had the honor of attending 
the pioneer school of the early days of Mich- 
igan. The building was erected of hewn 
logs and 22x28 feet in dimension. It was 
covered with clapboards or "shakes" and 
the seats were of split saplings or puncheons. 
He has witnessed the transformation from 

the log cabin school-house to the modern 
school-houses of the twentieth century. He 
has witnessed threshing done in the good old 
way, without any separator to clean the 
grain from the chaff as to-day. When he 
and his estimable wife became citizens of 
Noble county, it was almost a wilderness 
where their home lies. They resided for 
years in a humble log cabin and a greater 
part of their beautiful estate of to-day was 
covered with the unbroken forest. Bv per- 
severance and economy, coupled with de- 
termination, they haw toiled early and late 
and practiced economy, and to-day, in 1902, 
they have one of the most beautiful home- 
steads in the township of Orange. Their 
beautiful and costly residence was erected 
in 1887, and besides their large and com- 
modious residence their large barns and out- 
buildings and well fenced fields, closely kept 
up. indicate the thrifty farmers. All these 
years Mr. Sower was ably assisted by his 
wife, who has nobly and valiantly stood by 
his side in the building up of their beautiful 

As a soldier Mr. Sower has a record 
which he may well feel proud of. He was a 
prisoner of war at two different times dur- 
ing his term of service, which was 1 f three 
years duration. His first capture was in 
the vicinity of Perryville, Ky. He with 
others of the boys in blue, had been on a 
long and wear}" march at the time when Gen- 
eral Buell was in pursuit of the rebel Gen- 
ral Bragg. His shoes were worn out and 
when they came to Louisville, Ky., expecting 
to rest for a time, orders came to proceed to 
Frankfort, Ky.. and while there he. with 
some others purchased each a pair of boots. 
Mr. Sower's boots being rather tight for him 
on the weary and long march, had to re- 


move them and carry them and march in his 
bare feet. Exhaustion was finally the cause 
of his falling by the wayside, and whilst 
resting and there recuperating for the tedious 
march, he was captured by the Rebel cavalry ; 
but was soon paroled, and was forced, with 
others of his companions, to make his way 
to Cincinnati, a distance of one hundred 
miles, and they were forced to beg food of 
the people as they passed to their destination. 
His regiment was at the extreme right at 
Chickamauga when the actions opened on 
the morning of the first days fight, but was 
transferred and at noon was in the advance 
front in the charge. They took two fields 
of artillery. The second day's action was 
on Sunday. General Wilich, the commander 
of their division,- made a speech to the sol- 
diers and said : — "Veil, boys, you may ex- 
pect to have hard fighting to-day, but nut too 
hard for us." It was about 10 A. M., of 
this day whilst the regiment was in hot 
action, each man endeavoring to shield him- 
self, which was the order given. Mr. Sower 
was standing behind a small sapling, when 
just at his side his comrad, Walter T. Colo, 
was struck down by a minnie ball — Mr. 
Sower said, "Walter, are you hurt?" No 
response came and he never saw his comrade 
again. At this action Mr. Sower received 
a graze on the right arm, whilst loading his 
gun — nothing serious. During the after- 
noon engagement, whilst his regiment was 
resting on their guns, near one of their 
silent batteries, Mr. Sower was struck on 
the left hand and right forefinger with a 
cannon hall, or a part of a shell, which dis- 
abled his left hand and he carries this wound 
to this day. 

He was not lit to go onward in the action 
and was ordered to fall back to an old va- 

cated house, where a number of the wounded 
and dying were gathered. Whilst there,, 
amid the groans of the dying and wounded 
Mr. Sower and his guard and a comrade 
made their way to a neighboring ravine, with 
as many canteens as they could carry, to ob- 
tain water for the poor fellows. They filled 
the canteens from pools and when they were 
taken in charge by a rebel squad. He barely, 
missed the chance by one day of being incar- 
cerated in the terrible Andersonville Prison 
Pen. His imprisonment in the rebel prison 
pens was terrible, and no one knows the 
horrors and ordeals the poor soldiers passed 
through but those who were really there. 

All honor is due the noble men who so 
valiantly defended the flag, and endured the 
hardships and vicissitudes of a soldiers life, 
like the subject of this review. 

It may he added that Mr. Sowers was a 
teacher in Noble county at the early age of 
sixteen and also taught the \ear previous to 
his marriage. 

At the conclusion of this long term of 
valiant army service, Mr. Sower came to 
Noble count}'. Ind., and engaged in car- 
penter work for about two years; he then 
rented land in Orange township for a year, 
when he removed to Gratiot county, Mich., 
and located on land that he had previously 
purchased, and on which he resided about 
eighteen months, when he returned to 
Orange township. Noble county, Ind., rented 
land for another year, and then purchased 
one hundred and five acres of his present 
homestead, all of which he has cleared up, 
and to which he has added ninety acres by 

Mr. Sower is classed among the fore- 
most of the agriculturists of Orange town- 
ship, and his farm is one of the finest in his 


part of the county. It is improved with an 
elegant dwelling that is an ornament to the 
neighborhood, and his farm-buildings are 
unsurpassed for convenience and substan- 
tial construction, while his fields display a 
scene that indicates to the most careless ob- 
server the direction of a master mind fully 
imbued with agricultural skill and a knowl- 
edge of profitable husbandry. 

July _', 1868, .Mr. Sower contracted a 
marriage with one of the most amiable and 
accomplished young ladies of Orange town- 
ship — Miss Mary S. Keifer, who was born 
in Morrow county, Ohio, July 2, 1847, and 
this happy union has been crowned with two 
children, Corinna and Harry. 

Elias Sower, the father of Daniel L. 
Sower, was horn in York county, Penn., 
April 5, 1810. was a physician and also a 
clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. He married Margaret Bitner, a 
highly respected lady and a native of Penn- 
sylvania. To this marriage were born ten 
children, eight of whom grew to maturity. 
George Keifer. the father of Mr. Mary S. 
(Keifer) Sower, was horn in Long Chan- 
nel, Germany, May 24, 18 15, and married 
Mary M. Sower, who was horn in Center 
county, Pennsylvania, January 19, 1819, and 
is a descendant of one of the most prominenl 
families of the Keystone state. Mrs. Elias 
Sower was called away August 1, 1851, but 
Elias himself survived until September 10, 
1887. when he expired in Gratiot count}-, 

George Keifer and wife came from Mor- 
row county, Ohio, to Noble county, Ind„ and 
settled in Orange township, where he passed 
the remainder of his days, and died Novem- 
ber 18, 1898. Of their two children. Mrs. 
Sower was the younger. George Keifer 

came from Germany with his parents in 
[819 and was reared in Lebanon and Lan- 
caster counties, Penn., until about twenty 
years old, and then located in Morrow coun- 
ty, Ohio, where his marriage took place. He 
was reared to shoemaking, but after coming 
to Noble count\, \n<\., gave the greater part 
of his attention to fanning after the first 
ten years of his residence here, having real- 
ized quite a competence at his trade in the 

Mr. Sower is a Republican in politics and 
is always ready to perform his duties as a 
citizen at the behest of his party, but is not 
an habitual office-seeker. He has served for 
live years as assessor of Orange township 
and for one year a deputy assessor, in which 
office he performed his duties so impartially 
as to gain the approbation of the entire com- 
munity. He has in fact taken an active part 
in all local affairs, and, being a broad-mind- 
ed and public-spirited citizen, has gained the 
undying approbation of his fellow citizens. 
Mr. and Mrs. Sower arc most liberal in their 
contributions and to all benevolences worthy 
their consideration. 


This gentleman is widely known as one 
of the honored citizens of Noble count)-. 
where for many years he has been promi- 
nently identified with the varied interests of 
Ids community. His well-directed efforts in 
the practical affairs of life, his capable man- 
agement of his business interests and his 
sound judgment have brought to him pros- 
perity, and his life demonstrates what may 
he accomplished by the man of energy and 


John T. Pollock was born March 12, 
1841, in Richland county, Ohio, and is a son 

of William and Mary (Darker) Pollock, 
the former a native of Pennsylvania, while 
the latter came from Ohio. William Pol- 
lock came to Indiana in 1848 and located in 
the vicinity of Cromwell, where he engaged 
in the pursuit of agriculture. He remained 
at this place until 1867, in which year lie lo- 
cated near Gcshen, Elkhart county, this 
state, where he remained until his death, at 
the ripe old age of eighty-seven years. To 
William and Mary Pollock were born the 
following named children: Thomas .'v., 
Elsie A., Elizabeth, Simon, John T., Eli J., 
Margaret M., Lousetta and Lovisa. 

John T. Pollock received as good an edu- 
cate 11 as the common schools of Sparta 
township afforded, but any further advance 
in this direction was interrupted by the ad- 
vent 1 t war. The clamor of civil strife was 
resounding through the land, and young Pol- 
lock, then just assuming his majority, real- 
ized that he owed a duty to his country. On 
February 20, 1862, he donned the blue and 
went to the front, where he served faith- 
fully and well alrro st four years, being hon- 
orably discharged November 2j, 1865, after 
having endured all the hardships and priva- 
tions which fell to the lot' of the soldiers 
during that terrible struggle, and having 
been wounded in the leg, September 2, 18:14. 
at Lovejoy Station, Ga., when he came near 
bleeding to death. 

Up< a his return from the army he took 
hold of the work upon the home farm, re- 
maining there until his marriage, in 1868, 
when he began renting land. He farmed in 
that way for twenty years, when, in 1888, 
rte was appointed postmaster of Cromwell 
under President Harrison's administration, 

and held that office four years, making an 
enviable record for efficiency in that office. 
Upon retiring from the postoffice Mr. Pol- 
lock purchased a farm south of Cromwell, 
but remained there only a little more than a 
year, when he moved into the place where he 
now lives, known as the William Hitler 
farm. The tract now contains eighty acres. 
On March 1, 1868, Mr. Pollock look 
unto himself a helpmate in the person of 
.Miss Mary A. Ohlwine, daughter of Samuel 
Ohlwine. Their marriage has been blessed 
by the birth of two children. The eldest, 
Hattie A., was born December 7, 1868. and 
became the wife of Thomas Adams, a farmer 
of Whitley county. They have two children 
living — Cedfic and Andrew T. Their sec- 
ond child. Milton, was born February 5, 
1870, and died February 28, 1888. 

In politics Mr. Pollock is a stanch Re- 
publican. Religiously he is a member of the 
Cniversalist church in Cromwell, while the 
other members of the family belong to the 
New Light Christian church. In all the re- 
mmanded the respect 
1 with whom he has 
brought in contact, and the history of 
locality would be incomplete without a 
rd of his career. 


This valiant ex-soldier, who. it may be 
said in passing, bears a striking resemblance 
to his illustrious namesake, the poet, Henry 
W. Longfellow, ranks as one of the old and 
honored as well as honorable pioneers of 
the part of the country in which he now 
lives. The world judges the character of 


his ot lite he 

&^ I & 



Qj/ajuKsK &• ^-^^fUZa^c^ 


a community largely by those of its repre- 
sentative citizens and yields its tributes of 
admiration and respect to those whose 
works and actions constitute the record of 
that community's prosperity and pride. 
Among the prominent citizens of Washing- 
ton township. Noble county, Ind., who are 
so well known by reason of the prominent 
part they have taken in public affairs is Da- 
vid S. Longfellow. 

Mr. Longfellow was born April to, 
1832, in Champaign county. Ohio. His 
parents were Joseph and Martha 1 Hull- 
Crow ) Longfellow, the former a native of 
Maryland, who died in [865, at the ripe 
old age of ninety-nine years, and the latter 
was a native of Virginia. The original pro- 
genitor of this family was William Longfel- 
low, who emigrated to America 111 [673. 
Joseph Longfellow and Mrs. Martha Crow 
were united in marriage in Champaign 
county, Ohio, settled down to an agricul- 
tural life and lived there until death— the 
long period of sixty years — from 1805 to 
[865, Joseph Longfellow becoming a vet- 
eran of the war of 1812. To this union 
with Martha Crow were born the following 
children: Lemuel V., who is a resident of 
Iowa; William, who died in infancy; Nathan 
M., who was a Baptist minister and died 
about 1896; David S., subject of tins 
sketch: Silas N.. who is now living 011 the 
old home place; and Amos M., who died in 
Kosciusko county. Ind.. in 1N84. 

David S. Longfellow attended the com- 
mon schools of Champaign county. Ohio, 
and afterward a select school in Greene 
count v. that state. He attended these insti- 
tutions until he was twenty years ,,1,1, after 
which time he attended two terms in Dela- 
ware College. He taught school seventeen 

terms, but afterard went back for another 
term at college. In 1853 he came to Indiana 
and engaged in teaching school during the 
winters, going back to ( )hio in the summer, 
1', r two years. In 1855 he began a long ca- 
reer as a school-teacher in Indiana, continu- 
ing at this occupation during sixteen cm 
secutive terms. In the meantime, during 
the summer seasons, he industriously cleared 
and farmed the property on which he now 
lives. He bought this farm in 1856, and is 
now the owner of one hundred and sixty 
acres of fine land. 

On February 17, 1805. Mr. Longfellow 
enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and 
Fifty-second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, at 
Kendallville. The regiment was assigned 
to the Army of the Potomac in the Shen- 
andoah valley, and Mr. Longfellow was 
commissioned first lieutenant of his com- 
pany and fought under General Hancock 
in the Reserve Corps until his honorable 
discharge, August 30, [865. 

Mr. Longfellow has been twice married. 
The first time, on August id, 1855, he was 
wedded to Miss Barbara Greider, who was 
born in 1834. a daughter of Henry Greider. 
After bis marriage he spent one year in 
Ohio, and after the death of this wife in 
1858 he resided with his father-in-law. To 
this union were born two children: Martha 
I-;., who became the wife of Jacob Gilbert 
and bore him six children — David E., 
Charles A., Aria G., Hazel. Mabel, and El- 
lis, the last named a citizen of Kosciusko 
county, Ind.; Barbara, married to William 
C. Cook, and they have two children — Jen- 
nie L., and Leroy L., the hitter deceased. 
Mrs. Cook attended Valparaiso Normal 
School one year and taught five terms in 
Noble countv. 



For his second wife Air. Longfellow 
married, on October 8, 1868, Miss Sarah E. 
Hindbaugh. She was born on May 6, 1844, 
a daughter of John S. and Mary (Moore) 
Hindbaugh. To this union have been born 
ten children, of whom seven are living. A 
brief enumeration of these children is as 
follows: Ida M. resides at home and was 
a student for one year at Delaware College, 
Noble county. Ind. ; Howard C. received 
his diploma from the common schools and 
attended one term at Delaware College; he 
married Cora Arnold, and they have two 
children. Irene and John Bryon. He is a 
farmer of Washington. Homer, after fin- 
ishing his duties in the common schools, 
spent six years in Delaware College, grad- 
uating in the classical course. He took first 
honors in the contest of the Central Ora- 
torical League, including colleges in the 
states of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and New 
York. He was superintendent of schools 
at Forgy, Clark county Ohio, from Septem- 
ber, 1898, to January, 1899, but his health 
failing at this time, he was compelled to re- 
linquish his educational work and has not 
taken it up since. He anticipates enterng 
Ann Arbor Law School. The fourth child 
was Hadley K., who is now deceased. Mat- 
thew L.. now a resident of Fort Wayne, 
has taught two terms of school, and is now 
a student in his sophomore year at Delaware 
College. Sarah V. is unmarried; Grace O., 
deceased; Chlce M., and Iva Z. ; John J., 
deceased. Chloe is a teacher of Washing- 
ton township and Iva Z. is taking the nor- 
mal course at Ada. Ohio. 

John S. Hindbaugh traced his lineage 
tn the German and was born in Pennsyl- 
vania, was a farmer, was a Republican in 
politics, and a member of the Christian 

church. His wife was of Scotch-Irish ex- 
traction, and of her ancestry there is be- 
ing compiled a genealogical tree running 
back a century. 

Mrs. Longfellow was reared in Noble ■ 
county, Ind.. and was but fourteen years of 
age when brought here in a wagon from 
Ohio by her parents. She was educated in 
the common schools and was herself a teach- 
er in Kosciusko, AMiitley and Noble coun- 

Mr. Longfellow has been an active Re- 
publican ever since casting his first ballot, 
and has been honored at various times with 
public office. He served five years as a jus- 
tice of the peace, two years as assessor, and 
four years as township trustee. He was 
also four years postmaster at Wilmot, Ind. 
He has at all times and in all positions 
proven his efficiency and firmness for offices, 
of public trust. 

Religiously Air. and Airs. Longfellow 
are members of the Alethodist Episcopal 
church at North Webster, Ind., while so- 
cially they are popular with a host of warm 
personal friends. Their record in this com- 
munity has been a worthy one and they 
rightly merit the honor and respect which is 
paid them. 


Agriculture has many old and experi- 
enced followers in the township of Elkhart, 
Noble county, Ind., but none more so than 
Samuel M. Smith, the subject of this sketch. 
Air. Smith was born in Bowling Green 
township, Licking county, Ohio, April 22, 
1822, and there lived until 1853, when he 
came to Noble county, Intl., and here made- 



his home with his father until he thought 
tit to take to himself a life partner, and t'> 
the father and mother reference will he made 
further on. 

The first land' purchased by Mr. Smith 
was a tract of eighty acres of woods, the 
greater part of which he at once cleared up 
and mi which he erected good, substantial 
ami commodious buildings for dwelling and 
farm purposes, hut this tract he has since in- 
creased to three hundred and twenty acres, 
and has now one of the best farms in Elk- 
hart township. 

Mr. Smith was joined in matrimony, in 
Delaware county. Ohio, January _'. 1859, 
with Miss Elizabeth Brown, who was horn 
in Harlem township, Delaware county, Ohio, 
January 20, 1833, and this marriage was 
crowned by the birth of two children — Mary 
E. and Joseph W. The younger of these, 
Joseph W., was horn in Elkhart township, 
August 14, 1869. and was here reared and 
educated and was married, November 7. 
1889, to Miss Myra E. Smalley, who was 
horn in Mound Creek, Miami county, Kans., 
October 3, 1869. and is a daughter of Lewis 
and Sarah (White) Smalley. This happy 
marriage was blessed with one boy and 
girl. Coy M. and Charles L, who are the 
pets and admiration of all who are ac- 
quainted with the amiable parents. Mrs. 
Samuel M. Smith, the grandmother of these 
two interesting young children, was called 
away March 10, 1807, greatly deplored by 
the family and the entire community, by 
whom she had been held in the highest pos- 
sible esteem. 

John A. Smith, the father of Samuel M., 
was a native of Shenandoah count)-. Va., 
and was born in 1894. He married Miss 
Mary Wilson, who was born probably O 

Pennsylvania, the marriage taking place in 
Muskingum county, Ohio, and the newly- 
married couple coming to Noble county, 
Ind., in [853. Here they settled in Elkhart 
township, where they passed the remainder 
of their lives, Mrs. Smith being upwards of 
sixty years of age at the time of her death 
and Mr. Smith nearly seventy. They were 
among the most respected residents of the 
township and their memory will long he 
cherished by those who survive them. They 
have had a family of ten children, and of 
these Samuel M., the subject of this sketch, 
was the fourth child in order of birth. 

Joseph \\\ Smith and his accomplished 
and amiable wife are worthy representatives 
of their respective ancestors, and occupy .1 
high position in the regard of their many 
friends and in that of all their neighbors. 


The foreign-born citizens of the United 
States constitute an important element of 
population and are. as a rule, among the 
most industrious and thrifty of our agri- 
cultural classes, and one of these citizens is 
John Cook, a farmer of Elkhart township. 
Noble county, Ind., and the subject proper 
of this notice. 

The parents of John Cook, Henry and 
Sophia Cook, were natives of Mecklenberg, 
Germany, who came to America in 1866 
and settled in Elkhart township, Noble 
county, Ind.. where the father died in 1873, 
when sixty-seven years old. and the mother 
in March, 1897, at the age of eighty-four. 
Of their ten children, John, the subject of 
this sketch, was the second child in order 
of birth. 


Jchn Cook, also a native of Mecklen- 
burg, Germany, was born August 12, 1833, 
and was in his twenty-first year when be- 
came to America. For three years be 
worked out as a farm hand in various places, 
and then located' in Henry county, Ohio, 
where he married for his first wife Catherine 
Rhodes, a native of Seneca county, in the 
same state. For seven and a half years be 
continued residence in Henry county, and 
then came to Indiana and lived in Elkhart 
county frorri the fall of [862 until his com- 
ing to Elkhart township. Noble county, in 
1882. and here he now owns two hundred 
and twenty nine and one-half acres of choice 
land, and lias one of the best improved and 
cultivated farms in the township. 

To the first marriage of Mr. Cook were 
born five children, viz: Mary, Ella, Ida B , 
Ada B. and Amanda. Mrs. Catherine died 
in Elkhart county, Ind.. in 1868, and Mr. 
I ook next married, in 1871, Angeline Klink. 
who In n-e him four children, who were 
named Charles, Bert, Julia and Edward. 
Mr>. Angeline Cook was called away in Elk- 
hart count}-, when about thirty-two years 
old, and Mr. Cook was again married, 
choosing for his third bride Miss Sarah C. 
Dull, who was born in Stark count} - , Ohio, 
September 13, 1850, and this union has been 
graced with one child, Cora S. 

Mr. Cook has been a steady-going, in- 
dustrious and careful farmer, and through 
these habits has secured a competence that 
makes him contented with his lot in life. He 
has been a moral man and a model citizen, 
and he and wife are members of the German 
M. E. church, while in politics he is a Re- 
publican. His walk through life has been 
such as to win the respect of all who have 
known him, wherever he has resided, and 

no man is better thought of in Elkhart 

John Dull, the father of Mrs. Sarah C. 
( Dull ) Cook, was born in Somerset county, 
Perm., in 1805, and his wife, Catherine 
(Hountein) Dull, was a native of West- 
moreland count}-, in the same state, born 
in 1823. They were married in Westmore- 
land count}-, Penn., and thence moved to 
Stark count}-, Ohio, from where they came 
to Noble county, Ind., in 1859, and lived in 
Washington township until 1865, when they 
moved to York township, where the mother 
passed away in 1883 and the father in De- 
cember, 1885. They had a family of eleven 
children, of whom Mrs. Cook was the sixth 
in order of birth, and no more respected 
family ever lived in York township. 


The subject of this brief biographical 
outline, who bears the distinction of having 
been the first white child born within the 
confines of Noble county, Ind.. is an ex- 
soldier, and a prominent shoe man of the 
town of Ligonier. Peter Scblotterback was 
born February 26. 1833, on the southern 
edge of Perry's Prairie, a son of Gideon 
and Mary (Fugle) Scblotterback. Gideon 
Schlotterback was a native of Pennsylvania 
and at the age of nine years accompanied 
his parents upon their removal to Ohio. 
He remained in the Buckeye state a number 
of years and then, in 1832, came to Indiana 
and settled on Perry's Prairie, where he re- 
mained until his death. His wife, Mary, 
was the daughter of Adam Engle. The 
union of Gideon ami Mary Schlotterback 
was blessed with a large family, twelve 

dfefat, JcA/oHgd^y/^ (jbrf& ^Jl^xl^^t 



children having been burn to them, seven of 
whom are living. Their names are as fol- 
lows: Peter, the subject; Henry; Susan, 
deceased; Eli; Luanda, deceased; Malinda, 
deceased; Millie; Adam; Mary, deceased; 
Ira; Emma, and a daughter who died in 

Peter Schlotterback pursued his studies 
in the public schools of Ligonier until about 
the age of twenty-one years. At this time 
he commenced working by the month, and 
spent two years with Andrew Ingle. He 
then settled at Rochester, Ind., where for 
about eighteen months he engaged in farm- 
ing. Then, for two years, he lived on the 
farm' which is his present home, afterwards 
moving two miles south of Rochester, re- 
maining at the last location about fifteen 
years. It was while living on this farm in 
the fall of 1864, that he enlisted for service 
in the Union army, and for almost a year 
served his country faithfully, receiving his 
final discharge on July 4. 1865. In 1870, 
Mr. Schlotterback went to Texas and re- 
mained there thirteen years, engaged in the 
shoe business. However, finding that the 
old Hoosier state still had for him superior 
attractions, he returned to his old home in 
Ligonier and has since remained here, con- 
ducting a well-stocked shoe store and re- 
taining a large share of the public patronage. 

On August 1, 1857. Peter Schlotterback 
was united in marriage with Miss Rosetta 
Flowers, a daughter of Aaron and Phoebe 
(Sills) Flowers. The latter couple were 
both natives of Ohio, and about 1853 came 
to Indiana and settled upon the farm where 
Mr. Schlotterback now lives, the mother dy- 
ing there at the advanced age of eighty- 
nine years. To their union were born two 
children, Rosetta and Michael, the latter de- 

ceased. The marriage of Mr. Schlotterback 
and wife was blessed with the advent of 
twelve children, nine of whom are living, 
as follows: Harriet A., born May 19, 
1859, became the wife of Jefferson Johns, 
and to them were born five children, W'in- 
nifred, Carrie, Daisy, Thomas and an in- 
fant daughter, deceased; Milton II. married 
Ricki Zimmerman, and they have 1 me child, 
Iva; Cassius M. married Sarah Miller; 
Lincoln P. is now living in California; 
Mary E. is the wife of Alonzo Irion; 
Gideon E. married Lucretia Defenbaugh; 
Phoebe I. became the wife of Jacob L. Al- 
bright; Iva L. is the wife of Edward E. 
Hutton; Aaron E. is deceased; Carlotta 
I. married Jacob E. Huffman; Irma W. 
died in infancy, and Lizzie Clara is also de- 

Politically Air. Schlotterback is not 
bound by any party ties, but votes at all 
times for principle rather than party, giving 
his support to those men whom he consid- 
ers m« st worthy of the public confidence. 
In all matters affecting the public welfare 
Mr. Schlotterback takes a keen and active 
interest, and invariably throws his influence 
in the direction of the higher moral, social 
and commercial standing of his community. 
His business efforts have been crowned with 
a large degree of success, richly merited, 
and now in his advanced years he is enjoy- 
ing the reward of his former toil and hon- 
est endeavor. 


David Jourdan, a biographical review 
whose life becomes a part of the memo 
of .Noble county's prominent citizens, is 



native of Columbiana county, Ohio, was 
born December 17. 1.841, and is a son of 
William and Catherine (Wolf) Jourdan, 
both natives of Germany, the father coming 
from Baden. They were married in Colum- 
biana county, and in 1846. when David was 
a lad of six years of age, moved with their 
family to Noble county, Ind., settling on a 
farm in Wayne township. Here the mother 
died at the age of fifty-two years, her con- 
sort following her to the grave a few years 
later, at the age of sixty years. They were 
the parents of seven children, David, the 
subject, being the eldest. 

David Jourdan passed his youthful days 
upon his father's farm, located about three 
miles from Kendallville, on what was known 
as "Long Marsh." There he received his 
education through the medium of the district 
school, and assisted his father in reclaiming 
a home farm from the wild lands out of 
which some of the finest farms of the coun- 
try have been made. At the early age of 
fourteen he began working for farmers of 
the neighborhood and in what was then 
known as the "Sawyer Settlement." 

When the Civil war broke out in 1861, 
David Jourdan was early enthused with the 
patriotic spirit which burst forth in all 
parts of the country. The first call was soon 
filled, and strong belief was held that the 
trouble would soon be overcome. It was 
not until October, 1862, therefore, that Mr. 
Jourdan entered the service, enlisting in 
Company M. First Indiana Sharpshooters, 
serving one year. He was in the engage- 
ment at Island Xo. 10, that at Pea Ridge, 
and the battle at Helena, Ark. The enlist- 
ment being for one year, he returned home 
at the expiration of his term, going to No- 
ble county, where he engaged in working on 

a farm and in a saw : mill for about ten years. 
He then bought twenty acres of land in 
"Wayne township, which he improved, and 
whereon he settled and lived for two years. 
Selling this piece of property for a fair sum, 
he purchased one hundred acres in Elkhart 
township, located near the town of Cosper- 
ville. He cleared and settled on this farm, 
making valuable improvements and erecting 
good and substantial buildings. This fine 
piece of property became his home for twen- 
ty years. Desiring to retire from the ardu- 
ous duties incident to farm life, he rented 
the place and engaged as a traveling sales- 
man for the Fleming Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Fort Wayne, 'remaining with the 
company for six years, making his home in 
that city. After severing his connection with 
the company he returned to Cosperville and 
engaged in the hardware business, meeting 
with the same general success which had re- 
warded his efforts in all previous lines. 

November 25, 1863, shortly after his re- 
turn from the army, Mr. Jourdan married 
Miss Sarah Iddings,- who was born in Ken- 
dallville, Ind., July 26, 1846. They are. the 
parents of two children, namely : Waldo 
and Georgia, the latter of whom is married 
to James Milner, of Ligonier. 

The father of Mrs. Jourdan was Jack- 
son Iddings, a native of Seneca county, 
Ohio, and the mother was Barbara Ding- 
man, who was born in Shelby county, Ohio. 
After marriage they moved to Indiana and 
settled in Wayne township, where they died, 
she at the age of sixty years, and he at the 
ripe old age of seventy-nine. They were the 
parents of thirteen children, Mrs. Jourdan 
being the sixth in order of birth. Among 
the fraternal organizations Air. Jourdan 
holds membership with the A. F. & A. M., 


of Ligonier. For religious purposes he and 
his estimable wife attend the Freewill Bap- 
tist church. 

JOHN PANCAKE (Deceased). 

The settlers of Noble count}-, Inch, of 
over half a century ago might with strict 
propriety have been designated as pioneers, 
as the country was at that time quite a wil- 
derness and in many parts awaiting the first 
stroke of the sturdy woodman's ax in laying 
low the giant monarchs of the forests for 
the purpose of making way for the onward 
march of a fast-approaching civilization, as 
was the case with Elkhart township when 
the late John Pancake came here from the 
Buckeye state in 1846. 

The pioneer's life, as even modern read- 
ers km i\v through tradition and otherwise, 
was one of self-sacrifice, hard toil and un- 
wavering courage in facing the inevitable 
dangers attendant upon life in the depths of 
the mysterious forests infested with wild 
beasts of prey and men of equally wild pro- 
pensities, and with these it was the lot of the 
subject of this sketch, of reverend memory, 
largely to contend. 

John Pancake, the founder of the greatly 
respected family bearing that surname in 
Noble county at this day, was born in Pick- 
away county, Ohio, on the old Pancake 
homestead, July 9, 181 8, and was reared to 
farming. He was first married in his native 
county, in 1846. to Miss Etfie A. Radcliff. 
who was also a native of the Buckeye state 
and a daughter of Job and Martha Radcliff, 
who were born in Yirginia. John Pancake 
and his bride came to Indiana the same year 

of their marriage and settled in Noble coun- 
ty on land which had been entered in 1838 
in Elkhart township by his father, John Pan- 
cake, and on which he later erected the fine 
residence which is still the pride of the town- 
ship. Here Mrs. Effie A. Pancake was called 
from earth in 1847, leaving one child, Elias 
Douglass Pancake, who died in Wichita, 
Kans., December 10. [883, of pneumonia. 

The second marriage of John Pancake 
took place March 4, 1849, m Pickaway coun- 
ty, Ohio, to Miss Susan Cornell, a native of 
Virginia, born October 6. 1818 and a daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Parker) Cor- 
nell, also> natives of the Old Dominion, but 
who died in McLean county, 111. To this 
second marriage were born two children, 
viz. : Mary E., the wid< w 1 >f Elza J. Thomp- 
son, who died in 1'errv township, Noble 
county, Ind., Ma)- 3. 1899; and Margaret E. 

It was on his wedding day, March 4, 
1849, that John Pancake and his newly-wed- 
ded wife started on horseback from Ohio 
for their home in Noble county. Ind.. taking 
eleven days to make the journey, and took 
up their residence on a well-appointed farm. 
Like his elegant brick dwelling, this farm 
was a model in neatness and was cultivated 
in the most scientific and effective manner. 
His crops were always sure and reliable and 
consequently profitable. His farm buildings 
were commodious and substantial, and sup- 
plied with every convenience, and his live 
stock of the highest strains and best pedi- 
grees. He thoroughly understood his voca- 
tion, and had but few. if any, equals in its 

Mr. Pancake was broad minded and lib- 
eral in his political views, was active in local 
affairs, and did much toward directing the 
course of public events. His advice was 


sought on all questions of public investment 
in works of utility, and his foresightedness 
a marvel to his fellow citizens, as he never 
made a mistake in his forecast of results- 
He was a God-fearing man, incorruptible in 
love of truth and unswerving in his integrity. 
This noble old pioneer died on his estate 
of three hundred and eighty acres in Noble 
county j January 6, 1892, and his loss was a 
deq> sorrow to his friends and neighbor- 
hood, who felt that one of the best and 
wisest men of the township had been taken 
from their midst and that his equal would 
not soon be found. 


An influential agriculturist and prominent 
citizen of Noble county. Ind., was born in 
Summit county, Ohio, August 30, 1843, an(1 
is a son of Richard and Anna M. (Click) 
Harting. both of whom were natives of 
Pennsylvania. The father was born March 
18, 1&10; and was a child of two years when 
his parents moved into Ohio, which was his 
home until 1854, when he came to Noble 
county. Ind., and later to Elkhart county, 
where he died June 28. 1888, at the age of 
S&venty-eight years. Twelve children com- 
posed his family: Richard, Jr., Samuel, 
Hezekiah, Simon. Manassa and Sarah died 
in early life, while Maria, Valentine, Eliza, 
Hannah, Ephraim and Franklin grew to 
adult years. Maria was the wife of William 
J. Miller and died in September, 1890. Val- 
entine, now deceased, married Miss Rebecca 
Streby. Eliza is the widow of Joel Raber. 
Hannah is the wife of William Shroyer, and 
Franklin was united with Miss Delia Hass- 

Ephraim Harting received his education 
in the public schools of Wolcottville and 
adopted the pursuit of husbandry as the vo- 
cation of his life. On March 17, 1887, he 
took up his residence on the farm he now 
occupies and has given his entire attention 
to its cultivation. He owns one hundred 
and sixty acres of land in Noble county and 
eighty acres in Elkhart, which is kept in a 
high state of cultivation and shows the care- 
ful, painstaking farmer. Mr. Harting was 
joined in marriage with Miss Rebecca R. 
Newman, a daughter of Asbury and Mar- 
garet (Cochran) Newnam. The father 
died in January, 1867. Mrs. Harting was 
one of the seven children, viz : Nancy, wife 
of Levi Eshelman ; Rebecca, Mrs. Harting; 
Melvina F.. Mrs. Morton Whitmer, a 
, widow; William H., who died in childhood; 
Francis : Margaret J., deceased; and Charles, 
who died in infancy. Six children have 
blessed the home of Ephraim Harting, 
namely: John F., who was born May 22, 
1867; Clara A., who was born in 1869 and 
died in infancy; Ida M. and Homer, who 
were twins and were born November 3. 
[871. Ida lived but a short time, but Homer 
has grown to manhood and is the father of 
two bright children, Lela M. and Lulu O. 
His wife was popular in the days of her 
maidenhood as Miss Luella Case; Cora E., 
who was born July 13, 1876, married M. R. 
Click, a farmer of St. Joseph county, this 
state; and Nellie E., who was born August 
15, 1886. Mr. Harting was a member of 
the organization known as the Indiana Regu- 
lators and entered the Civil war in 1862, 
serving faithfully until he received his dis- 
charge about one year later on account of 
disability. He is an honored member of 
the Grand Army Post, No. 320, at Millers- 



burg, has served as commander and is now 
senior vice, and is a man whose upright 
character lias won him a warm place in the 
esteem of those who know him. 


One of the foremost agricultural families 
of Elkhart township, Noble county, Inch, is 
that of the late Isaac Pancake, who was 
bnrn in Licking county, Ohio, in 1813, and 
who married Miss Eve Smith, also a native 
of Licking county, and born in 1827. 

Mr. and Airs. Isaac Pancake were mar- 
ried in the county of their nativity, whence 
they came to Noble county, Ind., in the 
spring of 1845 am ' settled in Elkhart town- 
ship, where they passed the remainder of 
their lives, honored and respected by all who 
knew them, the father dying July 26, 1879, 
in his sixty-sixth year, and the mother on 
the 14th day of September, 1881, when fifty- 
eight years old. They had born to them a 
family of seven children, who were named 
in order of birth as follows: John, Joseph 
L., Isaac N. (the subject of this sketch). 
Mary, William, Geneva V. and Cora. 

Isaac Newton Pancake was born in Elk- 
hart township. Noble count) - , Ind.. January 
to, [847, and was reared to practical agri- 
cultural work on his father's homestead, on 
which he still has his residence and which 
be has materially assisted in developing. On 
September 23, 1874, he was most happily 
joined in marriage with Miss Eva C. Maw- 
horter, who was born in Elkhart township 
December 21, 1858; and is the accomplished 
daughter of Aaron and Rebecca A. Maw- 
ihlorter, of whom a full biographical sketch is 

given on another page of this volume. To 
the marriage of Air. and Mrs. Pancake have 
been born four children, who are still living 
to brighten the home circle with their cheer- 
ful countenances and winning ways, save the 
eldest, Warren, who died in infancy. The 
three survivors are named in order of birth 
as follows: Marion I., Harvey A. and Ethel 
M., the latter being the wife of Abraham 

Air. and Airs. Pancake are devoted mem- 
bers of the Free Will Baptist church, to the 
support of which they are most liberal con- 
tributors and in the good work of which they 
are active and willing helpers. 

Tiic home farm of Air. Pancake com- 
prises eighty acres, which he keeps under a 
profitable state of cultivation, raising all 
the crops usual to this latitude. His dwell- 
ing is of modern construction and is a model 
of neatness exteriorly and interiorly, the lat- 
ter being the special care of bis amiable help- 
mate. In politics Air. Pancake is a Demo- 


A representative of one of the best 
known families of Elkhart township, Noble 
county, hid., is a native of Pickaway county, 
Ohio, and was born July 22. [848. His fa- 
ther, Joseph Pancake, was also a native of 
Pickaway count}-, was born May 22, 1822, 
was reared to farming mi the old Pancake 
homestead, and was married in bis native 
county to Ruann Halstead, who was born in 
the same county, and there died at the early 
age of twenty-three, or even before she had 
completed her twenty-third year. Joseph 
Pancake died in Ottawa, ECans., January 8. 



1871, having- an only son. John E., subject 
of this sketch and the sole offspring of this 

John E. Pancake was reared on the old 
borne farm in Wayne township, Pickaway 
county, and was there educated in the com- 
mon schools primarily, and then attended 
the Union Christian College at Merom, Sul- 
livan county. Ind.. from which he was grad- 
uated with honors. After leaving college 
Mr. Pancake returned to Pickaway county, 
Ohio, and for three terms taught school. 
In the summer of 1870 he left the Buckeye 
state and went to Franklin county, Kans., 
where he was employed in farming one year 
hef ore he entered a homestead in Wilson 
county, which farm he cleared up and later 
sold. In the spring of 1872 he came to 
Noble county. Ind., and for seven years was 
employed by the month by his uncle, the 
late John Pancake, and also taught school 
for six winters. 

After leaving the monthly employ of his 
uncle Mr. Pancake took sole charge of the 
farm, hieing thoroughly practical in every 
agricultural detail and with all the minutiae 
of this particular estate. He performed his 
duties in so satisfactory a manner to all con- 
cerned that he was appointed, at the death 
of his uncle, sole administrator by the lat- 
ter and is still acting in that capacity, the 
functions of which he is carrying on with 
laudable conscientiousness. Pie is the owner 
of one hundred and forty acres of good 
farming land in his own right, which he cul- 
tivates assiduously and skillfull)-, and is at 
all times one of the busiest of men. 

Mr. Pancake is in politics a Democrat, 
but although very popular has never con- 
descended to accept of public office; yet he 
always interests himself, and that effectu- 

ally, in local affairs, giving" to them the at- 
tention that he feels every good citizen 
should bestow when called upon or when 
they present themselves in such a manner 
as to attract unavoidable notice uncalled for. 

Mr. Pancake is still unmarried, but has 
a home that any woman would he proud to 
share. His dwelling is a model of comfort 
and coziness and taste, his farm buildings 
commodious and substantial, and his farm 
itself under the highest possible state of cul- 
tivation, his long experience in this vocation 
making - him unexcelled in its practice. Al- 
though not a member of any church, he is 
liberal in his contributions to all in his town- 
ship and to many elsewhere, being never 
niggardly in this or any other respect. 

Hospitable to a marked degree and ge- 
nial in disposition and affable in demeanor, 
he entertains his friends most lavishly as 
well as courteously and pleasingly- His wit 
and humor overflow spontaneously, while 
his logical mind is quick in its apprehension 
of the merits of such questions as he and 
his friends may for the time being have 
under discussion. He is a friend of truth, 
and never wastes his time and breath in an 
argument simply for the purpose of carry- 
ing his point, right or wrong, but discusses 
a subject with the pure and simple desire 
to arrive at its true merits and intrinsic 
value. He is not a man to raise false hopes 
in the breasts of his friends and acquaint- 
ances by promising favors which he never 
intends to grant. He is honest and sound 
to the core, and what he says he means. 

It were well indeed if Elkhart township 
had inside its limits a few more such citi- 
zens as Mr. Pancake to take an intelligent 
interest in shaping its public policy and guid- 
ing its progress, for it is to such as he the 


true advancement of any community is due, 
and that community is a fortunate one in 
which such men as he have residence. 


Among the skilled and prosperous agri- 
culturists of York township. Noble county, 
I ml.. John J. Wittmer holds a foremost po- 
sition. He is a son of John C. and Mary 
(Hare) Wittmer. the former of whom was 
a native of Niagara county, N. Y.. and was 
born March 7. 1801, was reared a farmer 
and passed all his life in his native count} - . 

Benjamin Wittmer, the father of John 
C, was horn in Switzerland, and died in 
Niagara county, N. Y., at a very advanced 
age. and Alary ( Hare ) Wittmer was born 
in Niagara county, N. Y., March 22, 1807, 
■of German parentage. 

To the marriage of John C. and Mary 
(Hare) Wittmer were burn a family of six 
sons and five daughters, and of these John 
J. was the ninth in order of birth, and had 
his nativity near Millersburg. Elkhart coun- 
ty. End., November 11. 1843. ail d was reared 
in Elkhart county until about fourteen years 
of age. and then in Noble county. Ind., 
until August, 1862, when he enlisted in Com- 
pany E, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteer In- 
fantry, to serve this country in the suppres- 
sion of the war of the Rebellion; and he 
performed his duty courageously and faith- 
fully until February 10. 1863. when he was 
honorably discharged on account of sick- 
ness, i >r, as the expression is used in the 
service, "on account of physical disability." 
He then returned to his father's farm in 
Elkhart county and assisted in its cultivation 
until his marriage, in 1865. 

fohn J. Wittmer was joined in matri- 

mony at Albion. Ind., April 9, in the year 
mentioned above, with Miss Cornelia C. 
Norris, a daughter of William and Cather- 
ine (Deck) Norris, the former of whom was 
born in Pennsylvania, September 15. iSi<>. 
and died September 14. [868, and his wife, 
also a native of Pennsylvania, born July 3, 
1813, died in York township April 7, 1882. 
William Norris was a minister of the Ger- 
man Baptist church, of which his wife was 
also a member. To Mr. and Mrs. Norris 
were born eight sons and six daughters, and 
of these Mrs. Wittmer was the ninth in or- 
der of birth. 

After marriage Mr. and Mrs. John J. 
Wittmer located in Elkhart county, but since 
April, 1875. nave been residents of York 
township. Noble county, where Mr. Wittmer 
owns a fertile farm of forty acres, on which 
he has erected a comfortable dwelling and 
commodious barns and all other necessary 
outbuildings. This farm is well located, and 
through Mr. Wittmer's excellent manage- 
ment produces abundantly the various ce- 
reals grown in this latitude. It impresses 
the observer with an idea of skill and thrift 
on the part of the owner, and this impres- 
sion is fully justified by Mr. Wittmer's ex- 
cellent management. 

To Mr. and Airs. Wittmer have been 
born a family of four children, but of these, 
through the fiat of an all-wise and over- 
ruling power, but one has been left to glad- 
den the hearts of her parents and that of her 
husband — Susanna, now the wife of Edward 
DePew and the mother of four children — 
Olive J.. Letha C, John C. and Greeley C. 
AI. The three deceased children bom to Air. 
and Mrs. Wittmer were named Frances I-;., 
Katie E. and Hattie N., who all died in in- 



John J. Wittmer and wife are devout 
members of and hearty co-workers in the 
German Baptist church, to which they con- 
tribute in maintaining freely from their 
means financially and by their moral influ- 
ence and participation in its good work on, 
even' available occasion. Of this church 
John J. Wittmer and wife were also mem- 
bers. Their home is the abode of true hospi- 
tably, and their social standing is with the 
best people of York township! 


Joseph R. Drain, ex-soldier of the war 
of the Rebellion, was born in Belfast, Ire- 
land, about fifty-four years ago, and five 
years later was brought to America, his 
home for the past forty years having been 
in the state of Indiana, one of Noble coun- 
ty's most honored residents. He is a son 
of John and achel (Brown) Drain, both 
natives of Belfast, where they were married 
in 1837, and where John, Drain followed the 
vocation of stock-dealing. Ten children 
were born to them, six of whom were laid 
to rest in the land of their birth. Those 
who survived came to America in 1852, 
married and have reared families. These 
children are : Margaret, who married Jo- 
seph Pasco, a cabinet-maker of Brooklyn, 
t«i win nn she bore four children, one of 
whom, Elizabeth, is the wife of Samuel Na- 
than of Chicago; John and Jasper, who re- 
side in Brooklyn; and Joseph R., whose 
name opens this paragraph. 

Reaching New York when he was five 
years old, Mr. Drain remained in that state 
until i860, when he was in his thirteenth 

year, at which time he came to Indiana. A 
few years later, when the Rebellion spread 
its dark cloud over the land, he enlisted in 
Company I, One Hundred and Twenty- 
ninth Indiana Volunteers, February 10, 
1804, and went to the front, taking his part 
in many encounters of that bloody strug- 
gle, and carrying away a memento in the 
shape of a bayonet wound received at Char- 
lotte, N. C. His regiment was first assigned 
to General Henry's regiment. General Scho- 
field's Army Corps, and in the Army of the 
Cumberland, and We entered at the age of 
sixteen. He participated in the battles of 
Resaca, Ga., Lookout Mountain, Pumpkin 
Vine Creek, Strawberry Plains. Kenesaw 
Mountain, Decatur, Peach Tree Creek and 
Lovejoy Station. He was in the one hun- 
dred days' campaign around Atlanta. At 
Lovejoy Station his regiment was changed 
and put under command of General "Pap" 
Thomas, and at Franklin, Tenn.. he received 
a close call for his life. He was on the picket 
line at this terrible battle where many of 
his comrades fell. Mr. Drain was about the 
only survivor who got back to his regiment. 
He served faithfully his country, about 
twenty months. 

August 6, 1864, Scott Gard, one of Mr. 
Drain's comrades, a resident of Elkhart, 
was shot in the leg and dropped, when Mr. 
Drain and a comrade caught him in their 
arms, and at this time was shot again in one 
of his arms. He is living to-dav. Mr. 
Drain was honorably discharged September 
13, 1865. Some of the principal battles he 
participated in were: Nashville, Tenn., 
Wise's Forks, surrender of General J. E. 
Johnston at Greensboro, N. C. and he was 
close to the battle of Bentonville, N. C, the 
last action. He was close to Goldsboro, 



N. C, when the boys received the joyful in- 
telligence of I ac> surrender, and five days 
subsequent received the sad news of Lin- 
coln's assassination. 

Returning- to the quiet of private life he, 
for the first time, entered the great army of 
wage-earners — his first salary having been 
received as a soldier in the Union army, lie 
first engaged with a Mr. Reeves till about) 
1882. as a butcher, then in 1885 he bought 
his present farm, which consists of one hun- 
dred and ten acres of fertile land in Terry 
township. This has been cultivated and 
improved by Mr. Drain and is one of the 
valuable properties of Noble county. 

August 20, 1868, Mr. Drain was joined 
in matrimony to Miss Catherine Cochran, 
who was a devoted wife and mother for 
thirty years, when she was called to her 
long rest, August 13, 1898. Four children, 
with the husband, were left to mourn her. 
viz: John, born June 19, 1869. resides in 
Chicago, and is assistant buyer in the mam- 
moth! establishment of Seigel. Cooper & Co. ; 
Isabella, who was horn April 16, 1878, mar- 
ried Ximon Smith, a farmer of Elkhart 
township, this county; Charles, who was 
born June 21, 1881 ; and Joseph H.. born 
September 10, 1887. who resides with bis 

Mr. Drain was married, January 31, 
1900, to Miss Jennie S. Lee, his present 
wife. Mrs. Drain is a member of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church at Ligonier. In pol- 
itics Mr. Drain is a Republican, but the 
emoluments of office have never appealed to 
him. lie is an honored member of Grand 
Army Post, No. 125, at Ligonier. Ind., and 
is a man who stands well with the entire 

Mrs. Drain can trace her ancestrv to old 

English stock running back to the year 
1034. She has a genealogy of the Lee fam- 
ily, a volume of ^jj pages, which is the 
most complete volume of genealogy in the 
county of Noble. They came originally 
from England directly after the landing of 
t' v Pilgrim Fathers and driving their flocks 
:i\^A herds on farther west settled on what 
i now the site of Farmington, Conn. This 
family of Lees is one of the five distinct 
families of the United States, and are a 
family of warriors; they have figured in all 
the large wars of the United States, from 
the Revolution down to the recent Cuban 
contest, and were mostly 1 f religious senti- 

Mrs. Drain is a well educated lady and 
was a student at the Fort Wayne College, 
afterwards the Taylor University. She 
was a teacher sixteen years, fourteen years 
in Indiana and two years in Washington. 


Joseph 1.. Pancake, of Elkhart township, 
Noble count}', Ind., and a skillful and pros- 
perous farmer, is a son of Isaac N. and Eve 
( Smith ) Pancake, sketches of various mem- 
bers of whose family appear on other pages 
of this work and are worthy of a careful 
perusal in conjunction with this biography, 
but a portion of which is repeated here. 

[oseph L. Pancake was born in Linn 
county, Iowa. December 10, 1844. and in the 
spring of 1845 xvas brought by his parents 
to Elkhart township. Noble county. Ind., 
where his father died July 2(1. 1870, in his 
sixty-sixth year, and his mother September 
14. 1881. in her fifty-eighth year, and were 



the parents of seven children, viz : John, 
Joseph L. (the suhject of this sketch), Isaac 
Newton, Mary, William. Geneva V. and 

Reared to farming on the paternal home- 
stead. Joseph L. Pancake has fully main- 
tained the enviable reputation of his fore- 
fathers as an agriculturist. He was a will- 
ing and able assistant to 1 his father, and re- 
mained on the home farm until some years 
after he had attained his own majority, 
when, on December 22, 1870, he married, 
in Clear Spring township, Lagrange coun- 
ty, Ind., Miss Olive Peck, a native of the 
township last named and born July 31, 1848. 
On marrying he settled on the farm which 
is still his homestead and which now com- 
prises one hundred and sixty acres. This 
land he has cleared up and improved with a 
dwelling equal in beauty to any other in the 
township, and his farm buildings are unsur- 
passed for convenience and sheltering and 
storage purposes. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pancake and their two 
children. Verne L. and Grace, attend the 
English Lutheran church, and strictly ad- 
here to its teachings, as well as take an act- 
ive part in the prosecution of its work of 
well doing. 

In politics Mr. Pancake is a Democrat, 
but has never condescended to seek public 
office at his party's hands, being satisfied to 
pursue the even tenor of his way as a farmer, 
and is doing good in a quiet and unostenta- 
tious manner, when opportunity offers itself. 
He finds in his home and in the society of 
his amiable wife and children a solace for all 
the cares and ills of life, which, happily for 
him, are few. and those few, under the cir- 
cumstances, quite easily endured. 

Silas Burton Peck, the father of Airs. 

Olive Pancake, was born in Fairfield county, 
Conn., April 30, 1813, and his wife bore the 
maiden name of Sarah G Hastings — a sur- 
name memorable in the history of England. 
This lady was born in Junius, Seneca coun- 
ty, N. Y., August 19, 1816, and came with 
her husband from that country to Indiana 
and settled in. Clear Spring township, La- 
grange county, early in the 'forties. There 
her father died June 18, 1889, in his seventy- 
seventh year, and her mother July 25, 1890, 
in her seventy-fourth year. This venerable 
couple were among the best known and most 
respected of the residents of Clear Spring 
township, and their memory is still tenderly 
and affectionately cherished by many of the 
old-time residents. Their children were six 
in number and were named in order of birth 
as follows: Esther, Olive. John, Charles, 
George and Emily. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Pancake is 
one of the most pleasant in Elkhart town- 
ship, and is widely known for its genial hos- 
pitality, its portals being ever open to friends 
and strangers alike. The needy are never 
turned away unprovided for. and the name 
of Joseph L. Pancake is as a household word 
throughout Elkhart township, while that of 
his wife is always uttered with profound 


Thomas A. Huston, auditor of Noble 
county, Ind., a native of Mount Vernon, 
Ohio, was born December 2j, 1855. and is 
a son of John and Rebecca (McCumsey) 
Huston, also natives of Mount Vernon, who 
both expired at their birthplace, the father 
at sixty-one and the mother at seventv-two 


years of age. Of the nine children born to 
these parents seven are still living - and are 
named as follows: Elizabeth, now Mrs, 
Thomas Simpson, of Mount Vernon; Eliza, 
wife of Farrington Maxfield, of Abbeyv.ille, 
La.; .Mary married George W. Simpson, of 
Delaware, Ohio; Sarah is now Airs. D. M. 
Craig, of Mount Vernon, Ohio; William W. 
is a farmer in Noble county, Ind. ; Thomas 
A., the subject of this biography : and Emma, 
wife of J. P. Molen. of Tiffin. Ohio. 

Thomas A. Huston received his prelim- 
inary education in the public schools of 
Mount Vernon, and in 1874 entered the Col- 
lege of Pharmacy in Philadelphia, from 
which he graduated in 1876. lie was united 
in matrimony at Philadelphia, April _»4, 
[882, to Miss Lucy Allen, who was also 
educated in the city of Brotherly Love. This 
lady was horn in Xew Jersey, and is a 
daughter of Franklin and Eliza Allen, the 
former of whom is now a resident oi Phila- 
delphia, and the latter deceased. Mr. and 
Mrs. Huston, however, have no children. 

After his graduation Air. Huston en- 
gaged in the drug business in Philadelphia 
for nine rears, and April 24. 1883, came 
to Albion, Ind.. and purchased the pharma- 
cy of James Hamlin, which he has since con- 
ducted with flattering success, the business 
being now carried on under the firm name 
of Huston & Beck, the junior partner hav- 
ing been identified with the business for the 
past ten years as either clerk or partner. 

Mr. Huston was a candidate before the 
primary of the Republican party of his coun- 
ty in 1894 as nominee for the office of coun- 
ty auditor, but met defeat ; but four years 
later he secured the nomination and was tri- 
umphant at the ensuing election, having 
given the people of Albion unequivocal sat- 

isfaction as town treasurer in [888 and [889. 
Fraternally Air. Huston is a member of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of 
the Knights of the Maccabees, and religious- 
ly he and his wife are Presbyterians, a de- 
nomination they most liberaly aid to sup- 

Airs'. Huston is descended from Quaker 
-lock, of English and Irish extraction, while 
Air. Huston's paternal great-grandfather 
came from County Antrim, Ireland, in 1750. 
Air. Huston's mother's family came from 
Scotland in 1754, the founder in America 
being Robert McCumsey. Both families 
were identified with the patriots of the 
American Revolution. Air. Huston is the 
owner of a fine tract of eighty acres located 
in Green township, which is all under a high 
state of cultivation, and his residence prop- 
erty in Albion is pleasantly situated on Piety 


From the paths of mercantile life there 
sometimes wanders an individual into the 
more ennobling field of agriculture, which 
later, as a rule, affords a surer means of 
fortune-making through the investment of 
capital and the exercise of industry than that 
secured by the former, to say nothing of the 
invaluable consideration of good health and 
physical development usually found through 
exercise in the open air. as has been exempli- 
fied in the life of the subject of this sketch 
and that of thousands of others. 

William W. Huston, a thriving farmer 
of Elkhart township, Noble county, Ind., 
was born in Mount Vernon, Knox county, 
Ohio, December 5, 1853, was there reared to 

> 9 6 


manhood, and for ten years followed clerk- 
ing for a livelihood. In the spring of 1879 
he came to Noble dainty, Ind., and pur- 
chased the farm on which he still lives in 
Elkhart township, and which now comprises 
one hundred and sixty-five acres. This farm 
he has improved with buildings of the most 
modern construction, and he has also placed 
the soil under the most approved methods 
of cultivation, reaping from it crops of the 
kind that rejoice the soul of the husband- 
man, inasmuch that they repay his skill ami 
labor with satisfactory financial returns and 
present to the eye of the passerby a view 
suggestive not only of moral beauty but of 
solid thrift and palpable prosperity. 

Mr. Huston was united in marriage, in 
Elkhart township, January 24. 1876, with 
Miss Alfarata Gibson, who was horn in this 
township, November 28, 1853, and to this 
felicitous union have been born several chil- 
dren, three of whom still survive, viz: Jen- 
nie R.. Thomas W. and Donald G. The 
others died in infancy. 

John Huston, father of William W., a 
very prominent man in his day. was also a 
native of Knox county, Ohio, and died at 
Mount Vernon, in that county, in 1883, 
when sixty-one years of age. His wife, who 
had borne the maiden name of Rebecca Mc- 
Cumpsey, was also a native of Knox count}', 
Ohio, hut died in Tiffin. Seneca county, in 
the same state, when seventy-one years old. 
They had a family of nine children. William 
W., the subject of this sketch, was the fifth 
in the order of birth. 

Adam (i. Gibson, the father Mrs. W. 
W. Huston, was a native of West Virginia, 
who married Miss Eliza Tibbet, who was 
bora in Indiana and who died in Elkhart 
township. Noble county, in August, 1895. 

Of their six children, Mrs. Huston was the 
fifth. Adam Gibson is greatly venerated 
by his fellow-citizens as one of the oldest 
settlers of Elkhart township. 

It may here be mentioned that Thomas 
A. Huston, a brother of W. W. Huston, 
is county auditor of Noble count)', Ind., 
and is a gentleman distinguished, like all 
the family, for his politeness and unswerv- 
ing sense of honor and attention to his of- 
ficial duties. 

In politics W. W. Huston is independ- 
ent, and has ever. taken a keen interest in 
the success of his party and an equally ac- 
tive interest in the welfare of his fellow- 
citizens and all local affairs of a public na- 
ture. Socially he and wife are very highly 
respected and mingled with the best people 
of Elkhart township. 


Although past the allotted three-score- 
and-ten period, this prominent and influen- 
tial representative of Noble county's pio- 
neer citizens still retains much of the elastic 
vigor of his youth, while his mental faculties 
have developed into the richness which in- 
creases with the lapse of years, the constant 
stud)- of those questions which come to the 
front from time to time and the lessons of 
studious thought with their practical solu- 
tion in the crucible of experience. Mr. Pierce 
is a pioneer of Indiana in its broadest pos- 
sible term, and much of the early history of 
the state of his adoption is familiar to him 
from actual experience. 

Porn November 15, 183 1, on a farm in 
Oswego county. N. Y., he was of that par- 
ticular age when the earl}- impressions of 




~^ a 


^ H 




^. ^ .^&*se. ^Cv / ^ ^W^ 



new scenes and newer conditions surround- 
ed him, being but six years of age when his 
father moved with his family to Noble coun- 
ty, Ind., in 1837, and settled in Orange 
township on a farm near Wolcottville. Here 
he grew to- manhood, and lived with his par- 
ents on the old homestead until the age of 
twenty-four, when he married and settled on 
a farm in BToornfield township. Lagrange 
county. Nine years were spent on that 
farm, about which time his father died, and 
he then purchased the old homestead where 
his boyhood days had heen passed and moved 
his family thereto. Here he remained until 
the fall of 1872, when he traded the home 
place for a farm in Clay township. Lagrange 
county, remaining there, however, hut three 
years. Selling the farm in 1X75. he pur- 
chased his present home of two hundred and 
fifty acres located in Orange township. 
While it has heen partially improved, its 
present line condition is largely due to his 
clear perception of its needs and that energy 
which characterized him as hoy and man — 
the fine buildings, well-tilled fields and en- 
exceptional fences evidencing that thrift and 
progressive spirit which comes fn m wide 
experience and intelligent application. 

Ebenezer C. Pierce was first married to 
Miss Christina Raber, a daughter of Daniel 
Raher, Sr., who came to' Noble count}- in 
the spring of 1851, and settled in Orange 
township. She was horn in Summit county, 
Ohio. November 10. 1835, and passed away 
.at their home in Orange township, May 13. 
1870. They were the parents of five chil- 
dren as follows: Frank H. ; Ida O., who 
died in her fifth year; Tillie M.. who is the 
wife of 'William Diggins, a resident of 
AYayne township; Owen C. : and Elsie A., 
"who died when about three rears old. Mr. 

Pierce was again married June 6, 1872. to 
Mrs. .Margaret (Boyd) Lukins, a daughter 
of William S. Boyd, 1 1' Lagrange county. 
She died after a brief union of nearly two 
years, March 10, 1874. On August 4. 1S74. 
Mr. Pierce married Miss Sarah J. Snyder, 
,i daughter of Thomas Snyder, an old set- 
tler of Clay township, Lagrange county, 
who was horn in Wayne county, Ohio, July 
24, '845. She came with her parents to 
Lagrange county when a young girl and 
there grew to womanhood. By this mar- 
riage have been horn seven children, namely : 
Merritt (i.: Jay C. ; Lora D. and Mora 1'.., 
twins; Charles L.. who died when two years 
of age; Fred E.. who also died at the age 
of two years: and Pansy V. 

Mr. Pierce is. as above sta'ted, one of 
the representative men of Noble county, and 
takes an active part in all matters pertaining 
to the public good and especially the ad- 
vanced and improved methods of education. 
While he is active in all matters of a political 
character, he is ready and able to discuss 
those questions which deal with the national 
prosperity or measures touching the indus- 
trial development and agricultural resources 
of the country, and is firm in his opinion that 
the best interest of the a untry can he served 
through the policy of the Republican party. 

In his religious views Mr. Pierce is a 
Baptist, and a member of the Wolcottville 
congregation of that faith, which has known 
him as a consistent and devout worshiper 
fi r nearly fifty years. Mrs. Pierce is a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
in Lagrange. 

The father of Ebenezer C. Pierce was 
Ehenezer Pierce, Sr.. who was born in 
Onondaga county. N. A".. October 19, 1801. 
His mother was a Miss Rachel McQueen, 


who was born in Montgomery county, N. Y.. 
November, 1801 ; she passed to the great 
beyond September 15, 1832. They were 
the parents of four children, of whom Eben- 
ezer C. was the youngest. The father after- 
ward married Julia A. Collins, a native of 
Vermont, who was born May 25, 1816. By 
this second marriage six children were born. 
The father, as formerly stated, passed away 
in Noble county. January 20, 1865. 

It is to this class of citizens that Noble 
county owes so much for the development 
which has been made within her borders. 
and the historian who would truthfully give 
to future generations the salient features of 
a country's progress must not forget that 
the pioneer of the then frontier possessed 
qualities it would be well for all to emulate. 
Merrit G. Pierce was a teacher in Noble 
and Lagrange counties. At present he is 
taking a course at Huntington, Ind. He 
wedded Miss Emma Nichols, who has borne 
him one daughter, Marjorie, a little rosebud. 
Jay C. Pierce is an agriculturist. He re- 
ceived his diploma in 1893 in the common 
school and wedded Miss Elea Lamp, who has 
borne him one son, Harold, and they are 
residents of Orange township. 

Lora D. and Flora B. Pierce are twins, 
and graduated from the common schools in 
1894, and also graduated in the class of 
1897 at Rome City. They are members O'f 
the Rathbone Sisters, No. 186. Miss Flora 
wedded George F. Diggins, who is a con- 
tractor and builder in Kendallville. Ind. 
Both daughters are members of the Baptist 
church at Wolcottville: 

Pansy V. Pierce is in the second year of 
high school, and loves mathematics. Mrs. 
Pierce is the fourth in a family of six chil- 
dren — one son and five daughters — born to 

Thomas and Mary (Carothers) Snyder. 
There are four living, all residents of Indi- 
ana. She was educated in the early schools 
of the pioneer days of Indiana, same as her 

Mr. Pierce tells of a school-house of 
16x16 logs built up in cob style, with a 
"shake roof" and also heated by the old- 
fashioned fireplace ; the seats were slabs on 
blocks, and there was no desk in this school- 
house, so primitive it was, and his text-book 
was the old Elementary Spelling-book or 
English Reader. The school was kept up 
by private and public funds. The teacher 
boarded around amongst the pupils and had 
only a slight command of the three R's. 

Mr. Pierce has witnessed the remarkable 
growth of education from the little primitive 
log cabin to the modern school-house of to- 
day, as well as the high schools, colleges, and 
universities for which old Indiana is so 
famous. Mr. Pierce is a Republican, can 
feel proud in the fact that he cast his first 
vote for the first Free-soil candidate. Gen. 
John C. Fremont, and he has always sup- 
ported the true policy of the Republican 
party, the legitimate offspring- of the par- 
ent Free-soilers. For over a quarter of a 
century has he and his wife traveled the 
journey of life together. She has ably as- 
sisted her husband in all the details of life, 
and they have reared a family in which they 
may well feel a pride, for they have edu- 
cated the children and fitted them for high 
walks in life. 


The gentleman of whom the biographer 
now essays to write is an honored and prom- 
inent citizen of Ligonier, Noble county, Ind. 


His father was Gideon Schlotterback, a 
native of Selinsgrove, Penn., born May 23, 
1811. His father was Peter Schlotterback, 
and his great-grandfather's name was 
George Schlotterback. The latter, accom- 
panied by four of his brothers, migrated to 
America some time before the war of the 
Revolution, and three of the brothers were 
lost during that struggle. Gideon Schlotter- 
back removed from Pennsylvania to Ohio, 
and later, about 1832, the time of the Black 
Hawk war, located in Indiana, settling on 
Perry's Prairie. After a few years' resi- 
dence here he moved onto the Adam Engle 
farm, and remained there until his death, 
August 22. 1892. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Alary Engle, was horn November 
20, 1 8 10. in Circleville, Pickaway count}'. 
Ohio, and passed away January 23, 1856. 
To her marriage with Gideon Schlotterback. 
which took place April 12, 1833, there were 
born twelve children, five of whom died in 
infancy. The names of those who reached 
years of maturity are as follows: Peter. 
Henry (subject). Eli, Amelia, Adam, Ira 
and Emma. 

Henry Schlotterback, the immediate sub- 
ject of this sketch, was born October 30, 
1834. He received his early education in 
the public schools of Ligonier. having 
learned the multiplication table and finished 
fractions at his eighteenth year. He con- 
tinued his studies until he was twenty-three 
years old. and then taught school one term. 
He was engaged at the Woods school-house, 
where he received one dollar a day and had 
to cut his own wood. During all this time 
he had been farming for his father and con- 
tinued to work there until he was thirty 
years old. In 1865 Mr. Schlotterback locat- 
ed at Brush College, Perry township, and 

remained there for ten years. At the end of 
this time he removed onto his father-in- 
law's old place, the farm on which be now 
resides, and is the owner of two hundred 
and twenty-four acres of fertile ami well- 
tilled land. 

The marriage of Henry Schlotterback 
took place on the 7th of May. 1865, the lady 
of his choice being Miss Sarah E. Davis. 
She was born November 17, 1842. and was a 
daughter of John and Elizabeth A. (At- 
kins) Davis, and was educated in the old- 
fashioned school-house of unhewn logs. 
John Davis was born May 28, 1807. at 
Washington Court House, Fayette county. 
Ohio, and died May 7. 1870. Elizabeth At- 
kins was born October 4. 1824. in Brown 
county, Ohio, and passed away September 
20, 1850. The father came to Indiana June 
20. 1828. To their union were born four 
children, as follows: Sarah E.. wife of 
Henry Schotterback. subject; Erastus : Eliz- 
abeth, wife of William Pearce : and Eliza, 
deceased. Sarah E. Davis, at the age of nine 
years, was by the death of her mother left to 
care for the home. Bravely she took up the 
burden thus laid upon her, and worked hard 
to the end that the home might be one in fact 
as well as name. At twelve years of age she 
did all the cooking for the men who were 
employed in the erection of her father's 
house. At the age of sixteen years she com- 
menced teaching school ami followed that 
occupation for three years in Sparta town- 

The marriage of Henry and Sarah 
Schlotterback was blessed with the birth of 
seven children, brief mention of whom is as 
follows: Eden 11., born March 14. 1866, is 
unmarried; Anna, born May 7. 1867, became 
the wife of William S. LeCount. an agricul- 



turist of Sparta township, and they have five 
children. Effie, Harry (deceased). Vassy, 
Millard, and Lena F. : Harry B.. horn March 
_»'>. 1N70. married Lizzie Pollock, and they 
became the parents of one child, Marion L. ; 
Emma, born January 20. 1873. became the 
wife of Albert L. Deardorff, a farmer of 
Kosciusko county. Ind.. and they have one 
child, Freda M. ; John M., born October 15. 
]Sj4. married Lura Salts, and they have one 
child: Walter E. : Jesse E.. born .April 30. 
1876; and Lewis E.. born November 22, 
1880. graduated from the Cromwell public 
school in the class of April 22, 1898, and 
was valedictorian of his class. 

Politically Mr. Schlotterback has always 
been a stanch and unswerving Republican, 
though the honors or emoluments of office 
have held no inducements for him. He has 
done well his part in life and to-day is held 
in the highest respect and esteem by the 
community in which he lives. He has reared 
a family of worthy sons and daughters and 
now. in the evening of a long and eminently 
useful life, is resting in the enjoyment of the 
fruits of his earlv toil. 


Idle honored subject of this sketch, a 
successful agriculturist of Washington 
township, Noble* county, Ind., has obtained 
an enviable reputation throughout his com- 
munity as a man of shrewdness and sagac- 
ity, and also as a man who has obtained his 
present eminence, not by any questionable 
methods, but by persistent application, in- 
domitable perseverance and unquestioned 
integrity. A firm believer in the great truth 

of the brotherhood of man, he has ever been 
guided by the principle laid down in the 
golden rule, and his life has been so ordered 
that no shadow of wrong or suspicion of 
evil has ever rested upon him. 

John II. Wilson was horn on the 20th 
of March, 1862, in Washington township, 
N( ble county, Ind., a son of Thomas J. and 
Nancy (Rider) Wilson, both also natives 
of Noble county. The paternal grandfa- 
ther's name was Thomas H. Wilson, though 
he was familiarly known as "Judge" Wil- 
son. Thomas J. Wilson was also a tiller of 
the soil and died December 5, 1892, on the 
farm now occupied by his widow. He was 
the father of three children, as follows : 
John H.. whose name opens this biography; 
Jacob Willard, who died in infancy ; Mary 
E., who is married to John Beezley, a farm- 
er of Washington township, this county, 
and they have two children — Opal L. and 
James O- 

John H. Wilson attended the public 
schools of Washington township until he 
was twenty-one years of age. For two 
years longer he remained on the home farm, 
working for his father. . At this time he 
took control of tine place and operated it on 
his own account. In 1885, about the time 
of his marriage, he settled on the farm 
where he now lives and has farmed this 
tract continuously since. He is now the 
owner of two hundred and fifty-nine acres 
of as fine agricultural property as can be 
found in this part of the count}'. He does 
not confine himself exclusively to the tilling 
of the soil, but also devotes considerable at- 
tention to the breeding and raising of stock, 
in wlh'ich industry he has been fairly suc- 

On the nth of October, 1885, Mr. Wil- 

m&— >Jt«s3f#u& 


30 r 

son was united in marriage to Miss Barbara 
Huber, a daughter of Tiry and Nancy 
(Black) Huber, early settlers of Washing- 
ton township. Tiry Huber was the father 
of six children, as follows: Lewis, Nancy, 
Barbara, Adeline and two who died in in- 
fancy. John W. Wilson and wife became 
the parents of one child, Mary Edith, who 
was burn October 3, 1886, and died July 4, 
inoo. She was a bright and interesting 
child and ihier death was a severe loss to her 

Tiry Huber, one of the old residents of 
Washington township, and a well-known 
citizen of the county, died on the 24th day 
of January, 18S1. at the age of fifty-seven 
years. A correspondent of the Banner, in 
speaking of the death of this honored citi- 
zen, says that his affliction was almost past 
bearing during several weeks prior to his 
death, which was caused by indigestion. In 
his death Washington township loses one 
of her most substantial citizens, a man of 
sound judgment whose knowledge was ex- 
tensive and composed of all general topics, 
and whose counsel and decision were con- 
sidered law. He had filled the office of jus- 
tice for some twenty odd years, up to last 
spring, when be was re-elected but refused 
to qualify, thinking he had served the peo- 
ple long- enough. He leaves a family of 
five — wife and four children — to mourn 
their loss, but well provided for. His re- 
mains were interred at Salem by the Free 
Masons, of which order be was a member. 
Rev. Jabez Shaffer officiated. Peace to his 

Politically Mr. Wilson was reared a 
Democrat, but has not been a strict parti- 
san in the sense that be votes for part}- rath- 
er than principle. To the contrary, be lias 

ever felt that he owed his first dut\ to his 
fellow- citizens and has made it a rule to 
vote only for those men whom he consid- 
ered best qualified to fill the offices, regard- 
less of the party. Mr. Wilson has served 
one term as a member of the township ad- 
visory board. Religiously Mr. and Mrs. 
Wilson are both active and consistent mem- 
bers of the denomination known as the 
Church of God, and as stated in bhe open- 
ing paragraph of this sketch, their system. 
of ethics is in accord with the teachings of 
that great Master whom they serve. 

Socially they have always had a large 
circle of warm friends and their hospitable 
home is the center of a coterie of genial 
companions who find in Mr. and Mr^. Wil- 
son two of then- most worthy members. 

DANIEL LOWER (Deceased). 

Agriculture, or the art of cultivating the 
soil, is so necessary in order to aid it in 
more prolificallv producing its fruits, indig- 
enous and exotic, so necessary for the sus- 
tenance of animal life, is probably co-exist- 
ent with man himself, and its development 
from the days of primeval man until the 
present time has been continuous and unin- 
terrupted until at last it may almost lie 
claimed that the climax of perfection has 
been reached with the aid of modern imple- 
ments and machinery, and steam and elec- 
tric motors, although this was not altogether 
the condition of farming operations in the 
days of the deceased gentleman whose name 
stands at the opening of this biographical 

Die late Daniel Lower, at one time an 

3 02 


extensive land owner and farmer of Elk- 
hart township, Noble county, Ind., was born 
in Bavaria, Germany, March 22, 1815, 
where he resided until he was about twenty 
years of age, hut had apparently been reared 
to no special trade or profession, and the 
supposition is that his earlier years had been 
passed in rural pursuits or farm labor. About 
the year 1835 he came to America and land- 
ed in Xew York City, then as now the com- 
mercial metropolis of the Union and chief 
seaport at which immigrants were debarked 
on reaching the new world, although it was 
not the only port of entry, either north or 

The first employment the then young 
Mr. Lower found was as a laborer in Wall 
street, the great monetary center of the coun- 
try; he had no money, however, with which 
to buy stocks or to invest in speculation, but 
he had plenty of muscle, determination and 
ambition with which to make his way in the 
new world, and these he employed in their 
legitimate function of making money. At 
the end of six months he had accjuired suffi- 
cient cash and the necessary information 
touching American ways or customs and 
conditions to justify a conclusion he had 
reached to try his luck as a rural laborer in 
the^then far west — a calling for which) he 
was well fitted. He accordingly chose Ohio 
as his place of destination, and in due time 
reached Seneca count)', that state, easily 
found employment as a farm laborer, and 
while thus engaged met and married Miss 
Abigail DeLong, a native of the Buckeye 
state. He continued his residence with his 
bride in Ohio until about 1837 or 1838, 
when he brought her to Noble county, Ind., 
in an ox-team. 

On arriving in Noble county Mr. Lower 

found employment as a laborer on the canal 
then in course of construction at Rome City. 
He worked industriously and he and his wife 
( who was indeed a helpmate) lived frugally 
for some time, until he had accpiired the 
means with which to enter forty acres of 
government land in Elkhart township. This 
land he cleared up from its growth of tim- 
ber and improved with the ordinary log 
dwelling and other necessary structures com- 
mon in that day, and began his life as a 
farmer in the true sense of the word. He 
labored hard, early and late, for many years, 
with indomitable industry and perseverance, 
and with one great object in view — that of 
adding to his estate and providing a compe- 
tency for his declining years and those of his 
helmed wife, as well as the providing of the 
means for rearing and educating his chil- 
dren and of providing for the latter capital 
sufficiently for a moderately fair start in 
business. His industry and good manage- 
ment were rewarded to the full, and at the 
time of his lamented death, which occurred 
in December, 1897, he was the owner of 
seven hundred acres at least, most of which 
was situated in Elkhart township. 

Daniel Lower was thrice married. To his 
first union — that with Abigail DeLong, as 
, alluded to above — there were born six chil- 
[ dren, viz: Elizabeth C, who is the wife of 
Joseph W. Marshall, whose biography ap- 
pears in full on another page; William D. ; 
Jacob N. ; Margaret, who died when about 
twenty years of age: Mary A., who is the 
wife of Frederick Schwab, and one de- 

Mrs. Abigail (DeLong) Lower passed 
away in the fall of 1846, and Mr. Lower 
married in March, one and one-half years 
later, Elizabeth Kreglow, who bore him sev- 


eral children, of whom four lived to mature 
years anil one to reach girlhood, viz: Abi- 
gail, who died when she was about fourteen 
years old; John A.; Daniel D. ; Barbara, 
who is the wife of George Dorner : and Jane, 
win i died when nineteen years of age. 

.Mrs. Elizabeth (Kreglow) Lower died 
in April, 1871, and the third marriage of 
Air. Lower was to Mrs. Emily L. Grogg, 
who still survives. 

The career through life of Daniel Lower 
furnished another example of the grand op- 
portunities offered in America to the indus- 
trious and frugal youth of any nation who 
comes here with a pure heart and healthy 
constitution, and with a desire to better. 
through an upright life, his worldly condi- 
tion. This gentleman landed in the country 
a poor boy. but through his personal exer- 
tions rose to a position of influence and died 
an honored citizen, after having filled all the 
duties that devolved upon him, and he left 
to his descendants not only great wealth, 
but what is of greater intrinsic value by far 
— an unsullied name. 


For honesty and thrift the Americans 
turn to Scotland. A man with Scotch blood 
in his veins is almost invariably trusted by 
everybody. His work is sure to be honestly 
and faithfully done; his word is as good as 
his bond. 

James N. Harvey was born on a farm in 
Ashland county. Ohio, December 8, 1842. 
His parents were both born in Scotland — 
his father, George Harvey, June 21, 1807, 
and his mother, Alary (Bremner) Harvey, 
July 21, 1807 — and were married May 25, 

1830. Six years later they emigrated to 
America, sailing from Aberdeen June ir 
and landing in New York August 8, 1836. 
They settled on a farm in Ashland county, 
( >hio, where they continued to live for nearly 
seventeen years, when they moved to Noble 
count)-, End., and settled on a farm in Jeffer- 
son township. April 11, 1853. Here they 
resided nearly twenty years, when they 
moved to Albion, where they spent the re- 
maining years of their lives. Mrs. Harvey 
died March 6, 1886, in the seventy-ninth 
year of her age, and Mr. Harvey died Sep- 
tember 22. 1893. having attained the age 
of eighty-six years. 

They were the parents of eight children, 
of whom six grew to manhood and woman- 
hood, to-wit : Jane L. and Alexander D. C., 
born in Scotland, and John \Y, James N., 
Robert and Charles Levi W., born in Ohio. 
Jane L. is the wife of Thomas Bevmer, of 
Jefferson township. 

George Harvey and his son, A. D. C. 
Harvey, for many years were engaged in 
contract work. Of the buildings in which 
the people of Noble count)- were interested — 
erected by them — were the old brick court- 
house, built in 1800, the county infirmary 
and county jail, all of them splendid evi- 
dences of good, substantial, honest and faith- 
ful work, fully sustaining the reputation of 
their Scotch ancestry, education and train- 
ing for honesty, faithfulness and good work 
of the contractors. 

James N. Harvey, the subject of this 
sketch, moved with his parents to the new- 
farm in Noble county in 1853, received the 
education afforded by the common schools, 
and at his majority spent several terms at 
Adrian College, Mich., then graduated at a 
commercial college in Oherlin, Ohio. He 


was married February 2, 1870, to Miss Isa- 
bella Johnston, daughter of John and Eliza- 
beth (Tyler) Johnston. They were of 
Scotch nativity, and bad born to them four 
children : James T., William M., Mary M. 
and Isabella, who, with their parents, came 
to America in 1854. and settled in Rich- 
land county, Ohio, where Mr. Johnston died 
in May, 1 881. The youngest daughter, Isa- 
bella, was born September 10, 1847, anc ^ 
became the wife of James N. Harvey. They 
have one son. John W. Harvey. 

In 1870 James N. settled on a farm in 
Jefferson township, near the old homestead, 
where he has continued to live for more than 
thirty years, his farm consisting of one hun- 
dred and twenty ocres, well stocked, well 
improved and operated by all of the latest, 
best and most improved farm machinery. 

Becoming a resident of the county in 
Ids boyhood, Mr. Harvey is thoroughly con- 
versant with its affairs, in which he has 
always taken an active interest, and in the 
progressive advancement of his township 
and neighborhood he has given his influence 
and encouragement. 

A Republican in politics from the first 
organization of that part},, he has been a 
constant and hard worker in support of its 
principles. Mr. and Mrs. Harvey are both 
members of the United Brethren in Christ's 
church, where their sturdy Scotch qualities 
shine forth to good advantage. 


The census taken in Canada in the 
spring of [901 showed several things that 
greatly surprised the Canadians themselves. 
They had confidently expected that the cen- 

sus would show a large growth in the popu- 
lation of the new Dominion Instead, how- 
ever, the population in the older parts 
showed a decrease, or at best an increase 
that was too small to measure. The reason 
for this strange condition of affairs is to 
be found not in the large death rate in Can- 
ada, but in a large emigration rate from 

j Canada, where winters are long and the soil 

j less productive, to the United States, where 
the winters are shorter and the soil more 
productive. The number of Canadians who 
have cast their lot in with Americans is very 
large, and almost without exception they are 
our best, most progressive and thoroughly 
loyal citizens. 

Among the many excellent Canadians 
who have crossed the imaginary line into 
the United States is John T. Graves. He 
was born in Toronto, Canada. December 3, 
1854. His father, who bore the same name 
as his son, John T. Graves, died when the 

j latter was two years old. His mother, Mar- 
tha Belfer Graves, married as her second 
husband Josiah Jenkins. In November, 
1805, the whole family moved to Noble 
count)', Ind., and settled in Rome City. 
Mr. Jenkins was in the employ of the Grand 

i Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company. 

But John T. Graves, of this biography, 
felt the need of getting to work. He was 
unwilling to grow up in idleness or in a 
state of dependence upon others. At the 
early age of thirteen he left home and went 
to work as a day laborer on a farm. So 
thoroughly had he mastered the intricacies 
of farming that by the time he was nineteen 
years of age he rented a farm in Jefferson 

Five years later, in 1879, by careful 

saving and attention to details he had ac- 



cumulated enough to buy for himself a farm 
of eighty acres on section 4 in Jefferson 
township. This was not land that had been 
worked over by others and had been bereft 
of a part of its fertility. It was virgin soil 
in the heart of a wilderness. Slowly Mr. 
Graves cleared this land, and with his sav- 
ings bought more till at the present time he 
owns two hundred and eighty acres, all in 
an excellent state of cultivation. The farm 
is dotted by several neat, tasty and pretty 

But Mr. Graves has not confined his at- 
tention entirely to farming. lie has dealt 
largely in stock and in buying and shipping 
hay. lie was married in Jefferson town- 
ship. .March 16, 1880, to Miss Jeannette 
Beymer, a daughter of Thomas Beymer, of 
Jefferson township, and to the assistance 
he has received from her is undoubtedl) 
due much of his success in life. They have 
had three children: George T., Clarence B. 
and Thaddeus S. George T. is a young 
man of excellent education. He graduated 
from the Albion high school in the class of 
1901, and at present time is a student in 
old Purdue, taking a course in pharmacy. 
Clarence B. is in the second year's work 
in Albion high school. He is an all-round 
student, especially in mathematics and his- 

Mr. Graves is interested in the political 
questions of the day and studies carefull) 
the movements of the two principal uolitical 
parties of the country. Though not a poli- 
tician in any sense in which the word i-. gen- 
erally used, he nevertheless is sufficiently in- 
terested in local affairs to be willing to be 
one of the ditch commissioners of Noble 
county, a position of considerable responsi- 
bility and of very little emoluments. 

Mrs. Graves was born in Jefferson town- 
ship, Noble county. October 29, 1 S 5 7 . and 
a daughter of Thomas and Jane L. (Har- 
vey) Beymer. There were four daughters, 
all still living, born to this union. Mrs. 
Graves was educated in the common schools, 
crude at that time, and also for a term in 
the high school at Rome City, Ind. 

Thomas Beymer was born in Huron 
county, Ohio, August 0. [823, and was 
reared to farming. He came to Noble coun- 
ty, October 11, 1851, and began life in a 
log cabin home, hut had very little cash. 
Mr. Beymers father came from Germany. 

Mr. Beymer cast his first vote for the 
first Republican candidate. Gen. John C. 
Frem( nt. and was an admirer of Mckinley. 
Mr. and Mrs. Beymer are members of the 
Wesleyan Methodist church. 

Mrs. Beymer was horn in Aberdeen- 
shire, Scotland. March 10, 1813. She was 
a little girl of five years when she came 
with her family to America, and was edu- 
cated in Ohio. Mr. Graves cast his first 
presidential vote for R. 1'.. Hayes, and has 
always upheld the Republican banner. 


The brave ex-soldiers of the late Civil 
war, like the hardy agriculturists of Noble 
county, Ind., are deserving of special men- 
tion in a volume of this nature, and to this 
class of honorable citizens does the subject 
of this sketch belong. He was horn in Flk- 
hart township. Noble county, Ind.. and this 
has been his home since his birth, which took 
place February 11. 1838. his only absence 
having been during his service in the armv 



of his country while protecting the honor 

and integrity of his nation's flag. His par- 
ents were the late William and Prudence 
(Pierson) Mawhorter, who had a family of 
ten children and were among the most re- 
spected of Noble county's residents. Of 
their ten children seven attained the years of 
maturity, and Aaron E. was the eldest of the 

Aaron E. [Mawhorter was reared on the 
home farm, and agriculture has been his life 
vocation. He aided in the cultivation of the 
homestead until his marriage, March 22, 
[856, to Miss Rebecca Ann Kesler, who was 
horn in Morrow county, Ohio, April 4, 
1841, and is a daughter of Andrew and 
Maria (Bowyer) Kesler, natives respective- 
ly of Pennsylvania and Ohio, who came 
from Morrow county; Ohio, to Noble coun- 
ty, Ind., in 1854, and settled in Orange town- 
ship, where they passed the remainder of 
their lives, the mother dying when about 
sixty-one years old and the father when 
about seventy-two. Mr. and Mrs. Kesler 
were the parents of thirteen children — seven 
sons and six daughters — of whom Mrs. Ma- 
whorter was the third child in order of birth. 
She came to Noble county, Ind., with her 
parents, and more may be read of this large 
and interesting family in the sketch of T. Y. 
Kesler, of Orange township, to be found on 
another page of this volume. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Aaron E. Mawhorter 
have been born three children, viz: Eva C, 
who i-> the wife of Newton Pancake; Pru- 
dence M., who died in childhood, and Will- 
iam A. 

Mr. Mawhorter' s military record is most 
praiseworthy. lie enlisted February 14, 
1865, in Company F, One Hundred and 
Fifty-second Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 

and faithfully served until September, 1866, 
when he was honorably discharged and then 
returned to his farm in Elkhart township, 
where agriculture has occupied his attention 
ever since. This farm consists of about 
ninety-three acres of excellent land, is im- 
proved with modern structures of all de- 
scriptions necessary for use, and is cultivat- 
ed under the best methods known to practice 
and to science, all under the supervising eye 
of the owner. 

Mr. and Mrs. Mawhorter are consistent 
members of the Free Will Baptist church, 
contributing freely to its support as well as 
aiding in its work for good. 

In politics Mr. Mawhorter is a Demo- 
crat, and has served two terms as constable 
in Elkhart township ; fraternally he is a 
member of the Independent Order of Tem- 
perance and the G. A. R. He was also a 
member of the Noble County Regulators in 
1857 and 185S. Socially he and his family 
are classed with the best people of the town- 
ship, as it is proper that a native-born farmer 
and soldier and his family should be. 

The reader's attention is also respect- 
fully called to the sketch of Rev. T. J. Ma- 
whorter, which will be found on another 


Sheldon W. Green is one of the substan- 
tial citizens of Sparta township. Noble coun- 
ty, Ind., and a farmer of excellent reputa- 
tion, whose success as a stock-raise